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2.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540547

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors and microbiology associated with respiratory and bloodstream bacterial infection in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE, OVID Epub and EMBASE for published literature up to February 5, 2021. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies including at least 50 patients with COVID-19 in any healthcare setting. Assessment of risk of Bias: We used a validated 10-item risk of bias tool for disease prevalence Methods of data synthesis: The main outcome of interest was the proportion of COVID-19 patients with bloodstream and/or respiratory bacterial co-infection and secondary infection. We performed meta-regression to identify study population factors associated with bacterial infection including healthcare setting, age, comorbidities and COVID-19 medication. RESULTS: Out of 33,345 studies screened, 171 were included in the final analysis. Bacterial infection data were available from 171,262 patients. The prevalence of co-infection was 5.1% (95% CI: 3.6% to 7.1%) and secondary infection was 13.1% (95% CI: 9.8% to 17.2%). There was a higher odds of bacterial infection in studies with a higher proportion of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) (adjusted OR 18.8, 95% CI: 6.5 to 54.8). Female sex was associated with a lower odds of secondary infection (adjusted OR 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.97) but not co-infection (adjusted OR 1.05, 95% CI: 0.80 to 1.37). The most common organisms isolated included Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococci, and Klebsiella species. CONCLUSIONS: While the odds of respiratory and bloodstream bacterial infection are low in patients with COVID-19, meta-regression revealed potential risk factors for infection, including ICU setting and mechanical ventilation. The risk for secondary infection is substantially greater than the risk for co-infection in patients with COVID-19. Understanding predictors of co-infection and secondary infection may help to support improved antibiotic stewardship in patients with COVID-19. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (ID CRD42021241098).

3.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(11): ofab533, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528174

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has potentially impacted outpatient antibiotic prescribing. Investigating this impact may identify stewardship opportunities in the ongoing COVID-19 period and beyond. Methods: We conducted an interrupted time series analysis on outpatient antibiotic prescriptions and antibiotic prescriptions/patient visits in Ontario, Canada, between January 2017 and December 2020 to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on population-level antibiotic prescribing by prescriber specialty, patient demographics, and conditions. Results: In the evaluated COVID-19 period (March-December 2020), there was a 31.2% (95% CI, 27.0% to 35.1%) relative reduction in total antibiotic prescriptions. Total outpatient antibiotic prescriptions decreased during the COVID-19 period by 37.1% (95% CI, 32.5% to 41.3%) among family physicians, 30.7% (95% CI, 25.8% to 35.2%) among subspecialist physicians, 12.1% (95% CI, 4.4% to 19.2%) among dentists, and 25.7% (95% CI, 21.4% to 29.8%) among other prescribers. Antibiotics indicated for respiratory infections decreased by 43.7% (95% CI, 38.4% to 48.6%). Total patient visits and visits for respiratory infections decreased by 10.7% (95% CI, 5.4% to 15.6%) and 49.9% (95% CI, 43.1% to 55.9%). Total antibiotic prescriptions/1000 visits decreased by 27.5% (95% CI, 21.5% to 33.0%), while antibiotics indicated for respiratory infections/1000 visits with respiratory infections only decreased by 6.8% (95% CI, 2.7% to 10.8%). Conclusions: The reduction in outpatient antibiotic prescribing during the COVID-19 pandemic was driven by less antibiotic prescribing for respiratory indications and largely explained by decreased visits for respiratory infections.

