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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17353, 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36253495

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients hospitalized for COVID-19, complicating their clinical course and contributing to worse outcomes. Animal studies show that adenosine, inosine and guanosine protect the kidney against some types of AKI. However, until now there was no evidence in patients supporting the possibility that abnormally low kidney levels of adenosine, inosine and guanosine contribute to AKI. Here, we addressed the question as to whether these renoprotective purines are altered in the urine of COVID-19 patients with AKI. Purines were measured by employing ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with stable-isotope-labeled internal standards for each purine of interest. Compared with COVID-19 patients without AKI (n = 23), COVID-19 patients with AKI (n = 20) had significantly lower urine levels of adenosine (P < 0.0001), inosine (P = 0.0008), and guanosine (P = 0.0008) (medians reduced by 85%, 48% and 61%, respectively) and lower levels (P = 0.0003; median reduced by 67%) of the 2nd messenger for A2A and A2B adenosine receptors, i.e., 3',5'-cAMP. Moreover, in COVID-19 patients with AKI, urine levels of 8-aminoguanine (endogenous inhibitor of inosine and guanosine metabolism) were nearly abolished (P < 0.0001). In contrast, the "upstream" precursors of renoprotective purines, namely 5'-AMP and 5'-GMP, were not significantly altered in COVID-19 patients with AKI, suggesting defective conversion of these precursors by CD73 (converts 5'-AMP to adenosine and 5'-GMP to guanosine). These findings imply that an imbalance in renoprotective purines may contribute to AKI in COVID-19 patients and that pharmacotherapy targeted to restore levels of renoprotective purines may attenuate the risk of AKI in susceptible patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Adenosine , Adenosine Monophosphate , Animals , Guanosine/metabolism , Guanosine Monophosphate , Inosine/metabolism , Purines/metabolism
3.
J Infect Dis ; 226(5): 766-777, 2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35267024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Excessive complement activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the mechanisms leading to this response remain unclear. METHODS: We measured plasma levels of key complement markers, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA and antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal human common cold coronaviruses (CCCs) in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 of moderate (n = 18) and critical severity (n = 37) and in healthy controls (n = 10). RESULTS: We confirmed that complement activation is systemically increased in patients with COVID-19 and is associated with a worse disease outcome. We showed that plasma levels of C1q and circulating immune complexes were markedly increased in patients with severe COVID-19 and correlated with higher immunoglobulin (Ig) G titers, greater complement activation, and higher disease severity score. Additional analyses showed that the classical pathway was the main arm responsible for augmented complement activation in severe patients. In addition, we demonstrated that a rapid IgG response to SARS-CoV-2 and an anamnestic IgG response to the nucleoprotein of the CCCs were strongly correlated with circulating immune complex levels, complement activation, and disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that early, nonneutralizing IgG responses may play a key role in complement overactivation in severe COVID-19. Our work underscores the urgent need to develop therapeutic strategies to modify complement overactivation in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e630-e644, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35179197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We studied humoral responses after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination across varying causes of immunodeficiency. METHODS: Prospective study of fully vaccinated immunocompromised adults (solid organ transplant [SOT], hematologic malignancy, solid cancers, autoimmune conditions, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) versus nonimmunocompromised healthcare workers (HCWs). The primary outcome was the proportion with a reactive test (seropositive) for immunoglobulin G to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptor-binding domain. Secondary outcomes were comparisons of antibody levels and their correlation with pseudovirus neutralization titers. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with seropositivity. RESULTS: A total of 1271 participants enrolled: 1099 immunocompromised and 172 HCW. Compared with HCW (92.4% seropositive), seropositivity was lower among participants with SOT (30.7%), hematological malignancies (50.0%), autoimmune conditions (79.1%), solid tumors (78.7%), and HIV (79.8%) (P < .01). Factors associated with poor seropositivity included age, greater immunosuppression, time since vaccination, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, and vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer) or adenovirus vector vaccines versus messenger RNA (mRNA)-1273 (Moderna). mRNA-1273 was associated with higher antibody levels than BNT162b2 or adenovirus vector vaccines after adjusting for time since vaccination, age, and underlying condition. Antibody levels were strongly correlated with pseudovirus neutralization titers (Spearman r = 0.89, P < .0001), but in seropositive participants with intermediate antibody levels, neutralization titers were significantly lower in immunocompromised individuals versus HCW. CONCLUSIONS: Antibody responses to COVID-19 vaccines were lowest among SOT and anti-CD20 monoclonal recipients, and recipients of vaccines other than mRNA-1273. Among those with intermediate antibody levels, pseudovirus neutralization titers were lower in immunocompromised patients than HCWs. Additional SARS-CoV-2 preventive approaches are needed for immunocompromised persons, which may need to be tailored to the cause of immunodeficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e815-e821, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507235

