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Journal of Anesthesia, Analgesia and Critical Care ; 2(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999514


Background COVID‑19 is a novel cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that leads patients to intensive care unit (ICU) admission requiring invasive ventilation, who consequently are at risk of developing of ventilator‑associated pneumonia (VAP). The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, antimicrobial resistance, risk factors, and outcome of VAP in ICU COVID-19 patients in invasive mechanical ventilation (MV). Methods Observational prospective study including adult ICU admissions between January 1, 2021, and June 31, 2021, with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis were recorded daily, including demographics, medical history, ICU clinical data, etiology of VAPs, and the outcome. The diagnosis of VAP was based on multi-criteria decision analysis which included a combination of radiological, clinical, and microbiological criteria in ICU patients in MV for at least 48 h. Results Two hundred eighty-four COVID-19 patients in MV were admitted in ICU. Ninety-four patients (33%) had VAP during the ICU stay, of which 85 had a single episode of VAP and 9 multiple episodes. The median time of onset of VAP from intubation were 8 days (IQR, 5–13). The overall incidence of VAP was of 13.48 episodes per 1000 days in MV. The main etiological agent was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (39.8% of all VAPs) followed by Klebsiella spp. (16.5%);of them, 41.4% and 17.6% were carbapenem resistant, respectively. Patients during the mechanical ventilation in orotracheal intubation (OTI) had a higher incidence than those in tracheostomy, 16.46 and 9.8 episodes per 1000-MV day, respectively. An increased risk of VAP was reported in patients receiving blood transfusion (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.26–3.59, p = 0.005) or therapy with Tocilizumab/Sarilumab (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.12–3.84, p = 0.02). The pronation and PaO2/FiO2 ratio at ICU admission were not significantly associated with the development of VAPs. Furthermore, VAP episodes did not increase the risk of death in ICU COVID-19 patients. Conclusions COVID-19 patients have a higher incidence of VAP compared to the general ICU population, but it is similar to that of ICU ARDS patients in the pre-COVID-19 period. Interleukin-6 inhibitors and blood transfusions may increase the risk of VAP. The widespread use of empirical antibiotics in these patients should be avoided to reduce the selecting pressure on the growth of multidrug-resistant bacteria by implementing infection control measures and antimicrobial stewardship programs even before ICU admission. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s44158-022-00065-4.

J Clin Med ; 11(9)2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820313


(1) Background: Although COVID-19 is largely a respiratory disease, it is actually a systemic disease that has a wide range of effects that are not yet fully known. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, predictors and outcome of non-hepatic hyperammonemia (NHH) in COVID-19 in intensive care unit (ICU); (2) Methods: This is a 3-month prospective observational study in a third-level COVID-19 hospital. The authors collected demographic, clinical, severity score and outcome data. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of NHH; (3) Results: 156 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the ICU. The incidence of NHH was 12.2% (19 patients). The univariate analysis showed that invasive mechanical ventilation had a 6.6-fold higher risk (OR 6.66, 95% CI 0.86-51.6, p = 0.039) for NHH, while in the multiple regression analysis, there was a 7-fold higher risk for NHH-but it was not statistically significant (OR 7.1, 95% CI 0.90-56.4, p = 0.062). Demographics, clinical characteristics and mortality in the ICU at 28 days did not show a significant association with NHH. (4) Conclusions: The incidence of NHH in ICU COVID-19 patients was not low. NHH did not appear to significantly increase mortality, and all patients with non-hepatic hyperammonemia were successfully treated without further complications. However, the pathogenesis of NHH in ICU patients with COVID-19 remains a topic to be explored with further research.

J Clin Med ; 10(23)2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566682


(1) Background: COVID-19 is a novel cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Indeed, with the increase of ARDS cases due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there has also been an increase in the incidence of cases with pneumothorax (PNX) and pneumomediastinum (PNM). However, the incidence and the predictors of PNX/PMN in these patients are currently unclear and even conflicting. (2) Methods: The present observational study analyzed the incidence of barotrauma (PNX/PNM) in COVID-19 patients with moderate-severe ARDS hospitalized in a year of the pandemic, also focusing on the three waves occurring during the year, and treated with positive-pressure ventilation (PPV). We collected demographic and clinical data. (3) Results: During this period, 40 patients developed PNX/PNM. The overall incidence of barotrauma in all COVID-19 patients hospitalized in a year was 1.6%, and in those with moderate-severe ARDS in PPV was 7.2% and 3.8 events per 1000 positive-pressure ventilator days. The incidence of barotrauma in moderate-severe ARDS COVID-19 patients during the three waves was 7.8%, 7.4%, and 8.7%, respectively. Treatment with noninvasive respiratory support alone was associated with an incidence of barotrauma of 9.1% and 2.6 events per 1000 noninvasive ventilator days, of which 95% were admitted to the ICU after the event, due to a worsening of respiratory parameters. The incidence of barotrauma of ICU COVID-19 patients in invasive ventilation over a year was 5.8% and 2.7 events per 1000 invasive ventilator days. There was no significant difference in demographics and clinical features between the barotrauma and non-barotrauma group. The mortality was higher in the barotrauma group (17 patients died, 47.2%) than in the non-barotrauma group (170 patients died, 37%), although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.429). (4) Conclusions: The incidence of PNX/PNM in moderate-severe ARDS COVID-19 patients did not differ significantly between the three waves over a year, and does not appear to be very different from that in ARDS patients in the pre-COVID era. The barotrauma does not appear to significantly increase mortality in COVID-19 patients with moderate-severe ARDS if protective ventilation strategies are applied. Attention should be paid to the risk of barotrauma in COVID-19 patients in noninvasive ventilation because the event increases the probability of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and intubation.

J Clin Med ; 10(15)2021 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335120


BACKGROUND: The benefits and timing of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) COVID-19 patients are still controversial. PDT is considered a high-risk procedure for the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to healthcare workers (HCWs). The present study analyzed the optimal timing of PDT, the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing PDT, and the safety of HCWs performing PDT. METHODS: Of the 133 COVID-19 patients who underwent PDT in our ICU from 1 April 2020 to 31 March 2021, 13 patients were excluded, and 120 patients were enrolled. A trained medical team was dedicated to the PDT procedure. Demographic, clinical history, and outcome data were collected. Patients who underwent PDT were stratified into two groups: an early group (PDT ≤ 12 days after orotracheal intubation (OTI) and a late group (>12 days after OTI). An HCW surveillance program was also performed. RESULTS: The early group included 61 patients and the late group included 59 patients. The early group patients had a shorter ICU length of stay and fewer days of mechanical ventilation than the late group (p < 0.001). On day 7 after tracheostomy, early group patients required fewer intravenous anesthetic drugs and experienced an improvement of the ventilation parameters PaO2/FiO2 ratio, PEEP, and FiO2 (p < 0.001). No difference in the case fatality ratio between the two groups was observed. No SARS-CoV-2 infections were reported in the HCWs performing the PDTs. CONCLUSIONS: PDT was safe and effective for COVID-19 patients since it improved respiratory support parameters, reduced ICU length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation, and optimized the weaning process. The procedure was safe for all HCWs involved in the dedicated medical team. The development of standardized early PDT protocols should be implemented, and PDT could be considered a first-line approach in ICU COVID-19 patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation.