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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 824245, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855335

ABSTRACT

Importance: The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 is still affecting our life, but the effects of lockdown measures on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant women remain unclear. Aim: To investigate the association between COVID-19 lockdown and GDM. Subjects and Methods: Medical records of 140844 pregnant women during 2015-2020 were extracted from 5 hospitals in Guangdong Province, China. Pregnant women who underwent the COVID-19 Level I lockdown (1/23 - 2/24/2020) during pregnancy were defined as the exposed group (N=20472) and pregnant women who underwent the same calendar months during 2015-2019 (1/23 - 2/24) were defined as the unexposed group (N=120372). Subgroup analyses were used to explore the potential susceptible exposure window of COVID-19 lockdown on GDM. Cumulative exposure is quantitatively estimated by assigning different weights to response periods with different exposure intensities. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the association between COVID-19 lockdown exposure and GDM. Results: The rates of GDM in the exposed and unexposed groups were 15.2% and 12.4%, respectively. The overall analyses showed positive associations (odds ratio, OR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.17, 1.27) between lockdown exposure and GDM risk in all pregnant women. More pronounced associations were found in women who underwent the COVID-19 lockdown in their first four months of pregnancy, and the adjusted OR values ranged from 1.24 (95%CI: 1.10, 1.39) in women with 5-8 gestational weeks (GWs) to 1.35 (95%CI: 1.20, 1.52) with < 5 GWs. In addition, we found a positive exposure-response association of cumulative lockdown exposure with the risk of GDM. Conclusions: The COVID-19 lockdown was associated with an increased risk of GDM, and the first four months of pregnancy may be the window for sensitive exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes, Gestational , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women
2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(4): 474-478, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834947

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the course of disease and epidemiological parameters of COVID-19 and provide evidence for making prevention and control strategies. Methods: To display the distribution of course of disease of the infectors who had close contacts with COVID-19 cases from January 1 to March 15, 2020 in Guangdong Provincial, the models of Lognormal, Weibull and gamma distribution were applied. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the basic characteristics and epidemiological parameters of course of disease. Results: In total, 515 of 11 580 close contacts were infected, with an attack rate about 4.4%, including 449 confirmed cases and 66 asymptomatic cases. Lognormal distribution was fitting best for latent period, incubation period, pre-symptomatic infection period of confirmed cases and infection period of asymptomatic cases; Gamma distribution was fitting best for infectious period and clinical symptom period of confirmed cases; Weibull distribution was fitting best for latent period of asymptomatic cases. The latent period, incubation period, pre-symptomatic infection period, infectious period and clinical symptoms period of confirmed cases were 4.50 (95%CI:3.86-5.13) days, 5.12 (95%CI:4.63-5.62) days, 0.87 (95%CI:0.67-1.07) days, 11.89 (95%CI:9.81-13.98) days and 22.00 (95%CI:21.24-22.77) days, respectively. The latent period and infectious period of asymptomatic cases were 8.88 (95%CI:6.89-10.86) days and 6.18 (95%CI:1.89-10.47) days, respectively. Conclusion: The estimated course of COVID-19 and related epidemiological parameters are similar to the existing data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Cohort Studies , Humans , Incidence , Prospective Studies
3.
Frontiers in endocrinology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787216