ABSTRACT

A chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cell therapy recipient developed severe coronavirus disease 2019, intractable RNAemia, and viral replication lasting >2 months. Premortem endotracheal aspirate contained >2 × 1010 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA copies/mL and infectious virus. Deep sequencing revealed multiple sequence variants consistent with intrahost virus evolution. SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cell-mediated immunity were minimal. Prolonged transmission from immunosuppressed patients is possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
7.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(5): 665-669, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We had previously conducted a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled, partial cross-over trial showing that 12 weeks of dipyridamole decreased CD8 T-cell activation among treated HIV(+) individuals by increasing extracellular adenosine levels. METHODS: In this substudy, rectosigmoid biopsies were obtained from 18 participants (9 per arm), to determine whether 12 weeks of dipyridamole affects mucosal immune cells. Participants randomized to placebo were then switched to dipyridamole for 12 weeks while the treatment arm continued dipyridamole for another 12 weeks. We evaluated T-cell frequencies and plasma markers of microbial translocation and intestinal epithelial integrity. Linear regression models on log-transformed outcomes were used for the primary 12-week analysis. RESULTS: Participants receiving dipyridamole had a median 70.2% decrease from baseline in regulatory T cells (P = 0.007) and an 11.3% increase in CD8 T cells (P = 0.05). There was a nonsignificant 10.80% decrease in plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein levels in the dipyridamole arm compared with a 9.51% increase in the placebo arm. There were no significant differences in plasma levels of ß-D-glucan. In pooled analyses, there continued to be a significant decrease in regulatory T cells (-44%; P = 0.004). There was also a trend for decreased CD4 and CD8 T-cell activation. CONCLUSION: Increasing extracellular adenosine levels using dipyridamole in virally suppressed HIV (+) individuals on antiretroviral therapy can affect regulation of gut mucosal immunity.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Dipyridamole/pharmacology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/drug effects , Adenosine/metabolism , Biopsy , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Cross-Over Studies , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Male , Middle Aged
8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(4): ofaa099, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322603

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate whether 100% antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence in men with HIV (MWH) is associated with normalization of concentrations of biomarkers of inflammation and immune activation compared with HIV-uninfected men. METHODS: We analyzed person-visits with available biomarker data from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) among MWH receiving ART with HIV RNA <50 copies/mL and among HIV-uninfected men. Self-reported adherence was classified as 100% if no missed ART doses in the past 4 days were reported. We evaluated associations between ART adherence and concentrations of 24 serum biomarkers compared with HIV-uninfected visits using a generalized gamma model, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Person-visits (2565 from MWH reporting 100% ART adherence and 1588 from HIV-uninfected men) from a total of 1469 men were included in the analysis. Serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R), IL-1ß, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2), and CCL14 from person-visits among MWH who reported 100% adherence were similar to HIV-uninfected person-visits. Comparatively higher concentrations of 11 biomarkers and lower concentrations of 7 biomarkers were observed in person-visits from MWH who reported 100% ART adherence, compared with HIV-uninfected person-visits. CONCLUSIONS: Although MWH with virologic suppression who reported 100% ART adherence exhibited overall higher concentrations of biomarkers of inflammation and immune activation compared with HIV-uninfected men, some biomarker concentrations were similar in both groups. These findings suggest that optimal ART adherence could have clinical implications beyond achieving and sustaining viral suppression.