4.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487661

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an effect on the incidence of infectious diseases and medical care. This study aimed to describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on community-level antibiotic use. METHODS: Using national antibiotic dispensing data from IQVIA's CompuScript database, this ecological study investigated antibiotic dispensing through community retail pharmacies in Canada from November 2014 to October 2020. Analyses were stratified by age, sex, prescription origin and approximate indication. RESULTS: Adjusting for seasonality, the national rate of antibiotic dispensing in Canada decreased by 26.5% (50.4 to 37.0 average prescriptions per 1000 inhabitants) during the first 8 months of the Canadian COVID-19 period (March to October 2020), compared with the pre-COVID-19 period. Prescribing rates in children ≤18 years decreased from 43.7 to 12.2 prescriptions per 1000 inhabitants in males (-72%) and from 46.8 to 14.9 prescriptions per 1000 inhabitants in females (-68%) in April 2020. Rates in adults ≥65 decreased from 74.9 to 48.8 prescriptions per 1000 inhabitants in males (-35%) and from 91.7 to 61.3 prescriptions per 1000 inhabitants in females (-33%) in May 2020. Antibiotic prescriptions from family physicians experienced a greater decrease than from surgeons and infectious disease physicians. Prescribing rates for antibiotics for respiratory indications decreased by 56% in May 2020 (29.2 to 12.8 prescriptions per 1000 inhabitants), compared with prescribing rates for urinary tract infections (9.4 to 7.8 prescriptions per 1000 inhabitants; -17%) and skin and soft tissue infections (6.4 to 5.2 prescriptions per 1000 inhabitants; -19%). DISCUSSION: The first 8 months of the COVID-19 pandemic reduced community antibiotic dispensing by 26.5% in Canada, compared with the marginal decrease of 3% in antibiotic consumption between 2015 and 2019. Further research is needed to understand the implications and long-term effects of the observed reductions on antibiotic use on antibiotic resistance in Canada.

6.
CMAJ ; 193(17): E592-E600, 2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nonpharmaceutical interventions remain the primary means of controlling severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) until vaccination coverage is sufficient to achieve herd immunity. We used anonymized smartphone mobility measures to quantify the mobility level needed to control SARS-CoV-2 (i.e., mobility threshold), and the difference relative to the observed mobility level (i.e., mobility gap). METHODS: We conducted a time-series study of the weekly incidence of SARS-CoV-2 in Canada from Mar. 15, 2020, to Mar. 6, 2021. The outcome was weekly growth rate, defined as the ratio of cases in a given week versus the previous week. We evaluated the effects of average time spent outside the home in the previous 3 weeks using a log-normal regression model, accounting for province, week and mean temperature. We calculated the SARS-CoV-2 mobility threshold and gap. RESULTS: Across the 51-week study period, a total of 888 751 people were infected with SARS-CoV-2. Each 10% increase in the mobility gap was associated with a 25% increase in the SARS-CoV-2 weekly case growth rate (ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.20-1.29). Compared to the prepandemic baseline mobility of 100%, the mobility threshold was highest in the summer (69%; interquartile range [IQR] 67%-70%), and dropped to 54% in winter 2021 (IQR 52%-55%); a mobility gap was present in Canada from July 2020 until the last week of December 2020. INTERPRETATION: Mobility strongly and consistently predicts weekly case growth, and low levels of mobility are needed to control SARS-CoV-2 through spring 2021. Mobility measures from anonymized smartphone data can be used to guide provincial and regional loosening and tightening of physical distancing measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Forecasting , Humans , Incidence , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Male , Physical Distancing , Public Health , Quarantine/trends
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e044644, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115143

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since its onset, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, with particularly severe outcomes in healthcare institutions and congregate settings. To mitigate spread, healthcare systems have been cohorting patients to limit contacts between uninfected patients and potentially infected patients or healthcare workers (HCWs). A major challenge in managing the pandemic is the presence of currently asymptomatic/presymptomatic individuals capable of transmitting the virus, who could introduce COVID-19 into uninfected cohorts. The optimal combination of personal protective equipment (PPE), testing and other approaches to prevent these events is unclear, especially in light of ongoing limited resources. METHODS: Using stochastic simulations with a susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered dynamic model, we quantified and compared the impacts of PPE use, patient and HCWs surveillance testing and subcohorting strategies. RESULTS: In the base case without testing or PPE, the healthcare system was rapidly overwhelmed, and became a net contributor to the force of infection. We found that effective use of PPE by both HCWs and patients could prevent this scenario, while random testing of apparently asymptomatic/presymptomatic individuals on a weekly basis was less effective. We also found that even imperfect use of PPE could provide substantial protection by decreasing the force of infection. Importantly, we found that creating smaller patient/HCW-interaction subcohorts can provide additional resilience to outbreak development with limited resources. CONCLUSION: These findings reinforce the importance of ensuring adequate PPE supplies even in the absence of testing and provide support for strict subcohorting regimens to reduce outbreak potential in healthcare institutions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment
8.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(4): 520-531, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009396