ABSTRACT

Importance The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 is still affecting our life, but the effects of lockdown measures on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant women remain unclear. Aim To investigate the association between COVID-19 lockdown and GDM. Subjects and Methods Medical records of 140844 pregnant women during 2015-2020 were extracted from 5 hospitals in Guangdong Province, China. Pregnant women who underwent the COVID-19 Level I lockdown (1/23 - 2/24/2020) during pregnancy were defined as the exposed group (N=20472) and pregnant women who underwent the same calendar months during 2015-2019 (1/23 - 2/24) were defined as the unexposed group (N=120372). Subgroup analyses were used to explore the potential susceptible exposure window of COVID-19 lockdown on GDM. Cumulative exposure is quantitatively estimated by assigning different weights to response periods with different exposure intensities. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the association between COVID-19 lockdown exposure and GDM. Results The rates of GDM in the exposed and unexposed groups were 15.2% and 12.4%, respectively. The overall analyses showed positive associations (odds ratio, OR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.17, 1.27) between lockdown exposure and GDM risk in all pregnant women. More pronounced associations were found in women who underwent the COVID-19 lockdown in their first four months of pregnancy, and the adjusted OR values ranged from 1.24 (95%CI: 1.10, 1.39) in women with 5-8 gestational weeks (GWs) to 1.35 (95%CI: 1.20, 1.52) with < 5 GWs. In addition, we found a positive exposure-response association of cumulative lockdown exposure with the risk of GDM. Conclusions The COVID-19 lockdown was associated with an increased risk of GDM, and the first four months of pregnancy may be the window for sensitive exposure.

4.
China CDC Wkly ; 4(10): 199-206, 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737617

ABSTRACT

Introduction: With the large-scale roll-out of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) booster vaccination effort (a vaccine dose given 6 months after completing primary vaccination) in China, we explore when and how China could lift non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) against COVID-19 in 2022. Methods: Using a modified susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) mathematical model, we projected the COVID-19 epidemic situation and required medical resources in Guangdong Province, China. Results: If the number of people entering from overseas recovers to 20% of the number in 2019, the epidemic in 2022 could be controlled at a low level by a containment (215 local cases) or suppression strategy (1,397 local cases). A mitigation strategy would lead to 21,722 local cases. A coexistence strategy would lead to a large epidemic with 6,850,083 local cases that would overwhelm Guangdong's medical system. With 50% or 100% recovery of the 2019 level of travelers from overseas, the epidemic could also be controlled with containment or suppression, but enormous resources, including more hotel rooms for border quarantine, will be required. However, coexistence would lead to an uncontrollable epidemic with 12,922,032 local cases. Discussion: With booster vaccinations, the number of travelers from overseas could increase slightly in 2022, but a suppression strategy would need to be maintained to ensure a controllable epidemic.

5.
Journal of Advanced Transportation ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1731364

ABSTRACT

Based on a stated preference survey, we comprehensively analyze the travel psychology of residents and the advantages and disadvantages of rail transit and conventional buses, travel time, travel cost, travel security, and vehicle comfort and investigate the relationship between the relevant influencing factors and the transition probability from rail transit to buses. A stochastic utility theory is introduced to describe the transfer behavior pertaining to travel modes, and a binary Logit model for diversion transfer is constructed. The decision tree is also used to predict the diversion transfer. Then, based on the large amount of travel willingness data obtained through the stated preference survey, a maximum likelihood estimation method is used to calibrate the parameters of the binary Logit model. The performance of the binary Logit proves to be better than that of the decision tree. Results show that the travel time most notably affects the passenger flow transfer, followed by the vehicle comfort. Finally, Guangzhou Rail Transit Line 3 is considered an example, and the diversion route planning and design are performed according to the constructed diversion transfer probability model to verify the effectiveness and practicability of the model. The research provides an effective theoretical basis and technical reference for other cities to perform rail traffic diversion planning. Based on these results, the following suggestions can be made: (1) the organization of public transportation routes, delivery volume, and travel speed outside should be improved;(2) undertaking combined operation of bus and rail transportation and integrated development is preferred;(3) the transportation management should focus on the comprehensive function development and hardware support of public transportation stations. The convenience and comfort of rail transit are closely related to the facilities and functions of the stations and their connections, which should be highly valued.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319475