9.
AIDS ; 34(1): 15-24, 2020 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634201

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated frequencies of T cells with high PD-1 expression (PD-1) before and after long-term effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), and determined if frequencies on-ART correlated positively with measures of HIV persistence and negatively with HIV-specific responses. METHODS: We enrolled individuals who started ART during chronic infection and had durable suppression of viremia for at least 4 years (N = 99). We assessed PD-1 T-cell frequencies at timepoints pre-ART and on-ART using flow cytometry, and evaluated how frequencies on-ART are associated with measures of HIV persistence, HIV-specific immune responses, and immune activation levels. RESULTS: Pre-ART, PD-1 CD4 T cells correlated positively with viremia and negatively with CD4 T-cell count. At year 1 on-ART, %PD-1 CD4 T cells decreased but then remained stable at 4 and 6-15 years on-ART, whereas %PD-1 CD8 T cells on-ART remained similar to pre-ART. PD-1 CD4 T cells correlated positively with HIV DNA pre-ART and on-ART, and with CD4 T-cell activation on-ART. PD-1 CD4 T cells negatively correlated with HIV Gag-specific and Env-specific T-cell responses but not with CMV-specific or EBV-specific responses. PD-1 CD8 T cells trended towards a negative correlation with responses to Gag and Env, but not to CMV and EBV. CONCLUSION: PD-1 T cells persist in blood despite prolonged suppression on ART, correlate with HIV DNA levels, and are associated with lower HIV-specific T-cell responses but not CMV-specific or EBV-specific responses, suggesting that these cells are HIV-specific. The findings support evaluating PD-1 blockade strategies for their effect on HIV persistence and HIV-specific immunity.


Subject(s)
CD4 Lymphocyte Count , HIV Infections/immunology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Viral Load
10.
J Infect Dis ; 221(10): 1598-1606, 2020 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282542

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adenosine is a potent immunoregulatory nucleoside produced during inflammatory states to limit tissue damage. We hypothesized that dipyridamole, which inhibits cellular adenosine uptake, could raise the extracellular adenosine concentration and dampen chronic inflammation associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1. METHODS: Virally suppressed participants receiving antiretroviral therapy were randomized 1:1 for 12 weeks of dipyridamole (100 mg 4 times a day) versus placebo capsules. All participants took open-label dipyridamole during weeks 12-24. Study end points included changes in markers of systemic inflammation (soluble CD163 and CD14, and interleukin 6) and levels of T-cell immune activation (HLA-DR+CD38+). RESULTS: Of 40 participants who were randomized, 17 dipyridamole and 18 placebo recipients had baseline and week 12 data available for analyses. There were no significant changes in soluble markers, apart from a trend toward decreased levels of soluble CD163 levels (P = .09). There was a modest decrease in CD8+ T-cell activation (-17.53% change for dipyridamole vs +13.31% for placebo; P = .03), but the significance was lost in the pooled analyses (P = .058). Dipyridamole also reduced CD4+ T-cell activation (-11.11% change; P = .006) in the pooled analyses. In post hoc analysis, detectable plasma dipyridamole levels were associated with higher levels of inosine, an adenosine surrogate, and of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. CONCLUSION: Dipyridamole increased extracellular adenosine levels and decreased T-cell activation significantly among persons with HIV-1 infection receiving virally suppressive therapy.


Subject(s)
Dipyridamole/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/etiology , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Chronic Disease , Double-Blind Method , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1 , Humans , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Young Adult
11.
J Virol ; 93(5)2019 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541848

