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1.
Microbiology Australia ; : 4, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1799520

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, cases of atypical pneumonia were diagnosed in hospital patients in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. The disease, now known as COVID- I 9 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As case numbers increased and spread across the planet many companies scrambled to develop vaccines to control the infection and disease. Prior research on SARS-CoV-1, new vaccine technologies and unprecedented funding have allowed vaccines to be developed and approved in record time, without the usual pauses and bypassing any of the requirements of the vaccine approval process. This paper is a review of the current literature on some of the vaccines targeting SARS-CoV-2 and of the new technologies used to produce them.

2.
Microbiology Australia ; 42(3):102-103, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1665753
3.
Microbiology Australia ; : 3, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1406421
4.
Microbiology Australia ; : 5, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1243345

ABSTRACT

The extensive and on-going epidemiology studies of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic have raised interesting observations on statins reducing COVID-19 severity. In this review, literature is analysed to examine how statins affect COVID-19 and influenza A, another pandemic respiratory virus. This information could be useful to prevent or reduce disease severity caused by respiratory viruses.

5.
Microbiology Australia ; 42(1):10-12, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1223135

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is distinctly different from outbreaks caused by other coronaviruses: SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The differences in the rapid transmission and severity of human coronaviruses are due to the genetic composition of the virus. SARS-CoV-2 contains genes encoding non-structural proteins (NSPs), structural proteins, and accessory proteins. The NSPs are mainly involved in replication of the virus within the host and inhibition of the host defence system. Structural proteins are involved in viral entry and attachment to host cells, preservation of the core virion and elicit the majority of the immune response. The functions of the accessory proteins are largely unknown. Most focus has been given to structural proteins, especially the spike protein as the strongest vaccine candidate. However, the recent emergence of spike variants and their ability to rapidly transmit and escape neutralisation by vaccine-induced antibodies has threatened the global community. Meanwhile, recent studies of accessory proteins reveal their importance in viral pathogenesis. Hence, proper understanding of the functions of all unknown viral proteins is crucial to devise alternate antiviral strategies.

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