ABSTRACT

Background: The severity of COVID-19 associates with the clinical decision making and the prognosis of COVID-19 patients, therefore, early identification of patients who are likely to develop severe or critical COVID-19 is critical in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to screen severity-associated markers and construct an assessment model for predicting the severity of COVID-19. Methods: : 172 confirmed COVID-19 patients were enrolled from two designated hospitals in Hangzhou, China. Ordinal logistic regression was used to screen severity-associated markers. Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) regression was performed for further feature selection. Assessment models were constructed using logistic regression, ridge regression, support vector machine and random forest. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to evaluate the performance of different models. Internal validation was performed by using bootstrap with 500 re-sampling in the training set, and external validation was performed in the validation set for the four models, respectively. Results: : Age, comorbidity, fever, and 18 laboratory markers were associated with the severity of COVID-19 (all P values <0.05). By LASSO regression, eight markers were included for the assessment model construction. The ridge regression model had the best performance with AUROCs of 0.930 (95% CI, 0.914-0.943) and 0.827 (95% CI, 0.716-0.921) in the internal and external validations, respectively. A risk score, established based on the ridge regression model, had good discrimination in all patients with an AUROC of 0.897 (95% CI 0.845-0.940), and a well-fitted calibration curve. Using the optimal cutoff value of 71, the sensitivity and specificity were 87.1% and 78.1%, respectively. A web-based assessment system was developed based on the risk score. Conclusions: : Eight clinical markers of lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, albumin, comorbidity, electrolyte disturbance, coagulation function, eosinophil and lymphocyte counts were associated with the severity of COVID-19. An assessment model constructed with these eight markers would help the clinician to evaluate the likelihood of developing severity of COVID-19 at admission and early take measures on clinical treatment.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309634

ABSTRACT

Background: The effects of COVID-19 lockdown measures on maternal and fetal health remain unclear. We examined the associations of COVID-19 lockdown with gestational length and preterm birth (PTB) in a Chinese population. Methods: We obtained medical records of 595396 singleton live infants born between 2015 and 2020 in 5 cities in Guangdong Province, South China. The exposed group (N=101900) included women who experienced the COVID-19 Level I lockdown (1/23-2/24/2020) during pregnancy, while the unexposed group (N=493496) included women who were pregnant during the same calendar months in 2015-2019. Cumulative exposure was calculated based on days exposed to different levels of emergency responses with different weighting. Generalized linear regression models were applied to estimate the associations of lockdown exposure with gestational length and risk of PTB (<37 weeks). Results: The exposed group had a shorter mean gestational length than the unexposed group (38.66 vs 38.74 weeks: adjusted β=-0.06 week [95%CI, -0.07, -0.05 week]). The exposed group also had a higher risk of PTB (5.7% vs 5.3%;adjusted OR=1.08 [95%CI, 1.05, 1.11]). These associations seemed to be stronger when exposure occurred before or during the 23 rd gestational week (GW) than during or after the 24 th GW. Similarly, higher cumulative lockdown exposure was associated with a shorter gestational length and a higher risk of PTB. Conclusions: The COVID-19 lockdown measures were associated with a slightly shorter gestational length and a moderately higher risk of PTB. Early and middle pregnancy periods may be a more susceptible exposure window.

8.
J Infect Dis ; 224(Suppl 6): S660-S669, 2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559086

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection in term placenta is rare. However, growing evidence suggests that susceptibility of the human placenta to infection may vary by gestational age and pathogen. For several viral infections, susceptibility appears to be greatest during early gestation. Peri-implantation placental infections that result in pre-clinical pregnancy loss would typically go undetected. Little is known about the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the peri-implantation human placenta since this time in pregnancy can only be modeled in vitro. METHODS: We used a human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived model of peri-implantation placental development to assess patterns of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 transcription and protein expression in primitive trophoblast. We then infected the same trophoblast cell model with a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 and documented infection dynamics. RESULTS: ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were transcribed and translated in hESC-derived trophoblast, with preferential expression in syncytialized cells. These same cells supported replicative and persistent infection by SARS-CoV-2, while non-syncytialized trophoblast cells in the same cultures did not. CONCLUSIONS: Co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in hESC-derived trophoblast and the robust and replicative infection limited to syncytiotrophoblast equivalents support the hypothesis that increased viral susceptibility may be a defining characteristic of primitive trophoblast.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Placenta/metabolism , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Abortion, Spontaneous/virology , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases , Trophoblasts
9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293892

