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2.
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies ; 31(5):4197-4204, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056513

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 has led to a surge increase in the production of masks. Due to the rapid propagation of COVID-19 and the long survival time of plastic surfaces, a large number of masks are discharged into the environment without treatment. In this paper, the release of microplastics (MPs) in nature was simulated by using mask samples irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) light. After 28 days of ultraviolet radiation, part of the main chain of the mask was broken and a large number of transparent MPs fell off. The longer the UV irradiation time, the larger the proportion of small particle MPs. The middle layer of surgical mask is the most difficult to release MPs due to charge treatment, and N95 mask is the most difficult to degrade the inner material. © 2022, HARD Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

3.
BELT AND ROAD INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION OF ASIA: Research on Multilateral Population Security ; : 142-151, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2003288
4.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-959, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967384

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Immunosuppressed individuals are at higher risk for COVID-19 and resulting complications, yet robust data in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) are lacking. We evaluated the risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization and severe sequelae in a large, population-based U.S. cohort of patients with IBD. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study utilizing insurance claims data from two large U.S. health plans (Anthem and Humana). Cohort follow-up began on 1 March 2020, the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in the US. We included IBD patients identified by two diagnosis codes for Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) or one diagnosis code plus a treatment code for an IBD-specific medication in the six months prior to cohort entry. Use of IBD medications was ascertained in the 90 days prior to cohort entry. Study outcomes included COVID-19 hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, and inpatient death. Patients were followed until outcome of interest, death, disenrollment, or end of the study period. We described the occurrence of COVID-19 outcomes according to IBD treatment status ascertained prior to cohort entry. Results: The study population included 102,989 patients (48,728 CD, 47,592 UC) with a mean age of 53 years;55% were female. Overall, 412 (0.4%) patients were hospitalized for COVID-19. Individuals treated with systemic corticosteroids were more likely to be hospitalized than those treated with any other non-steroid medication (0.6% vs 0.3%, p=<.0001). Among patients not treated with corticosteroids, patients receiving anti-TNF were less likely to be hospitalized than those treated with other medication classes (0.2% vs 0.5%, p=<.0001) or no medications (0.5%, p=<.0001). Older age was associated with increased incidence of hospitalization for COVID-19. Overall, 71 patients (0.07%) required mechanical ventilation and 52 (0.05%) died at the hospital due to COVID-19 or resulting complications. The proportion of patients requiring mechanical ventilation or dying was higher amongst users of corticosteroids versus those treated with any other non-steroid medication (1.9% vs 0.05%, p=<.0001 and 0.1% vs 0.04%, p=0.0015) respectively). Associations between corticosteroid use all outcomes were similar across age groups. Conclusion: Among patients with IBD, those treated with systemic corticosteroids had more frequent hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, and death from COVID-19 as compared to patients on other treatments or no treatment at all. Anti-TNF therapy was associated with a decreased occurrence of hospitalization. This finding reinforces previous guidance to taper and/or discontinue corticosteroids to reduce the risk of infections, including COVID-19. Use of steroid-sparing maintenance treatments such as anti-TNF agents appears to be safe.

5.
2021 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, IGARSS 2021 ; : 7279-7282, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1861125

ABSTRACT

Due to the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic, the human activities in China and even in the world were reduced in 2020, which also caused the variation of the atmospheric environment, especially atmospheric aerosol emissions. In this paper, the MODIS level-3 gridded atmosphere monthly global joint product in 2019 and 2020 were collected and processed. After preliminary analysis, we found that MODIS annual aerosol optical depth (AOD) over China in 2020 is generally lower than in 2019. In some regions such as Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and Yangtze River Delta, AOD values dropped the most in February. However, in some months and regions, AOD in 2020 is even higher than in 2019. More studies are still ongoing. © 2021 IEEE.