ABSTRACT

Eliciting highly functional CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against a broad range of epitopes will likely be required for immunotherapeutic control of HIV-1 infection. However, the combination of CTL exhaustion and the ability of HIV-1 to rapidly establish CTL escape variants presents major hurdles toward this goal. Our previous work highlighted the use of monocyte-derived, mature, high-interleukin-12 (IL-12)-producing type 1 polarized dendritic cells (MDC1) to selectively induce more potent effector CTLs derived from naive, rather than memory, CD8+ T cell precursors isolated from HIV-1-positive participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. In this study, we report that these highly stimulatory antigen-presenting cells also express enhanced levels of the coinhibitory molecule programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), the ligand for PD-1, which is further upregulated upon subsequent stimulation with the CD4+ T helper cell-derived factor CD40L. Interestingly, blocking the PD-1 signaling pathway during MDC1 induction of HIV-1-specific CTL responses inhibited the priming, activation, and differentiation of naive CD8+ T cells into effector T cells expressing high levels of T-box transcription factor (T-bethi) and eomesodermin (Eomes+). In contrast, PD-1 blockade enhanced the overall magnitude of memory HIV-specific CTL responses and reversed the exhausted memory phenotype from a T-betlow/Eomes+ to a T-bethi/Eomes+ phenotype. These results indicate that the PD-L1/PD-1 signaling pathway has a previously unappreciated dual role in the induction and regulation of HIV-1-specific CTL immunity, which is greatly determined by the context and differentiation stage of the responsive CD8+ T cells.IMPORTANCE Targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint axis with signaling inhibitors has proven to be a powerful immunotherapeutic strategy to enhance the functional quality and survival of existing antigen-specific effector T cells. However, our study demonstrates that the context and timing of PD-1 signaling in T cells greatly impact the outcome of the effector response. In particular, we show that PD-1 activation plays a positive role during the DC-mediated initiation stage of the primary T cell response, while it serves as an inhibitory mechanism during the effector phase of the response. Therefore, caution should be taken in the design of therapies that include targeting of the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway in order to avoid potential negative impacts on the induction of de novo T cell responses.


Subject(s)
B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Adult , CD40 Ligand/metabolism , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Immune Evasion/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Interleukin-12 Subunit p35/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors , Signal Transduction/immunology
12.
AIDS ; 32(17): 2547-2556, 2018 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379686

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Ongoing HIV replication while receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may reduce survival. Viremia copy-years (VCY) has shown improved mortality risk prediction over single time-point viral load measures. However, the timing of a patient's viral load history most associated with later mortality has not been studied. Here we determined the optimal duration and temporality of viral load history for predicting mortality. DESIGN: Survival analysis among HIV-positive men who initiated cART in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (1995-2015). METHODS: VCY measures were derived from area-under-the-viral load-curve. The overall VCY based upon the complete post-cART viral load history was compared with 20 VCYs derived from viral loads assessed during different shorter time periods (the most recent 1-10 years and initial 1-10 years following cART initiation) for associations with mortality. RESULTS: Each 10-fold increase in VCYs based on the most recent 3-8 years was significantly associated with 23-26% decrease in survival times, a magnitude of effect greater than that of the most recent viral load (16%). These associations were independent of CD4 cell count and single time-point viral loads. In addition, the degree of pre-cART immunodeficiency did not affect the mortality prognostic value of VCY based on viral loads in the most recent 3 years. Conversely, the overall VCY and VCYs based on viral loads immediately following cART initiation were not independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSION: Among cART-treated men, VCY based upon viral loads in the recent 3 years (six viral loads) has a mortality prognostic value greater than that of the overall VCY and single time-point viral loads, making the former a more feasible measure for use.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/mortality , Viral Load , Viremia/drug therapy , Viremia/mortality , Adult , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Time Factors , Viremia/virology
13.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 5(10): ofy242, 2018 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30364428

ABSTRACT

Background: Broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bnMAbs) may promote clearance of HIV-1-expressing cells through antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. We evaluated the effect of the CD4-binding site bnMAb, VRC01, on measures of HIV-1 persistence in chronically infected individuals. Methods: A5342 was a phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study. Participants on effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) were randomized to receive 2 infusions of VRC01 (40 mg/kg) at entry and week 3, and 2 infusions of placebo (saline) at weeks 6 and 9; or 2 infusions of placebo at entry and week 3, and 2 infusions of VRC01 at weeks 6 and 9. Results: Infusion of VRC01 was safe and well tolerated. The median fold-change in the cell-associated HIV-1 RNA/DNA ratio from baseline to week 6 was 1.12 and 0.83 for the VRC01 and placebo arms, respectively, with no significant difference between arms (P = .16). There were no significant differences in the proportions with residual plasma viremia ≥1 copies/mL or in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin-induced virus production from CD4+ T cells between arms (both P > .05). Conclusions: In individuals with chronic HIV-1 infection on ART, VRC01 infusions were safe and well tolerated but did not affect plasma viremia, cellular HIV-1 RNA/DNA levels, or stimulated virus production from CD4+ T cells. ClinicalTrialsgov Identifier: NCT02411539.