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic is underway. Some COVID-19 cases re-tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA after discharge raising the public concern on their infectivity. Characterization of re-positive cases are urgently needed for designing intervention strategies. <br><br>Methods: Clinical data were obtained through Guangdong COVID-19 surveillance network. Neutralization antibody titre was determined using a microneutralization assay. Potential infectivity of clinical samples was evaluated after the cell inoculation. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected using three different RT-PCR kits and multiplex PCR with nanopore sequencing. <br><br>Findings: Among 619 discharged COVID-19 cases, 87 were re-tested as SARS-CoV-2 positive in circumstance of social isolation. All re-positive cases had mild or moderate symptoms in initial diagnosis and a younger age distribution (mean, 30·4). Re-positive cases (n=59) exhibited similar neutralization antibodies (NAbs) titre distributions to other COVID-19 cases (n=150) parallel-tested in this study. No infective viral strain could be obtained by culture and none full-length viral genomes could be sequenced for all re-positive cases. I<br><br>nterpretation: Re-positive SARS-CoV-2 was not caused by the secondary infection and was identified in around 14% of discharged cases. A robust Nabs response and a potential virus genome degradation were detected from nearly all re-positive cases suggesting a lower transmission risk, especially through a respiratory route. <br><br>Funding: This work was supported by grants from Guangdong Provincial Novel Coronavirus Scientific and Technological Project (2020111107001), Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong(2018B020207006), National Science and Technology Project(2020YFC0846800).<br><br>Declaration of Interests: All authors: No reported conflicts of interest.<br><br>Ethics Approval Statement: This study was reviewed and approved by the Medical Ethical Committee of Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Data collection and analysis of cases were determined by the Health Commission of Guangdong province to be part of a continuing public health outbreak investigation during the emergency response and were thus considered exempt from institutional review board approval.

10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 795, 2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538063

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effects of COVID-19 lockdown measures on maternal and fetal health remain unclear. We examined the associations of COVID-19 lockdown with gestational length and preterm birth (PTB) in a Chinese population. METHODS: We obtained medical records of 595,396 singleton live infants born between 2015 and 2020 in 5 cities in Guangdong Province, South China. The exposed group (N = 101,900) included women who experienced the COVID-19 Level I lockdown (1/23-2/24/2020) during pregnancy, while the unexposed group (N = 493,496) included women who were pregnant during the same calendar months in 2015-2019. Cumulative exposure was calculated based on days exposed to different levels of emergency responses with different weighting. Generalized linear regression models were applied to estimate the associations of lockdown exposure with gestational length and risk of PTB (< 37 weeks). RESULTS: The exposed group had a shorter mean gestational length than the unexposed group (38.66 vs 38.74 weeks: adjusted ß = - 0.06 week [95%CI, - 0.07, - 0.05 week]). The exposed group also had a higher risk of PTB (5.7% vs 5.3%; adjusted OR = 1.08 [95%CI, 1.05, 1.11]). These associations seemed to be stronger when exposure occurred before or during the 23rd gestational week (GW) than during or after the 24th GW. Similarly, higher cumulative lockdown exposure was associated with a shorter gestational length and a higher risk of PTB. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 lockdown measures were associated with a slightly shorter gestational length and a moderately higher risk of PTB. Early and middle pregnancy periods may be a more susceptible exposure window.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Maternal Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Adult , China/epidemiology , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Quarantine , Young Adult
12.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 17: 100282, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446928