6.
2021 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, IGARSS 2021 ; : 5692-5695, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1861116

ABSTRACT

Affected by the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic, almost all students in China have to study online at home from February to June, 2020. In this paper, we discussed the forms of online courses and took Jiangsu Normal University as an example to introduce the online courses of remote sensing in China. The results of the satisfaction survey show that more than 90% of the respondents agree with online courses and believe that online courses can at least meet basic learning needs in the age of COVID-19, and more than 60% of respondents claimed that they had met or exceeded their learning expectations. The major advantages of online course include reducing the gathering of people and thus the risk of infection. However, there are still some problems with online courses, and we hope that these problems can be solved well in the future. © 2021 IEEE

7.
Drugs and Clinic ; 37(3):653-658, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1838080

ABSTRACT

Artemisinin, extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine Artemisia annua Linn., has a powerful antimalarial effect. With further research, artemisinin and its derivatives have been found to have antiviral effects against a variety of viruses from different viral families, including Herpesviridae, Flaviridae, and Coronaviraceae, and can inhibit virus-induced inflammatory responses. The possible antiviral mechanisms include alkylation of DNA binding domain of NF-κB P65 subunit, inhibition of plasmidic nuclear transport of NF-κB p65, production of reactive oxygen species or activation of carbon center free radicals to regulate host Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway to inhibit viral replication. The inflammatory response was alleviated by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and ERK pathways induced by the virus. This paper reviews the possible antiviral mechanism of artemisinin and its derivatives to provide reference for artemisinin to fight new viruses and promote new use of old drugs. © 2022 by the authors.

8.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-334682

ABSTRACT

B-cell epitopes (BCEs) are a set of specific sites on the surface of an antigen that binds to an antibody produced by B-cell. The recognition of BCEs is a major challenge for drug design and vaccines development. Compared with experimental methods, computational approaches have strong potential for BCEs prediction at much lower cost. Moreover, most of the currently methods focus on using local information around target residue without taking the global information of the whole antigen sequence into consideration. We propose a novel deep leaning method through combing local features and global features for BCEs prediction. In our model, two parallel modules are built to extract local and global features from the antigen separately. For local features, we use Graph Convolutional Networks(GCNs) to capture information of spatial neighbors of a target residue. For global features, Attention-Based Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory(Att-BLSTM) networks are applied to extract information from the whole antigen sequence. Then the local and global features are combined to predict BCEs. The experiments show that the proposed method achieves superior performance over the state-of-the-art BCEs prediction methods on benchmark datasets. Also, we compare the performance differences between data with or without global features. The experimental results show that global features play an important role in BCEs prediction. Our detailed case study on the BCEs prediction for SARS-Cov-2 receptor binding domain confirms that our method is effective for predicting and clustering true BCEs.

9.
14th International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation, ICMTMA 2022 ; : 197-201, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1788711

ABSTRACT

Aiming at the problem of long queuing temperature and low efficiency during the period of COVID-19, an intelligent temperature measurement and access control system is designed. It is widely used in enterprises, institutions, scenic spots, commercial areas and other places with large traffic volume. The main control system adopts stm32f407zgt6 embedded chip, hc-sr501 human body infrared sensor is sensitive to human body proximity, and starts the temperature measurement system. Using hc-sr04 ultrasonic sensor to measure people's height and adjust the height of mlx9064esf temperature probe, the system has the characteristics of efficient real-time temperature monitoring, and improves the detection efficiency in places with large flow of people. The experimental results show that the system has good practical application effect. © 2022 IEEE