14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 67(11): 1712-1719, 2018 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29590326

ABSTRACT

Background: Herpes zoster (HZ) risk is increased in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. Live attenuated zoster vaccine (ZV) reduces HZ incidence and severity in adults; safety and immunogenicity data in HIV-infected adults are limited. Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in HIV-infected adults virally suppressed on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Participants, stratified by CD4+ count (200-349 or ≥350 cells/µL), were randomized 3:1 to receive ZV or placebo on day 0 and week 6. The primary endpoint was serious adverse event or grade 3/4 signs/symptoms within 6 weeks after each dose. Immunogenicity (varicella zoster virus [VZV]-specific glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay responses) was assessed at 6 and 12 weeks postvaccination. Results: Of 395 participants (296 ZV vs 99 placebo), 84% were male, 47% white, 29% black, and 22% Hispanic; median age was 49 years. Safety endpoints occurred in 15 ZV and 2 placebo recipients (5.1% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.9%-8.2%] vs 2.1% [95% CI, .3%-7.3%]; P = .26). Injection site reactions occurred in 42% of ZV (95% CI, 36.3%-47.9%) vs 12.4% of placebo recipients (95% CI, 6.6%-20.6%) (P < .001). Week 12 median natural log VZV antibody titer was higher for ZV (6.30 [Q1, Q3, 5.64, 6.96]) vs placebo (5.48 [Q1, Q3, 4.63, 6.44]; P < .001) overall and in the high CD4+ stratum (P = .003). VZV antibody titers were similar after 1 or 2 ZV doses. Polymerase chain reaction-confirmed HZ occurred in 2 participants (1 ZV; 1 placebo); none was vaccine strain related. Conclusions: Two doses of ZV in HIV-infected adults suppressed on ART with CD4+ counts ≥200 cells/µL were safe and immunogenic. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT00851786.


Subject(s)
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , HIV Infections/immunology , Herpes Zoster Vaccine/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Sustained Virologic Response , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Double-Blind Method , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
15.
J Infect Dis ; 218(2): 234-238, 2018 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29529230

ABSTRACT

Data on the relationship of antiretroviral exposure to measures of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence are limited. To address this gap, multiple viral, immunologic, and pharmacologic measures were analyzed from individuals with sustained virologic suppression on therapy (median 7 years) in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5321 cohort. Among 110 participants on tenofovir-(TFV)-disoproxil-fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC)-containing regimens, we found no significant correlation between hair concentrations of individual antiretrovirals (ARVs) in the regimen and measures of HIV persistence (plasma HIV-1 RNA by single copy assay, cell-associated-DNA, cell-associated RNA) or soluble markers of inflammation. These findings suggest that higher systemic ARV exposure may not impact HIV persistence or inflammation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/analysis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/pathology , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Hair/chemistry , Inflammation/pathology , Viral Load , Adult , Aged , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage , Cytokines/blood , DNA, Viral/blood , Female , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/blood , Sustained Virologic Response , Young Adult
16.
AIDS ; 31(15): 2085-2094, 2017 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28723708

