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2.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022991

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe unprecedented crisis during the fifth wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong placed a significant burden on the health care system. Therefore, the Hong Kong government advocated that individuals with no or mild COVID-19 symptoms should self-care at home. This study aimed to understand intrapersonal and interpersonal level factors that shaped self-care practices among home-quarantined individuals with COVID-19 during the peak of the pandemic. MethodsThis study used convenience and snowball sampling whereby a total of 30 semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted between March and April 2022. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze the data. ResultsFactors reported at the intrapersonal level included socioeconomic status and housing conditions, information and knowledge about COVID-19, long COVID, and psychological adjustments brought about by home quarantine. Factors identified at the interpersonal level included caregiving responsibilities, family relationships, and social support. ConclusionsFindings from this study identified a combination of intra and interpersonal level factors influenced an individual's self-care practices as a result of pandemic-induced quarantine. It was particularly concerning for those individuals in socially and economically deprived groups, where access to services was challenging. This study also raised awareness of the ineffectual and insufficient knowledge individuals held of self-medication and overall COVID-19 management. A key recommendation is developing family-based resilience programmes to support and empower vulnerable families to better cope with the realities of self-quarantine.

3.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022936

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) swept across the world and posed a serious threat to human health. Health and elderly care enterprises are committed to continuously improving people's health. With the rapid development of the digital economy, many enterprises have established digital product-service ecosystems after combining "Internet +," big data, cloud computing, and the big health industry. This paper uses the case study method to analyze the overseas market value mining mode of health and elderly care enterprises through in-depth research on leading health and elderly care enterprises. This study explores the value mining mode of the leading enterprise's global big health market using a cluster analysis and Bayesian model with the support of data on geographical characteristics, users' sleep habits, and national big health. This paper theoretically summarizes the successful cases of health and elderly care enterprises through digital transformation, which provides a useful reference for the intelligent transformation of the health and elderly care industry.

4.
Front Immunol ; 13:945930, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2022725

ABSTRACT

It is urgently needed to update the comprehensive analysis about the efficacy or effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines especially during the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron variants. In general, the current COVID-19 vaccines showed a cumulative efficacy of 66.4%, 79.7%, and 93.6% to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, symptomatic COVID-19, and severe COVID-19, respectively, but could not prevent the asymptomatic infection of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, the current COVID-19 vaccines could effectively prevent COVID-19 caused by the Delta variant although the incidence of breakthrough infection of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant increased when the intervals post full vaccination extended, suggesting the waning effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. In addition, one-dose booster immunization showed an effectiveness of 74.5% to prevent COVID-19 caused by the Delta variant. However, current COVID-19 vaccines could not prevent the infection of Omicron sub-lineage BA.1.1.529 and had about 50% effectiveness to prevent COVID-19 caused by Omicron sub-lineage BA.1.1.529. Furthermore, the effectiveness was 87.6% and 90.1% to prevent severe COVID-19 and COVID-19-related death caused by Omicron sub-lineage BA.2, respectively, while one-dose booster immunization could enhance the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines to prevent the infection and COVID-19 caused by Omicron sub-lineage BA.1.1.529 and sub-lineage BA.2. Two-dose booster immunization showed an increased effectiveness of 81.8% against severe COVID-19 caused by the Omicron sub-lineage BA.1.1.529 variant compared with one-dose booster immunization. The effectiveness of the booster immunization with RNA-based vaccine BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 was over 75% against severe COVID-19 more than 17 weeks after booster immunization whereas the heterogenous booster immunization showed better effectiveness than homologous booster immunization. In summary, the current COVID-19 vaccines could effectively protect COVID-19 caused by Delta and Omicron variants but was less effective against Omicron variant infection. One-dose booster immunization could enhance protection capability, and two-dose booster immunization could provide additional protection against severe COVID-19.

5.
Frontiers in public health ; 10:1001246, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009916

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.904550.].