ABSTRACT

Background: Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) are public health measures that aim to suppress the transmission of infectious diseases, including border restrictions, quarantine and isolation, community management, social distancing, face mask usage, and personal hygiene. This research aimed to assess the co-benefits of NPIs against COVID-19 on notifiable infectious diseases (NIDs) in Guangdong Province, China. Methods: Based on NID data from the Notifiable Infectious Diseases Surveillance System in Guangdong, we first compared the incidence of NIDs during the emergency response period (weeks 4-53 of 2020) with those in the same period of 2015-2019 and then compared that with the expected incidence during the synchronous period of 2020 for each city by using a Bayesian structural time series model. Findings: A total of 514,341 cases of 39 types of NIDs were reported in Guangdong during the emergency response period in 2020, which decreased by 50·7% compared with the synchronous period during 2015-2019. It was estimated that the number of 39 NIDs during the emergency response in 2020 was 65·6% (95% credible interval [CI]: 64·0% - 68·2%) lower than expected, which means that 982,356 (95% CI: 913,443 - 1,105,170) cases were averted. The largest reduction (82·1%) was found for children aged 0-14 years. For different categories of NIDs, natural focal diseases and insect-borne infectious diseases had the greatest reduction (89·4%), followed by respiratory infectious diseases (87·4%), intestinal infectious diseases (59·4%), and blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections (18·2%). Dengue, influenza, and hand-foot-and-mouth disease were reduced by 99·3%, 95·1%, and 76·2%, respectively. Larger reductions were found in the regions with developed economies and a higher number of COVID-19 cases. Interpretation: NPIs against COVID-19 may have a large co-benefit on the prevention of other infectious diseases in Guangdong, China, and the effects have heterogeneity in populations, diseases, time and space. Funding: Key-Area Research and Development Program of Guangdong Province.

13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 774, 2021 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severity of COVID-19 associates with the clinical decision making and the prognosis of COVID-19 patients, therefore, early identification of patients who are likely to develop severe or critical COVID-19 is critical in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to screen severity-associated markers and construct an assessment model for predicting the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: 172 confirmed COVID-19 patients were enrolled from two designated hospitals in Hangzhou, China. Ordinal logistic regression was used to screen severity-associated markers. Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) regression was performed for further feature selection. Assessment models were constructed using logistic regression, ridge regression, support vector machine and random forest. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to evaluate the performance of different models. Internal validation was performed by using bootstrap with 500 re-sampling in the training set, and external validation was performed in the validation set for the four models, respectively. RESULTS: Age, comorbidity, fever, and 18 laboratory markers were associated with the severity of COVID-19 (all P values < 0.05). By LASSO regression, eight markers were included for the assessment model construction. The ridge regression model had the best performance with AUROCs of 0.930 (95% CI, 0.914-0.943) and 0.827 (95% CI, 0.716-0.921) in the internal and external validations, respectively. A risk score, established based on the ridge regression model, had good discrimination in all patients with an AUROC of 0.897 (95% CI 0.845-0.940), and a well-fitted calibration curve. Using the optimal cutoff value of 71, the sensitivity and specificity were 87.1% and 78.1%, respectively. A web-based assessment system was developed based on the risk score. CONCLUSIONS: Eight clinical markers of lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, albumin, comorbidity, electrolyte disturbance, coagulation function, eosinophil and lymphocyte counts were associated with the severity of COVID-19. An assessment model constructed with these eight markers would help the clinician to evaluate the likelihood of developing severity of COVID-19 at admission and early take measures on clinical treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , China/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 655231, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285310