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the subclinical shedding of six different herpesviruses in antiretroviral drug-treated HIV-positive [HIV(+)] MSM, and determined how this is associated with markers of inflammation and immune activation. METHODS: We obtained blood, semen, throat washing, urine, and stool from 15 antiretroviral-treated HIV-1-infected MSM with CD4 T-cell reconstitution, and 12 age-matched HIV-negative [HIV (-)] MSM from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study at four timepoints over 24 weeks to measure DNA levels of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6), and HHV8. T-cell activation and plasma levels of soluble markers of inflammation and activation were also measured at the corresponding timepoints. RESULTS: HIV(+) participants had a trend for higher total herpesvirus shedding rate. HIV(+) participants also had a significantly higher rate of shedding EBV and CMV compared with the HIV(-) group. Herpesvirus shedding was mostly seen in throat washings. In the HIV(+) group, herpesvirus shedding rate inversely correlated with plasma levels of interferon γ-induced protein 10 and soluble CD163. CMV DNA levels negatively correlated with levels of T-cell activation. There was a trend for a positive correlation between EBV shedding rate and plasma soluble CD14. HHV6 shedding rate negatively correlated with plasma levels of interleukin-6, soluble CD163, and interferon gamma-induced protein 10. Correlations were not observed among HIV(-) individuals. CONCLUSION: Among treated HIV-infected MSM, there are higher subclinical shedding rates of some herpesviruses that occur in different body compartments and negatively correlate with levels of inflammation and immune activation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asymptomatic Infections , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Herpesviridae Infections/virology , Herpesviridae/isolation & purification , Virus Shedding , Adult , Antigens, CD/blood , Body Fluids/virology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Cytokines/blood , Feces/virology , HIV Infections/pathology , Herpesviridae/classification , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pharynx/virology , Prospective Studies
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 63(12): 1661-1667, 2016 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27660234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals exhibit residual inflammation regardless of virologic suppression. We evaluated whether suboptimal adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is associated with greater residual inflammation than optimal adherence, despite virologic suppression. METHODS: Longitudinal self-reported cART adherence data and serum concentrations of 24 biomarkers of inflammation and immune activation were measured at the same study visit in HIV RNA-suppressed (<50 copies/mL) HIV-infected men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study from 1998 to 2009. Associations between dichotomized 6-month (<100% vs 100%) and categorized 4-day (<85%, 85%-99%, and 100%) cART adherence with biomarker concentrations were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 912 men provided 2816 person-visits with documented plasma HIV RNA suppression. In adjusted models, person-visits at which <100% cART 6-month adherence was reported had higher concentrations of interleukin 2, 6, and 10, interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor α, and C-reactive protein than person-visits at which 100% cART adherence (P < .05) was reported. These same differences were observed in person-visits reporting <85% versus 100% 4-day cART adherence, but not in visits reporting 85%-99% versus 100% cART adherence. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, tumor necrosis factor α remained significantly higher (11% increase; P < .001) in person-visits at which <100% adherence was reported. CONCLUSIONS: Higher concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers were observed among HIV RNA-suppressed men who reported <100% cART adherence than among more adherent men. Residual HIV replication (ie, below the limit of detection), more likely among men with suboptimal adherence, is a plausible mechanism. Whether improving cART adherence could affect residual inflammation and associated morbidity and mortality rates should be investigated.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Inflammation , Medication Adherence , Adult , Biomarkers , Drug Therapy, Combination , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/pathology , HIV Infections/virology , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Self Report , Viral Load
18.
J Infect Dis ; 213(9): 1400-9, 2016 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26647281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We report the results of a phase I/II, open-label, single-arm clinical trial to evaluate the safety and anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) efficacy of an autologous dendritic cell (DC)-based HIV-1 vaccine loaded with autologous HIV-1-infected apoptotic cells. METHODS: Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive individuals were enrolled, and viremia was suppressed by ART prior to delivery of 4 doses of DC-based vaccine. Participants underwent treatment interruption 6 weeks after the third vaccine dose. The plasma HIV-1 RNA level 12 weeks after treatment interruption was compared to the pre-ART (ie, baseline) level. RESULTS: The vaccine was safe and well tolerated but did not prevent viral rebound during treatment interruption. Vaccination resulted in a modest but significant decrease in plasma viremia from the baseline level (from 4.53 log10 copies/mL to 4.27 log10 copies/mL;P= .05). Four of 10 participants had a >0.70 log10 increase in the HIV-1 RNA load in plasma following vaccination, despite continuous ART. Single-molecule sequencing of HIV-1 RNA in plasma before and after vaccination revealed increases in G>A hypermutants in gag and pol after vaccination, which suggests cytolysis of infected cells. CONCLUSIONS: A therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine based on DCs loaded with apoptotic bodies was safe and induced T-cell activation and cytolysis, including HIV-1-infected cells, in a subset of study participants. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT00510497.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines/immunology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Dendritic Cells , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV-1/immunology , Adult , Apoptosis , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/transplantation , Dendritic Cells/virology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Transplantation, Autologous , Viral Load/immunology
19.
J Virol ; 89(18): 9616-30, 2015 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26178986