6.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2009411

ABSTRACT

Background: Effective therapeutics and vaccines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are currently lacking because of the mutation and immune escape of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Based on the propagation characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, rapid and accurate detection of complete virions from clinical samples and the environment is critical for assessing infection risk and containing further COVID-19 outbreaks. However, currently applicable methods cannot achieve large-scale clinical application due to factors such as the high viral load, cumbersome virus isolation steps, demanding environmental conditions, and long experimental periods. In this study, we developed an immuno molecular detection method combining capture of the viral spike glycoprotein with monoclonal antibodies and nucleic acid amplification via quantitative reverse transcription PCR to rapidly and accurately detect complete virions. Results: After constructing a novel pseudovirus, screening for specific antibodies, and optimizing the detection parameters, the assay achieved a limit of detection of 9 × 102 transduction units/mL of viral titer with high confidence (~ 95%) and excellent stability against human serum and common virus/pseudovirus. The coefficients of variation were 1.0 ~ 2.0% for intra-assay and inter-assay analyses, respectively. Compared with reverse transcription-PCR, the immunomolecular method more accurately quantified complete virions. SARS-CoV-2/pseudovirus was more stable on plastic and paper compared with aluminum and copper in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus under different conditions. Complete virions were detected up to 96 h after they were applied to these surfaces (except for copper), although the titer of the virions was greatly reduced. Conclusion: Convenient, inexpensive, and accurate complete virus detection can be applied to many fields, including monitoring the infectivity of convalescent and post-discharge patients and assessing high-risk environments (isolation rooms, operating rooms, patient living environments, and cold chain logistics). This method can also be used to detect intact virions, including Hepatitis B and C viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, influenza, and the partial pulmonary virus, which may further improve the accuracy of diagnoses and facilitate individualized and precise treatments. Graphical : Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12951-022-01558-8.

7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(10), 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2007188

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19, Shenyang implemented strict household isolation measures, resulting in a sharp reduction in anthropogenic emission sources, providing an opportunity to explore the impact of human activities on air pollution. The period from January to April of 2020 was divided into normal period, blockade period and resumption period. Combined with meteorological and pollutant data, mathematical statistics and spatial analysis methods were used to compare with the same period of 2015–2019. The results showed that PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and O3 increased by 32.6%, 13.2%, 4.65% and 22.7% in the normal period, among which the western area changed significantly. During the blockade period, the concentration of pollutants decreased by 35.79%, 35.87%, 32.45% and -4.84%, of which the central area changed significantly. During the resumption period, the concentration of pollutants increased by 21.8%, 8.7%, 5.7% and -6.3%, and the area with the largest change was located in the western. During the blockade period, a heavy pollution occurred with PM2.5 as the main pollutant. The WRF-Chem model and the HYSPLIT model were used to reproduce the pollution occurrence process. The result showed that winds circulated as zonal winds during the pollution process at high altitudes. These winds were controlled by straight westerly and weak northwesterly airflows in front of the high pressure, and the ground was located behind the warm low pressure. Weather conditions were relatively stable. Thus, high temperatures (average > 10 ℃), high humidity (40%-60%) and slow wind (2 m/s) conditions prevailed for a long time in the Shenyang area. The unfavorable meteorological conditions lead to the occurrence of pollution. The backward trajectory showed that the potential source areas were concentrated in the urban agglomeration around Shenyang, and sporadic contributions came from North Korea.

8.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2005908

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveCOVID-19 has caused great loss of human life and livelihoods. The dissemination of health information in online social networks increased during the pandemic's quarantine. Older people are the most vulnerable group in sudden public health emergencies, and they have the disadvantage of infection rates and online search for health information. This study explores the relationship between the health risk perception and health information search behavior of older people in social networks, to help them make better use of the positive role of social networks in public health emergencies. MethodBased on the Risk Information Search and Processing model, and in the specific context of COVID-19, this study redefines health risk perception as a second-order construct of four first-order factors (perceived probability, perceived severity, perceived controllability, and perceived familiarity), and constructs a research model of the health risk perception and health information search behavior of older people. An online survey of people over 55 years old was conducted through convenience sampling in China from February 2020 to March 2020. ResultsA total of 646 older adults completed the survey. The structural equation model showed that health risk perception is a second-order factor (H1), that health risk perception has significant positive effects on health information search behavior (H2: beta = 0.470, T = 11.577, P < 0.001), and that health risk perception has significant positive effects on affective response (H3: beta = 0.536, T = 17.356, P < 0.001). In addition, affective response has a significant positive mediating effect on information sufficiency (H4: beta = 0.435, T = 12.231, P < 0.001), and information sufficiency has a significant positive mediating effect on health information search behavior (H5: beta = 0.136, T = 3.081, P = 0.002). ConclusionThe study results indicate that the health risk perception of older people during the COVID-19 outbreak not only directly affected their health information search behavior, but also had an indirect impact on their health information search behavior by affecting affective response and information sufficiency.