10.
Public Health ; 205: 169-181, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751169

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to systematically clarify attitudes and influencing factors of the public toward COVID-19 vaccination for children or adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: This was a scoping review. METHODS: This scoping review screened, included, sorted, and analyzed relevant studies on COVID-19 vaccination for children or adolescents before December 31, 2021, in databases, including PubMed, Elsevier, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Wiley. RESULTS: A total of 34 studies were included. The results showed that the public's acceptance rate toward COVID-19 vaccination for children or adolescents ranged from 4.9% (southeast Nigerian mothers) to 91% (Brazilian parents). Parents' or adolescents' age, gender, education level, and cognition and behavior characteristics for the vaccines were the central factors affecting vaccination. The vaccine's safety, effectiveness, and potential side-effects were the main reasons affecting vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Realizing current public attitudes of COVID-19 vaccination for adolescents or children can effectively develop intervention measures and control the pandemic as soon as possible through herd immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adolescent , Attitude , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Child , Female , Humans , Parents , Vaccination
11.
Sustainability (Switzerland) ; 13(16), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1367900

ABSTRACT

Detecting the crisis of supply chain management is an important subject for the sustainable management of e-commerce. The purpose of this study was to explore the application of Q-technique to the detection of supply chain crises in the imported food industry under the influence of COVID-19. Literature analysis, expert consultation, and Q-technique methods were adopted. We used an expert consultation and questionnaire survey combined with Q-technique using the imported food industry in Taiwan as an example. Fifteen business owners were interviewed to identify priorities for supply chain crises, and 137 questionnaires were collected to determine the strength of each item. By investigating suppliers, distributors, wholesalers, platform operators, online sellers, and logistics operators, this study obtained the priority of supply chain crisis items and the strength of factors for each item. The results show that Q-technique can effectively detect the crisis of cross-border supply chain management, clarifying import food industry e-commerce supply chain crisis items and determining their priority and strength, to help enterprises make emergency decisions regarding supply chain operation, and they can also be used as a reference for enterprises to respond to the crisis. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

12.
Value in Health ; 24:S58, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1284275

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand patient experiences with FL disease and treatment through SML. Method: Social media data were extracted between February 2019 and July 2020 using “Follicular Lymphoma” and related keywords via Social Studio®, an online aggregator tool for social media posts. English as well as local language posts were extracted from five countries including United States (US), Canada, United Kingdom (UK), Germany and France. Patient conversations were identified, synthesized, mapped, and analyzed to understand different concerns. Results: 487 patient posts discussing 1324 topics of conversation were identified. In most countries, top discussed topics included patient concerns such as quality of life (QoL) changes, and disease and/or treatment management. Multiple patient concerns (n=554) were observed across all geographies: impact on QoL (198), curability (73), fear of relapse/progression (64), disease/treatment information need (50), lack of emotional support (43), FL transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (42), and cost of treatment (30) were notable concerns. To assess QoL impact, patient conversations (198) were mapped to the statements in the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – Lymphoma questionnaire (FACT-Lym). Pain and lack of energy (57), swollen nodes/lumps (47), and side effects of treatment (31) had impacted physical wellbeing, while support from family/friends (41) helped patients cope emotionally. A few patients (18) said that they were able to return to work after treatment. As for inter-country differences, conversations were mostly from the US (43%) and UK (20%);male patients in Germany were more active social media participants than female patients, which was different from other four countries;only patients in the UK had expressed concerns about COVID-19 impact. Conclusion: Insights from international SML research indicated concerns related to disease- and/or treatment-related impact on QoL and interest about potential cure for the disease.

13.
International Immunopharmacology ; 95:107567, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209455

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global pandemic. However, the mechanism of tissue tropism of SARS-CoV-2 remains unclear. Here, recombinant receptor-binding subdomain 1 of spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 (RBD-SD1) was used as a probe to investigate the potential tropism of SARS-CoV-2 in thirty-three types of normal human tissues. RBD-SD1 probe was observed to interact with cells in reported SARS-CoV-2 infected organs. Interestingly, the RBD-SD1 probe strongly interacted with bone marrow cells in an angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-independent manner. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 induced the ACE2 mRNA expression in human primary bone marrow cells, suggesting human bone marrow cells may be sensitive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, human bone marrow cells could be strongly infected by SARS-CoV-2, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. These findings provide a deeper understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection routes, thus contributing to the treatment of COVID-19.

