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1.
J Microbiol ; 59(10): 941-948, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432635

ABSTRACT

Several follow-up studies have found that COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) patients had persistent symptoms after discharge. Gut microbiota play an important role in human health and immune responses. Therefore, this study investigated the gut microbiota of recovered COVID-19 patients and the correlations between gut microbiota and persistent symptoms after discharge. Stool samples were collected from 15 recovered healthcare workers (HCWs) with COVID-19 at three months after discharge, in addition, stool samples were collected from 14 healthy controls (HCs) to perform 16S rRNA gene sequencing between May and July 2020. Compared with HCs, recovered HCWs had reduced bacterial diversity at three months after discharge, with a significantly higher relative abundance of opportunistic pathogens, and a significantly lower relative abundance of beneficial bacteria. In addition, Escherichia unclassified was positively correlated with persistent symptoms at three months after discharge, including fatigue (r = 0.567, p = 0.028), chest tightness after activity (r = 0.687, p = 0.005), and myalgia (r = 0.523, p = 0.045). Intestinibacter bartlettii was positively correlated with anorexia (r = 0.629, p = 0.012) and fatigue (r = 0.545, p = 0.036). However, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was negatively correlated with chest tightness after activity (r = -0.591, p = 0.02), and Intestinimonas butyriciproducens was negatively correlated with cough (r = -0.635, p = 0.011). In conclusion, the gut microbiota of recovered HCWs with COVID-19 at three months after discharge was different from that of HCs, and altered gut microbiota was correlated with persistent symptoms after discharge, highlighting that gut microbiota may play an important role in the recovery of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Adult , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/microbiology , Feces/microbiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/etiology , Myalgia/microbiology , Patient Discharge , Phylogeny , Survivors/statistics & numerical data
2.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(6): 1096-1104, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404664

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study data about SARS-CoV-2 virus shedding and clarify the risk factors for prolonged virus shedding. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from adults hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in Wuhan Union Hospital. We compared clinical features among patients with prolonged (a positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA on day 23 after illness onset) and short virus shedding and evaluated risk factors associated with prolonged virus shedding by multivariate regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 238 patients, the median age was 55.5 years, 57.1% were female, 92.9% (221/238) were administered with arbidol, 58.4% (139/238) were given arbidol in combination with interferon. The median duration of SARS-CoV-2 virus shedding was 23 days (IQR, 17.8-30 days) with a longest one of 51 days. The patients with prolonged virus shedding had higher value of D-dimer (P=0.002), IL-6 (P<0.001), CRP (P=0.005) and more lobes lung lesion (P=0.014) on admission, as well as older age (P=0.017) and more patients with hypertension (P=0.044) than in those the virus shedding less than 23 days. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that prolonged viral shedding was significantly associated with initiation arbidol >8 days after symptom onset [OR: 2.447, 95% CI (1.351-4.431)], ≥3 days from onset of symptoms to first medical visitation [OR: 1.880, 95% CI (1.035-3.416)], illness onset before Jan. 31, 2020 [OR: 3.289, 95% CI (1.474-7.337)]. Arbidol in combination with interferon was also significantly associated with shorter virus shedding [OR: 0.363, 95% CI (0.191-0.690)]. CONCLUSION: Duration of SARS-CoV-2 virus shedding was long. Early initiation of arbidol and arbidol in combination with interferon as well as consulting doctor timely after illness onset were helpful for SARS-CoV-2 clearance.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Indoles/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Interferons/administration & dosage , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Virus Shedding/drug effects
3.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 2619-2631, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most COVID-19 patients are moderate, and fever is the most common clinical manifestation and associated with poorer prognosis. Gut microbiota may also play important roles in COVID-19 pathogenesis. However, the association between gut microbiota and fever in individuals with moderate COVID-19 remains unclear. METHODS: We compared the clinical features and laboratory results of 187 moderate COVID-19 patients with fever and without fever and identified several inflammatory markers in patients with fever. Then, we performed gut metagenome-wide association study for 31 individuals to identify the microbes and their epitopes which have potential role in fever and hyperinflammation. RESULTS: Among 187 moderate COVID-19 patients, 127 (67.9%) patients presented with fever. Lymphocytes, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells and the ratio of CD4+ T cells to CD8+ T cells were significantly reduced, while AST, LDH, CRP, IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly elevated in patients with fever. Gut microbiome composition was significantly altered in patients with fever compared with those with non-fever. Opportunistic pathogens such as Enterococcus faecalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were enriched in patients with fever. E. faecalis was positively correlated with LDH and D-dimer and negatively correlated with CD8+T cells and IL-4, while S. cerevisiae was positively correlated with diarrhea symptom. Furthermore, several species with anti-inflammatory and protective effects, such as Bacteroides fragilis and Eubacterium ramulus, were enriched in patients with non-fever. B. fragilis was positively correlated with lymphocytes, and E. ramulus was negatively correlated with LDH, AST and IL-6. Finally, we found that several bacterial epitopes of GroEL, a homolog of human HSP60, were enriched in patients with fever and positively correlated with IL-6, IL-10, WBC, neutrophils, D-dimer, LDH, CRP, and E. faecalis. CONCLUSION: Gut microbiota dysbiosis correlates with abnormal immune response in moderate COVID-19 patients with fever.