ABSTRACT

Background: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has brought significant challenges to health system and consumed a lot of health resources. However, evidence on the hospitalization costs and their associated factors in COVID-19 cases is scarce. Objectives: To describe the total and components of hospitalization costs of COVID-19 cases, and investigate the associated factors of costs. Methods: We included 876 confirmed COVID-19 cases admitted to 33 designated hospitals from January 15th to April 27th, 2020 in Guangdong, China, and collected their demographic and clinical information. A multiple linear regression model was performed to estimate the associations of hospitalization costs with potential associated factors. Results: The median of total hospitalization costs of COVID-19 cases was $2,869.4 (IQR: $3,916.8). We found higher total costs in male (% difference: 29.7, 95% CI: 15.5, 45.6) than in female cases, in older cases than in younger ones, in severe cases (% difference: 344.8, 95% CI: 222.5, 513.6) than in mild ones, in cases with clinical aggravation than those without, in cases with clinical symptoms (% difference: 47.7, 95% CI: 26.2, 72.9) than those without, and in cases with comorbidities (% difference: 21.1%, 21.1, 95% CI: 4.4, 40.6) than those without. We also found lower non-pharmacologic therapy costs in cases treated with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapy (% difference: -47.4, 95% CI: -64.5 to -22.0) than cases without. Conclusion: The hospitalization costs of COVID-19 cases in Guangdong were comparable to the national level. Factors associated with higher hospitalization costs included sex, older age, clinical severity and aggravation, clinical symptoms and comorbidities at admission. TCM therapy was found to be associated with lower costs for some non-pharmacologic therapies.

15.
Environ Res ; 200: 111457, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258365

ABSTRACT

Although strict lockdown measurements implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic have dramatically reduced the anthropogenic-based emissions, changes in air quality and its health impacts remain unclear in China. We comprehensively described air pollution during and after the lockdown periods in 2020 compared with 2018-2019, and estimated the mortality burden indicated by the number of deaths and years of life lost (YLL) related to the air pollution changes. The mean air quality index (AQI), PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2 and CO concentrations during the lockdown across China declined by 18.2 (21.2%), 27.0 µg/m3 (28.9%), 10.5 µg/m3 (18.3%), 8.4 µg/m3 (44.2%), 13.1 µg/m3 (38.8%), and 0.3 mg/m3 (27.3%) respectively, when compared to the same periods during 2018-2019. We observed an increase in O3 concentration during the lockdown by 5.5 µg/m3 (10.4%), and a slight decrease after the lockdown by 3.4 µg/m3 (4.4%). As a result, there were 51.3 (95%CI: 32.2, 70.1) thousand fewer premature deaths (16.2 thousand during and 35.1 thousand after the lockdown), and 1066.8 (95%CI: 668.7, 1456.8) thousand fewer YLLs (343.3 thousand during and 723.5 thousand after the lockdown) than these in 2018-2019. Our findings suggest that the COVID-19 lockdown has caused substantial decreases in air pollutants except for O3, and that substantial human health benefits can be achieved when strict control measures for air pollution are taken to reduce emissions from vehicles and industries. Stricter tailored policy solutions of air pollution are urgently needed in China and other countries, especially in well-developed industrial regions, such as upgrading industry structure and promoting green transportation.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Sustainability ; 12(19), 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1229311

ABSTRACT

The prevention and control of COVID-19 in megacities is under large pressure because of tens of millions and high-density populations. The majority of epidemic prevention and control policies implemented focused on travel restrictions, which severely affected urban mobility during the epidemic. Considering the impacts of epidemic and associated control policies, this study analyzes the relationship between COVID-19, travel of residents, Point of Interest (POI), and social activities from the perspective of taxi travel. First, changes in the characteristics of taxi trips at different periods were analyzed. Next, the relationship between POIs and taxi travels was established by the Geographic Information System (GIS) method, and the spatial lag model (SLM) was introduced to explore the changes in taxi travel driving force. Then, a social activities recovery level evaluation model was proposed based on the taxi travel datasets to evaluate the recovery of social activities. The results demonstrated that the number of taxi trips dropped sharply, and the travel speed, travel time, and spatial distribution of taxi trips had been significantly influenced during the epidemic period. The spatial correlation between taxi trips was gradually weakened after the outbreak of the epidemic, and the consumption travel demand of people significantly decreased while the travel demand for community life increased dramatically. The evaluation score of social activity is increased from 8.12 to 74.43 during the post-epidemic period, which may take 3-6 months to be fully recovered as a normal period. Results and models proposed in this study may provide references for the optimization of epidemic control policies and recovery of public transport in megacities during the post-epidemic period.