14.
Journal of Transport and Health ; 21, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1144846

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The rapidly evolving COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically reshaped urban travel patterns. In this research, we explore the relationship between “social distancing,” a concept that has gained worldwide familiarity, and urban mobility during the pandemic. Understanding social distancing behavior will allow urban planners and engineers to better understand the new norm of urban mobility amid the pandemic, and what patterns might hold for individual mobility post-pandemic or in the event of a future pandemic. Methods: There are still few efforts to obtain precise information on social distancing patterns of pedestrians in urban environments. This is largely attributed to numerous burdens in safely deploying any effective field data collection approaches during the crisis. This paper aims to fill that gap by developing a data-driven analytical framework that leverages existing public video data sources and advanced computer vision techniques to monitor the evolution of social distancing patterns in urban areas. Specifically, the proposed framework develops a deep-learning approach with a pre-trained convolutional neural network to mine the massive amount of public video data captured in urban areas. Real-time traffic camera data collected in New York City (NYC) was used as a case study to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of using the proposed approach to analyze pedestrian social distancing patterns. Results: The results show that microscopic pedestrian social distancing patterns can be quantified by using a generalized real-distance approximation method. The estimated distance between individuals can be compared to social distancing guidelines to evaluate policy compliance and effectiveness during a pandemic. Quantifying social distancing adherence will provide decision-makers with a better understanding of prevailing social contact challenges. It also provides insights into the development of response strategies and plans for phased reopening for similar future scenarios. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd

15.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 44(3): 230-236, 2021 Mar 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134266

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore a modified CT scoring system, its feasibility for disease severity evaluation and its predictive value in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Methods: This study was a multi-center retrospective cohort study. Patients confirmed with COVID-19 were recruited in three medical centers located in Beijing, Wuhan and Nanchang from January 27, 2020 to March 8, 2020. Demographics, clinical data, and CT images were collected. CT were analyzed by two emergency physicians of more than ten years' work experience independently through a modified scoring system. Final score was determined by average score from the two reviewers if consensus was not reached. The lung was divided into 6 zones (upper, middle, and lower on both sides) by the level of trachea carina and the level of lower pulmonary veins. The target lesion types included ground-glass opacity (GGO), consolidation, overall lung involvement, and crazy-paving pattern. Bronchiectasis, cavity, pleural effusion, etc., were not included in CT reading and analysis because of low incidence. The reviewers evaluated the extent of the targeted patterns (GGO, consolidation) and overall affected lung parenchyma for each zone, using Likert scale, ranging from 0-4 (0=absent; 1=1%-25%; 2=26%-50%; 3=51%-75%; 4=76%-100%). Thus, GGO score, consolidation score, and overall lung involvement score were sum of 6 zones ranging from 0-24. For crazy-paving pattern, it was only coded as absent or present (0 or 1) for each zone and therefore ranging from 0-6. Results: A total of 197 patients from 3 medical centers and 522 CT scans entered final analysis. The median age of the patients was 64 years, and 54.8% were male. There were 76(38.8%) patients had hypertension and 30(15.3%) patients had diabetes mellitus. There were 75 of the patients classified as moderate cases, as well as 95 severe cases and 27 critical cases. As initial symptom, dry cough occurred in 170 patients, 134 patients had fever, and 125 patients had dyspnea. Reparatory rate, oxygen saturation, lymphocyte count and CURB 65 score on admission day varied among patients with different disease severity scale. There were 50 of the patients suffered from deterioration during hospital stay. The median time consumed for each CT by clinicians was 86.5 seconds. Cronbach's alpha for GGO, consolidation, crazy-paving pattern, and overall lung involvement between two clinicians were 0.809, 0.712, 0.678, and 0.906, respectively, showing good or excellent inter-rater correlation. There were 193 (98.0%) patients had GGO, 147 (74.6%) had consolidation, and 126(64.0%) had crazy-paving pattern throughout clinical course. Bilateral lung involvement was observed in 183(92.9%) patients. Median time of interval for CT scan in our study was 7 days so that the whole clinical course was divided into stages by week for further analysis. From the second week on, the CT scores of various types of lesions in severe or critically patients were higher than those of moderate cases. After the fifth week, the course of disease entered the recovery period. The CT score of the upper lung zones was lower than that of other zones in moderate and severe cases. Similar distribution was not observed in critical patients. For moderate cases, the ground glass opacity score at the second week had predictive value for the escalation of the severity classification during hospitalization. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.849, the best cut-off value was 5 points, with sensitivity of 84.2% and specificity of 75.0%. Conclusions: It is feasible for clinicians to use the modified semi-quantitative CT scoring system to evaluate patients with COVID-19. Severe/critical patients had higher scores for ground glass opacity, consolidation, crazy-paving pattern, and overall lung involvement than moderate cases. The ground glass opacity score in the second week had an optimal predictive value for escalation of disease severity during hospitalization in moderate patients on admission. The frequency of CT scan should be reduced after entering the recovery stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/standards , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , China , Female , Humans , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Spatial Analysis
16.
Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment ; 35(1):453-461, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1132280