9.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 18:17-17, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1995365
10.
Nat Chem Biol ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1991635

ABSTRACT

The E3 ligase TRIM7 has emerged as a critical player in viral infection and pathogenesis. However, the mechanism governing the TRIM7-substrate association remains to be defined. Here we report the crystal structures of TRIM7 in complex with 2C peptides of human enterovirus. Structure-guided studies reveal the C-terminal glutamine residue of 2C as the primary determinant for TRIM7 binding. Leveraged by this finding, we identify norovirus and SARS-CoV-2 proteins, and physiological proteins, as new TRIM7 substrates. Crystal structures of TRIM7 in complex with multiple peptides derived from SARS-CoV-2 proteins display the same glutamine-end recognition mode. Furthermore, TRIM7 could trigger the ubiquitination and degradation of these substrates, possibly representing a new Gln/C-degron pathway. Together, these findings unveil a common recognition mode by TRIM7, providing the foundation for further mechanistic characterization of antiviral and cellular functions of TRIM7.

11.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(7): 912-918, 2022 Jul 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964140

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the common viral infection among the surveillance cases of fever respiratory syndrome (FRS) in nine provinces in China. Methods: The research data were obtained from nine provinces (Anhui, Beijing, Guangdong, Hebei, Hunan, Jilin, Shandong, Shaanxi and Xinjiang) in the "Infectious Disease Surveillance Technology Platform Information Management System" of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention from January 2009 to June 2021. Finally, 8 243 FRS cases with nucleic acid detection results of eight viruses [human influenza virus (HIFV), human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), human adenovirus (HAdV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human coronavirus (HCoV) and human Boca virus (HBoV)] were included in the study. The χ2 test/Fisher exact probability method was used to analyze the difference of virus detection rate in different age groups, regions and seasons. Results The M (Q1, Q3) age of 8 243 FRS cases was 4 (1, 18) years old, and 56.56% (4 662 cases) were children under 5 years old. Males accounted for 58.1% (4 792 cases) of all cases. All cases were from outpatient/emergency department (2 043 cases) and inpatient department (6 200 cases). The virus detection rates of FRS cases from high to low were HRSV, HIFV, HPIV, HRV, HAdV, HMPV, HCoV and HBoV. Two or more viruses were detected simultaneously in 524 cases, accounting for 15.66% of virus-positive cases. The difference of the virus detection rate in different age groups was statistically significant (all P values<0.05), and the virus detection rate in children<5 years old was higher (49.96%). The positive rate of any virus in south China was higher than that in north China (P<0.001). The virus-positive FRS cases were detected throughout the year. The detection rate of HRSV was higher in autumn and winter. The detection rate of HIFV was higher in winter. The detection rate of HMPV was higher in winter and spring. The detection rates of HPIV, HRV, HCoV and HBoV were higher in summer and autumn, while there was no significant difference in the detection rate of HAdV in different seasons. Compared with 2009-2019, the detection rate of any virus in 2020-2021 decreased from 41.37% to 37.86%. The detection rate of HIFV decreased sharply from 10.62% to 1.37%. The detection rate of HPIV decreased from 8.24% to 5.88%. The detection rate of HRV and HBoV increased from 5.43% and 1.79% to 9.67% and 3.19%, respectively. Conclusion: HRSV and HIFV infections are more common among FRS cases in nine provinces in China from 2009 to 2021, and the epidemiological characteristics of eight common respiratory viruses vary in different age groups, regions and seasons.


Subject(s)
Orthomyxoviridae , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
12.
Romanian Journal of Economic Forecasting ; 25(2):65-82, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958164

ABSTRACT

The outburst of the COVID-19 pandemic put the world in quarantine, tourism being the most severely affected of all major economic sectors. The paper aims to capture the impact of COVID-19 shock on the tourism industry and economic progress using a dynamic distribution lag model. The data from 2001 to 2019 along with the epidemic shock are used to produce forecasts for Germany, France, Spain, and Italy until 2030. The results reveal that Germany's "smokeless industry" will fall by 6.9%, which puts 1.09 million jobs at risk. The declining trends will continue until 2023;however, they will match the current trends in 2024. Similarly, the expected losses for France, Spain, and Italy during 2020 are 9.63%, 9.35%, and 9.34%, respectively. The lockdown situation will shrink the real output and dampen GDP per capita. The highest per capita losses of 7.31% are recorded for Spain, while individual outputs in Germany, France, and Italy will fall by 6.55%, 6.73% and 7.2%, respectively. Thus, public-private cooperation is required for responsible tourism after the travel bans are lifted. The Governments should develop and communicate post-pandemic policies for the tourism value chain, go for smart lockdowns in order to protect jobs, and uplift the real outputs. © 2022, Institute for Economic Forecasting. All rights reserved.