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The proportion of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 that are prescribed antibiotics is uncertain, and may contribute to patient harm and global antibiotic resistance. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of antibiotic prescribing in patients with COVID-19. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE, OVID Epub and EMBASE for published literature on human subjects in English up to June 9 2020. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials; cohort studies; case series with ≥10 patients; and experimental or observational design that evaluated antibiotic prescribing. PARTICIPANTS: The study participants were patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, across all healthcare settings (hospital and community) and age groups (paediatric and adult). METHODS: The main outcome of interest was proportion of COVID-19 patients prescribed an antibiotic, stratified by geographical region, severity of illness and age. We pooled proportion data using random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: We screened 7469 studies, from which 154 were included in the final analysis. Antibiotic data were available from 30 623 patients. The prevalence of antibiotic prescribing was 74.6% (95% CI 68.3-80.0%). On univariable meta-regression, antibiotic prescribing was lower in children (prescribing prevalence odds ratio (OR) 0.10, 95% CI 0.03-0.33) compared with adults. Antibiotic prescribing was higher with increasing patient age (OR 1.45 per 10 year increase, 95% CI 1.18-1.77) and higher with increasing proportion of patients requiring mechanical ventilation (OR 1.33 per 10% increase, 95% CI 1.15-1.54). Estimated bacterial co-infection was 8.6% (95% CI 4.7-15.2%) from 31 studies. CONCLUSIONS: Three-quarters of patients with COVID-19 receive antibiotics, prescribing is significantly higher than the estimated prevalence of bacterial co-infection. Unnecessary antibiotic use is likely to be high in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Drug Prescriptions , Drug Utilization , Age Factors , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male
9.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(12): 1622-1629, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-664356

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bacterial co-pathogens are commonly identified in viral respiratory infections and are important causes of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of bacterial infection in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 is not well understood. AIMS: To determine the prevalence of bacterial co-infection (at presentation) and secondary infection (after presentation) in patients with COVID-19. SOURCES: We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE, OVID Epub and EMBASE databases for English language literature from 2019 to April 16, 2020. Studies were included if they (a) evaluated patients with confirmed COVID-19 and (b) reported the prevalence of acute bacterial infection. CONTENT: Data were extracted by a single reviewer and cross-checked by a second reviewer. The main outcome was the proportion of COVID-19 patients with an acute bacterial infection. Any bacteria detected from non-respiratory-tract or non-bloodstream sources were excluded. Of 1308 studies screened, 24 were eligible and included in the rapid review representing 3338 patients with COVID-19 evaluated for acute bacterial infection. In the meta-analysis, bacterial co-infection (estimated on presentation) was identified in 3.5% of patients (95%CI 0.4-6.7%) and secondary bacterial infection in 14.3% of patients (95%CI 9.6-18.9%). The overall proportion of COVID-19 patients with bacterial infection was 6.9% (95%CI 4.3-9.5%). Bacterial infection was more common in critically ill patients (8.1%, 95%CI 2.3-13.8%). The majority of patients with COVID-19 received antibiotics (71.9%, 95%CI 56.1 to 87.7%). IMPLICATIONS: Bacterial co-infection is relatively infrequent in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The majority of these patients may not require empirical antibacterial treatment.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/microbiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Asia/epidemiology , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Data Management , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Respiratory Tract Infections , United States/epidemiology
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