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infection caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, there are still no specific treatments. Recently, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) was proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. The present study aims to explore the potential of Hypericum japonicum Thunb. ex Murray against COVID-19 based on network pharmacology and molecular docking methods. Potential targets of H. japonicum were collected from available databases for protein–protein interaction analysis. Further GO and KEGG pathway analysis were performed to reveal the corresponding mechanism. Molecular docking was employed to evaluate the binding energy between the components in H. japonicum and three target proteins (ACE2, Mpro and PLP). Finally, a total of 45 core targets were screened. GO and KEGG pathway analysis revealed that several key pathways were involved in the potential beneficial effects of H. japonicum against COVID-19. Molecular docking results showed that most components in H. japonicum have a binding affinity to ACE2, Mpro and PLP molecules less than −5 kcal/mol, indicating good binding capacity to these target proteins. Vincetoxicoside B, bijaponicaxanthone and quercetin possess the top binding activity to ACE2, Mpro and PLP, respectively. The molecular docking results and the traditionally known possible functions of H. japonicum, including stabilizing blood oxygen environment, preventing inflammatory storms, regulating immune response and inhibiting viral infections, hereby indicate the potential of H. japonicum against COVID-19. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

17.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(12): 2020-2023, 2020 Dec 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000358

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the identification and medical observation of close contacts of COVID-19 cases in a city and provide scientific basis for the adjustment of the epidemic prevention and control strategies. Methods: Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the general characteristics of all the close contacts of COVID-19 cases in a city. Throat swabs were collected from the close contacts for real-time fluorescent RT-PCR. The confirmed cases were diagnosed according to diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 (trial version 5). Results: Among the 1 665 close contacts of COVID-19 cases in a city, 10 were diagnosed as COVID-19 cases during the medical observation period, accounting for 30.30% of all the confirmed cases in a city, most of them were close relatives of the confirmed cases. The longest contact time with the confirmed cases was 8 days and the shortest was 0 days. Ten COVID-19 cases in close contacts constituted to six family clusters. Conclusions: In COVID-19 prevention and control in a city, the active tracking of the transmission chains of the confirmed cases and timely identification of the close contacts were conducted. The people who had close contacts with the confirmed COVID-19 cases within 14 days before onset were all placed under medical observation, which played a key role in the effective prevention and control of COVID-19 epidemic in a city. Nearly one third of COVID-19 cases occurred during the medical observation period, so the infection sources were effectively controlled and transmission routes were effectively blocked, which greatly facilitated the prevention of the clusters of COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Epidemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , China/epidemiology , Cities , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
18.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(15): 8194-8201, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696160