13.
China Journal of Leprosy and Skin Diseases ; 38(8):499-502, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1954980

ABSTRACT

Background: Eight pm on April 13, 2022,a10:1 mixed test tube was found to be positive in the COVID-19 nucleic acid test site set up outside the hospital. In order to identify the infected case and control the spread of COVID-19 rapidly, we conducted this emergency investigation. Methods: According to the National COVID-19 Control and Prevention Protocol (8th edition), Guideline on Emergency Response to COVID-19 Case Found in Hospital in Shandong Province, and the Emergency Response Plan for COVID-19 in our hospital, information reporting, hospitalblockading, potential COVID- 19 cases tracing, close contact screening, environmental sampling and disinfecting, COVID-19 nucleic acid testing and risk assessment were carried out by our team. Results: A female COVID-19 case aged 50 years was identified. She is aodd-jobber who works in the labour market near the hospital. The virus strain was sequenced as Omicron BA.2. A total of 65 close contacts was controlled in a hotel. The COVID-19 nucleic acid test results for all the staff of hospital, environmental samples were negative. The risk of COVID-19 spread was controlled and the hospital restarted of clinical activities as normal at 8 am on April 14 after blockaded for 12 hours. Inthe following 7 days, the staff of the hospital were tested for COVID-19 nucleic acid twice a day, and the results were negative. Then the testing frequency changed to once a day. Conclusion: Formulating detailed and feasible COVID-19 emergency response plans based on the requirements of the public documents and the actual conditions of the hospital, is useful to improve the efficiency of emergency response to COVID-19 cases and save time for control of COVID-19 spread and restart the clinical activities of hospital. © 2022 Shandong Yinbao Technology Co. Ltd. All Rights Reserved.

14.
AGING AND DISEASE ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939445
15.
Value in health : the journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research ; 25(7):S310-S310, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1904807
16.
J Hosp Infect ; 127: 26-33, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic, alcohol-based hand sanitizer dispensers (HSDs) have been installed in most public and clinical settings for hygiene purposes and convenient application. AIM: To determine whether sanitizer-tolerant bacterial pathogens can colonize HSDs, spreading diseases and antibiotic resistance. METHODS: Sampling was conducted from operational automatic HSDs, specifically the dispensing nozzle in direct contact with sanitizer. Culture-dependent cultivation of bacteria and MALDI-TOF were employed to assess microbiological contamination. Bacterial isolates were selected for rapid killing and biofilm eradication assays with alcohol treatment. Antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration assays were performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Virulence potential of bacterial isolates was evaluated in the Caenorhadbitis elegans infection model. FINDINGS: Nearly 50% of HSDs from 52 locations, including clinical settings, food industry, and public spaces, contain microbial contamination at 103-106 bacteria/mL. Bacterial identification revealed Bacillus cereus as the most frequent pathogen (29%), while Enterobacter cloacae was the only Gram-negative bacterial pathogen (2%). Selecting B. cereus and E. cloacae isolates for further evaluation, these isolates and associated biofilms were found to be tolerant to alcohol with survival up to 70%. They possessed resistance to various antibiotic classes, with higher virulence than laboratory strains in the C. elegans infection model. CONCLUSION: HSDs serve as potential breeding grounds for dissemination of pathogens and antibiotic resistance across unaware users. Proper HSD maintenance will ensure protection of public health and sustainable use of sanitizing alcohols, to prevent emergence of alcohol-resistant pathogens.