4.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(47): e418, 2020 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most patients including health care workers (HCWs) survived the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), however, knowledge about the sequelae of COVID-19 after discharge remains limited. METHODS: A prospectively observational 3-month follow-up study evaluated symptoms, dynamic changes of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG and IgM, lung function, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of survivors of COVID-19 after discharge at Wuhan Union Hospital, China. RESULTS: Seventy-six survivors (55 females) with a mean age of 41.3 ± 13.8 years were enrolled, and 65 (86%) were HCWs. A total of 69 (91%) patients had returned to their original work at 3-months after discharge. Most of the survivors had symptoms including fever, sputum production, fatigue, diarrhea, dyspnea, cough, chest tightness on exertion and palpitations in the three months after discharge. The serum troponin-I levels during the acute illness showed high correlation with the symptom of fatigue after hospital discharge (r = 0.782; P = 0.008) and lymphopenia was correlated with the symptoms of chest tightness and palpitations on exertion of patients after hospital discharge (r = -.285, P = 0.027; r = -.363, P = 0.004, respectively). The mean values of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, total lung capacity and diffusion capacity were all normal (> 80% predicted) and lung HRCTs returned to normal in most of the patients (82%), however, 42% of survivors had mild pulmonary function abnormalities at 3-months after discharge. SARS-CoV-2 IgG turned negative in 11% (6 of 57 patients), 8% (4 of 52 patients) and 13% (7 of 55 patients), and SARS-CoV-2 IgM turned negative in 72% (41 of 57 patients), 85% (44 of 52 patients) and 87% (48 of 55 patients) at 1-month, 2-months and 3-months after discharge, respectively. CONCLUSION: Infection by SARS-CoV-2 caused some mild impairments of survivors within the first three months of their discharge and the duration of SARS-CoV-2 antibody was limited, which indicates the necessity of long-term follow-up of survivors of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Lung/physiology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survivors , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Troponin I/blood , Vital Capacity , Young Adult
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(8): 1930-1934, 2020 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been rapidly spreading nationwide and abroad. A serologic test to identify antibody dynamics and response to SARS-CoV-2 was developed. METHODS: The antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the recombinant nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 in patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 at 3-40 days after symptom onset. The gold standard for COVID-19 diagnosis was nucleic acid testing for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). The serodiagnostic power of the specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was investigated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and consistency rate. RESULTS: The seroconversion of specific IgM and IgG antibodies were observed as early as the fourth day after symptom onset. In the patients with confirmed COVID-19, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and consistency rate of IgM were 77.3% (51/66), 100%, 100%, 80.0%, and 88.1%, respectively, and those of IgG were 83.3% (55/66), 95.0%, 94.8%, 83.8%, and 88.9%. In patients with suspected COVID-19, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and consistency rate of IgM were 87.5% (21/24), 100%, 100%, 95.2%, and 96.4%, respectively, and those of IgG were 70.8% (17/24), 96.6%, 85.0%, 89.1%, and 88.1%. Both antibodies performed well in serodiagnosis for COVID-19 and rely on great specificity. CONCLUSIONS: The antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in the middle and later stages of the illness. Antibody detection may play an important role in the diagnosis of COVID-19 as a complementary approach to viral nucleic acid assays.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time Factors
6.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-596