17.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 638-650, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127285

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of COVID-19 and responsible for the current global pandemic. We and others have previously demonstrated that cats are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and can efficiently transmit the virus to naïve cats. Here, we address whether cats previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2 can be re-infected with SARS-CoV-2. In two independent studies, SARS-CoV-2-infected cats were re-challenged with SARS-CoV-2 at 21 days post primary challenge (DPC) and necropsies performed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-secondary challenge (DP2C). Sentinels were co-mingled with the re-challenged cats at 1 DP2C. Clinical signs were recorded, and nasal, oropharyngeal, and rectal swabs, blood, and serum were collected and tissues examined for histologic lesions. Viral RNA was transiently shed via the nasal, oropharyngeal and rectal cavities of the re-challenged cats. Viral RNA was detected in various tissues of re-challenged cats euthanized at 4 DP2C, mainly in the upper respiratory tract and lymphoid tissues, but less frequently and at lower levels in the lower respiratory tract when compared to primary SARS-CoV-2 challenged cats at 4 DPC. Viral RNA and antigen detected in the respiratory tract of the primary SARS-CoV-2 infected cats at early DPCs were absent in the re-challenged cats. Naïve sentinels co-housed with the re-challenged cats did not shed virus or seroconvert. Together, our results indicate that cats previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 can be experimentally re-infected with SARS-CoV-2; however, the levels of virus shed was insufficient for transmission to co-housed naïve sentinels. We conclude that SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats induces immune responses that provide partial, non-sterilizing immune protection against re-infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Reinfection/veterinary , Virus Shedding , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cats , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Reinfection/immunology , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Load
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 103: 617-623, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122329

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the time-varying transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in China, Wuhan City, and Guangdong province, and compare to that of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). METHODS: Data on COVID-19 cases in China up to 20 March 2020 was collected from epidemiological investigations or official websites. Data on SARS cases in Guangdong Province, Beijing, and Hong Kong during 2002-3 was also obtained. We estimated the doubling time, basic reproduction number (R0), and time-varying reproduction number (Rt) of COVID-19 and SARS. RESULTS: As of 20 March 2020, 80,739 locally acquired COVID-19 cases were identified in mainland China, with most cases reported between 20 January and 29 February 2020. The R0 value of COVID-19 in China and Wuhan was 5.0 and 4.8, respectively, which was greater than the R0 value of SARS in Guangdong (R0 = 2.3), Hong Kong (R0 = 2.3), and Beijing (R0 = 2.6). At the start of the COVID-19 epidemic, the Rt value in China peaked at 8.4 and then declined quickly to below 1.0 in one month. With SARS, the Rt curve saw fluctuations with more than one peak, the highest peak was lower than that for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has much higher transmissibility than SARS, however, a series of prevention and control interventions to suppress the outbreak were effective. Sustained efforts are needed to prevent the rebound of the epidemic in the context of the global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans
20.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2322-2332, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-838603

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and responsible for the current pandemic. Recent SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility studies in cats show that the virus can replicate in these companion animals and transmit to other cats. Here, we present an in-depth study of SARS-CoV-2 infection, disease and transmission in domestic cats. Cats were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 via intranasal and oral routes. One day post challenge (DPC), two sentinel cats were introduced. Animals were monitored for clinical signs, clinicopathological abnormalities and viral shedding. Postmortem examinations were performed at 4, 7 and 21 DPC. Viral RNA was not detected in blood but transiently in nasal, oropharyngeal and rectal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as various tissues. Tracheobronchoadenitis of submucosal glands with the presence of viral RNA and antigen was observed in airways of the infected cats. Serology showed that both, principals and sentinels, developed antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. All animals were clinically asymptomatic during the course of the study and capable of transmitting SARS-CoV-2 to sentinels. The results of this study are critical for understanding the clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 in a naturally susceptible host species, and for risk assessment.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Cat Diseases/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Disease Susceptibility , Pandemics/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , COVID-19 , Cat Diseases/pathology , Cat Diseases/virology , Cats , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
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