ABSTRACT

UNLABELLED: The role of the adenosine (ADO) pathway in human immunodeficiency virus type 1/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1/SIV) infection remains unclear. We compared SIVsab-induced changes of markers related to ADO production (CD39 and CD73) and breakdown (CD26 and adenosine deaminase) on T cells from blood, lymph nodes, and intestine collected from pigtailed macaques (PTMs) and African green monkeys (AGMs) that experience different SIVsab infection outcomes. We also measured ADO and inosine (INO) levels in tissues by mass spectrometry. Finally, we assessed the suppressive effect of ADO on proinflammatory cytokine production after T cell receptor stimulation. The baseline level of both CD39 and CD73 coexpression on regulatory T cells and ADO levels were higher in AGMs than in PTMs. Conversely, high INO levels associated with dramatic increases in CD26 expression and adenosine deaminase activity were observed in PTMs during chronic SIV infection. Immune activation and inflammation markers in the gut and periphery inversely correlated with ADO and directly correlated with INO. Ex vivo administration of ADO significantly suppressed proinflammatory cytokine production by T cells in both species. In conclusion, the opposite dynamics of ADO pathway-related markers and contrasting ADO/INO levels in species with divergent proinflammatory responses to SIV infection support a key role of ADO in controlling immune activation/inflammation in nonprogressive SIV infections. Changes in ADO levels predominately occurred in the gut, suggesting that the ADO pathway may be involved in sparing natural hosts of SIVs from developing SIV-related gut dysfunction. Focusing studies of the ADO pathway on mucosal sites of viral replication is warranted. IMPORTANCE: The mechanisms responsible for the severe gut dysfunction characteristic of progressive HIV and SIV infection in humans and macaques are not completely elucidated. We report that ADO may play a key role in controlling immune activation/inflammation in nonprogressive SIV infections by limiting SIV-related gut inflammation. Conversely, in progressive SIV infection, significant degradation of ADO occurs, possibly due to an early increase of ADO deaminase complexing protein 2 (CD26) and adenosine deaminase. Our study supports therapeutic interventions to offset alterations of this pathway during progressive HIV/SIV infections. These potential approaches to control chronic immune activation and inflammation during pathogenic SIV infection may prevent HIV disease progression.


Subject(s)
5'-Nucleotidase/immunology , Adenosine/immunology , Antigens, CD/immunology , Apyrase/immunology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/immunology , Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chronic Disease , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Macaca nemestrina , Male , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/pathology
20.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 10(1): 55-60, 2015 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25389805

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-specific T cell responses are likely to have an important role in HIV cure strategies that aim for long-lasting viral control without antiretroviral therapy (ART). An important issue in enhancing virus-specific T cell responses is whether timing of ART can influence their magnitude and breadth. RECENT FINDINGS: Early ART is associated with lower T cell activation, preservation of T cell numbers, smaller DNA and RNA reservoir size, and, in a single study (VISCONTI), control of plasma viremia after treatment interruption. The prevention of T cell destruction by early ART is associated with relatively low anti-HIV CD8⁺ T cell responses but stronger CD4⁺ T helper function. The relatively lower CD8⁺T cell response, which is presumably due to rapid lowering of HIV antigen burden after early ART, appears sufficient to control residual viral replication as well as viral rebound upon treatment interruption. SUMMARY: Available evidence of starting ART during acute or early HIV infection has shown benefit in both virologic and immunologic parameters despite the lower HIV-specific CD8⁺ T cell responses observed. Encouraging as this is, more extensive data are necessary to evaluate its role in combination with immunotherapeutic and latency activation strategies that are being assessed in various HIV cure-related studies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Anti-Retroviral Agents/pharmacology , CD4-CD8 Ratio , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , HIV Infections/virology , Humans
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