ABSTRACT

Background: The pneumonia associated with the novel coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2) is breaking out in Wuhan, China. W

7.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(8): 1753-1759.e2, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613156

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We compared clinical, laboratory, radiological, and outcome features of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) with pneumonia, with vs without diarrhea. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, single-center analysis of 84 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan Union Hospital, China, from January 19 through February 7, 2020. Cases were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR of nasal and pharyngeal swab specimens for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Blood samples were analyzed for white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and in some cases, immunoglobulins, complement, lymphocyte subsets, and cytokines. Virus RNA was detected in stool samples by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Of the 84 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 26 (31%) had diarrhea. The duration of fever and dyspnea in patients with diarrhea was significantly longer than those without diarrhea (all P < .05). Stool samples from a higher proportion of patients with diarrhea tested positive for virus RNA (69%) than from patients without diarrhea (17%) (P < .001). As of February 19, a lower proportion of patients with diarrhea had a negative result from the latest throat swab for SARS-CoV-2 (77%) than patients without diarrhea (97%) (P = .010), during these patients' hospitalization. Of 76 patients with a negative result from their latest throat swab test during hospitalization, a significantly higher proportion of patients with diarrhea had a positive result from the retest for SARS-CoV-2 in stool (45%) than patients without diarrhea (20%) (P = .039). CONCLUSIONS: At a single center in Wuhan, China, 31% of patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia had diarrhea. A significantly higher proportion of patients with diarrhea have virus RNA in stool than patients without diarrhea. Elimination of SARS-CoV-2 from stool takes longer than elimination from the nose and throat.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Carrier State/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Blood Cell Count , Blood Chemical Analysis , COVID-19 , China , Diarrhea/pathology , Feces/virology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Pandemics , Pharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
Eur Respir J ; 55(6)2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), infected over 3300 healthcare workers in early 2020 in China. Little information is known about nosocomial infections of healthcare workers in the initial period. We analysed data from healthcare workers with nosocomial infections in Wuhan Union Hospital (Wuhan, China) and their family members. METHODS: We collected and analysed data on exposure history, illness timelines and epidemiological characteristics from 25 healthcare workers with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and two healthcare workers in whom COVID-19 was highly suspected, as well as 10 of their family members with COVID-19, between 5 January and 12 February 2020. The demographics and clinical features of the 35 laboratory-confirmed cases were investigated and viral RNA of 12 cases was sequenced and analysed. RESULTS: Nine clusters were found among the patients. All patients showed mild to moderate clinical manifestation and recovered without deterioration. The mean period of incubation was 4.5 days, the mean±sd clinical onset serial interval (COSI) was 5.2±3.2 days, and the median virus shedding time was 18.5 days. Complete genomic sequences of 12 different coronavirus strains demonstrated that the viral structure, with small irrelevant mutations, was stable in the transmission chains and showed remarkable traits of infectious traceability. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 can be rapidly transmitted from person to person, regardless of whether they have symptoms, in both hospital settings and social activities, based on the short period of incubation and COSI. The public health service should take practical measures to curb the spread, including isolation of cases, tracing close contacts, and containment of severe epidemic areas. Besides this, healthcare workers should be alert during the epidemic and self-quarantine if self-suspected of infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Family , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding , Whole Genome Sequencing
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