17.
PubMed; 2022.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-338328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying persistent cardiopulmonary symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 infection (post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 "PASC" or "Long COVID") remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary PASC using multimodality cardiovascular imaging including cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and ambulatory rhythm monitoring. METHODS: We performed CMR, CPET, and ambulatory rhythm monitoring among adults > 1 year after PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in the UCSF Long-Term Impact of Infection with Novel Coronavirus cohort (LIINC;NCT04362150 ) and correlated findings with previously measured biomarkers. We used logistic regression to estimate associations with PASC symptoms (dyspnea, chest pain, palpitations, and fatigue) adjusted for confounders and linear regression to estimate differences between those with and without symptoms adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Out of 120 participants in the cohort, 46 participants (unselected for symptom status) had at least one advanced cardiac test performed at median 17 months following initial SARS-CoV-2 infection. Median age was 52 (IQR 42-61), 18 (39%) were female, and 6 (13%) were hospitalized for severe acute infection. On CMR (n=39), higher extracellular volume was associated with symptoms, but no evidence of late-gadolinium enhancement or differences in T1 or T2 mapping were demonstrated. We did not find arrhythmias on ambulatory monitoring. In contrast, on CPET (n=39), 13/23 (57%) with cardiopulmonary symptoms or fatigue had reduced exercise capacity (peak VO 2 <85% predicted) compared to 2/16 (13%) without symptoms (p=0.008). The adjusted difference in peak VO 2 was 5.9 ml/kg/min lower (-9.6 to -2.3;p=0.002) or -21% predicted (-35 to -7;p=0.006) among those with symptoms. Chronotropic incompetence was the primary abnormality among 9/15 (60%) with reduced peak VO 2 . Adjusted heart rate reserve <80% was associated with reduced exercise capacity (OR 15.6, 95%CI 1.30-187;p=0.03). Inflammatory markers (hsCRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha) and SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels measured early in PASC were negatively correlated with peak VO 2 more than 1 year later. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiopulmonary symptoms and elevated inflammatory markers present early in PASC are associated with objectively reduced exercise capacity measured on cardiopulmonary exercise testing more than 1 year following COVID-19. Chronotropic incompetence may explain reduced exercise capacity among some individuals with PASC. Clinical Perspective: What is New?Elevated inflammatory markers in early post-acute COVID-19 are associated with reduced exercise capacity more than 1 year later.Impaired chronotropic response to exercise is associated with reduced exercise capacity and cardiopulmonary symptoms more than 1 year after SARS-CoV-2 infection.Findings on ambulatory rhythm monitoring point to perturbed autonomic function, while cardiac MRI findings argue against myocardial dysfunction and myocarditis. Clinical Implications: Cardiopulmonary testing to identify etiologies of persistent symptoms in post-acute sequalae of COVID-19 or "Long COVID" should be performed in a manner that allows for assessment of heart rate response to exercise. Therapeutic trials of anti-inflammatory and exercise strategies in PASC are urgently needed and should include assessment of symptoms and objective testing with cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

18.
Frontiers in Political Science ; 4, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1875427

ABSTRACT

Open science provides a bright light for global engineering and technology cooperation and promoting global sustainable development. The International Knowledge Centre for Engineering Sciences and Technology (IKCEST), a category II center under the auspices of UNESCO based in Beijing, aims at providing knowledge-based services at a global scale for policy-makers and engineering science and technology professionals in the world, with particular reference to the developing countries. IKCEST has established a platform with data resources and knowledge services at the core, which includes one general platform and several sub-platforms in its prioritized areas such as the disaster risk reduction (DRR), the intelligent city (ICITY), the engineering education (ENGEDU) and the silk road sciences and technology (SRST). Since the platform was put into operation, it has launched 38 knowledge applications (APPs), serving 3.26 million users from 220 countries and regions worldwide, and offered training for more than 18,000 persons from developing countries. In face of the pandemic, IKCEST set up a COVID-19 column which received positive feedback from users across the globe, the introductory video of which was publicized on the UNESCO official website. As a knowledge hub supporting global sustainable development goals (SDGs) and an open platform for global engineering initiatives, IKCEST will spare no efforts to make greater contributions to providing more tailored and valuable knowledge-based services for global users. Copyright © 2022 Chen, Liu, Ma, Zhang and Fang.

19.
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society ; 103(3):S83-S89, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1868832

ABSTRACT

Anthropogenic forcing has approximately halved the probability of 2020 June-July persistent heavy mei-yu rainfall event based on HadGEM3-GA6 simulations without considering the COVID-induced aerosol emission reduction.

20.
IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1788788

ABSTRACT

With the increase in inevitable large-scale crowd aggregation, disastrous pedestrian stampedes occurred with increasing frequency over the past decade. To prevent these tragedies, it is significant to assess crowd accident-risk (CAR) and identify high-risk areas to control crowd flow dynamically. The cost function of a conventional fluid dynamics model is improved with new items of Gaussian white noise and protection factor, considering both the abnormal pedestrian movements and social distance control due to epidemic, thereby to establish an improved crowd flow model comprehensively. Different from conventional density-based pedestrian aggregation-risk models, this study proposes a hybrid crowd accident-risk assessment (HCRA) model based on internal energy and information entropy. Using the HCRA model, we can consider not only crowd density but also the modulus and direction of a crowd velocity vector simultaneously. Then this study designs a framework to realize crowd accident risk assessment based on the improved crowd-flow model and HCRA model. To validate the proposed models, case studies of CAR assessment in the large-scale waiting hall of the Shanghai Hongqiao railway station are conducted. The pedestrian social control distance-range of 1.0 m-2.0 m under the COVID-19 epidemic situation is verified numerically. Moreover, a valuable result is that this social control distance-range can be shortened to 1.0 m-1.9 m without increase of crow accident-risk. Subsequently, the down-limit of accommodation-capacity of this large waiting hall can be enhanced to 10.54%under this epidemic. IEEE

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