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of corticosteroid on hospital mortality, hospital length of stay, and time of viral clearance in patients with severe and critical COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with severe and critical COVID-19 who had been discharged or expired were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into corticosteroid group and non-corticosteroid group according to the systemic corticosteroid use or not. Clinical data were collected, and hospital mortality, hospital length of stay, time of viral clearance, time of mechanical ventilation, and duration from illness onset to symptom resolution were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: A total of 72 inpatients who were diagnosed with severe and critical COVID-19 were enrolled, in which 47 patients were divided into corticosteroid group and 25 were involved as the non-corticosteroid group. Baseline characteristics were generally similar between the two groups. Four (5.6%) patients died during hospitalization, and 68 (94.4%) were discharged. Among survivors, the mean duration time from admission to discharge was 19.5d (SD 7.05 d). The mean time of viral clearance among survivors was 17.5d (SD 7.67 d), with a maximum of 37 d, and a minimum of 5 d. Hospital mortality (4.3% vs. 8.0%), length of hospital stay (18.7d vs. 21.0d), and time of viral clearance (16.1d vs. 19.4d) had no significant difference between two groups (p>0.05). The duration of symptoms suffering was shorter in the corticosteroid group than non-corticosteroid group, with statistically significant difference (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroid therapy in patients with severe COVID-19 cannot reduce the hospital mortality, and is not associated with delayed viral clearance, but it could relieve the inflammatory storm and improve clinical symptoms in brief. Patients with severe COVID-19 could benefit from low-dose corticosteroid treatment.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , China , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
19.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(8): 1225-1230, 2020 Aug 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-144094

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the strategies on COVID-19 outbreak control in Shenzhen, and to clarify the feasibility of these strategies in metropolitans that have high population density and strong mobility. Methods: The epidemic feature of COVID-19 was described by different phases and was used to observe the effectiveness of intervention. Hierarchical spot map was drawn to clarify the distribution and transmission risk of infection sources at different time points. The Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Asymptomatic-Recovered model was established to estimate case numbers without intervention and compare with the actual number of cases to determine the effect of intervention. The positive rate of the nucleic acid test was used to reflect the risk of human exposure. A survey on COVID-19 related knowledge, attitude and behaviors were used to estimate the abilities of personal protection and emergency response. Results: The epidemic of COVID-19 in Shenzhen experienced the rising, plateau and decline stage. The case number increased rapidly at the beginning, with short duration of peak period. Although the epidemic curve showed human-to-human transmission, the "trailing" was not obvious. From the spot map, during the intervention period, the source of infection was widely distributed. More cases and higher transmission risk were observed in areas with higher population density. After the effective intervention measures, both infection sources and the risk of transmission decreased. After compared with the estimated case numbers without intervention, actual number proved the COVID-19 control strategies were effective. The positive rate of nucleic acid test for high risk populations decreased and no new cases reported since February 16. Shenzhen citizens had high knowledge, attitude and behavior level, and high protection ability and emergency response. Conclusions: Although the response initiated by the health administration department played a key role at the early stage of the epidemic, it was not enough to contain the outbreak of COVID-19. The first-level emergency response initiated by provincial and municipal government was effective and ensured the start of work resumption after the Spring Festival. Metropolitans like Shenzhen can also achieve the goals of strategies and measures for containment and mitigation of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disaster Planning , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Emergency Medical Services/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Emergency Responders , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(4): 374-377, 2020 Apr 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-45893

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, at the end of 2019, it has demonstrated China's ability to identify unknown pathogens. At present, reports showed that the main transmission routes are respiratory droplets and indirect contact, other vertical transmission routes have yet to be confirmed. This review discusses the possible transmission routes of 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), based on currently research, the main transmission routes are respiratory droplets and indirect contact, fecal-oral might bepossible, while aerosol, tear (conjunctival) and mother-to-fetus still have yet to be confirmed, providing a reference basis for 2019-nCoV prevention and control and public protection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiration , SARS-CoV-2
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