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Anal Chem ; 94(4): 2126-2133, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634451


SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic practices broadly involve either quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based nucleic amplification of viral sequences or antigen-based tests such as lateral flow assays (LFAs). Reverse transcriptase-qPCR can detect viral RNA and is the gold standard for sensitivity. However, the technique is time-consuming and requires expensive laboratory infrastructure and trained staff. LFAs are lower in cost and near real time, and because they are antigen-based, they have the potential to provide a more accurate indication of a disease state. However, LFAs are reported to have low real-world sensitivity and in most cases are only qualitative. Here, an antigen-based electrochemical aptamer sensor is presented, which has the potential to address some of these shortfalls. An aptamer, raised to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, was immobilized on a low-cost gold-coated polyester substrate adapted from the blood glucose testing industry. Clinically relevant detection levels for SARS-CoV-2 are achieved in a simple, label-free measurement format using sample incubation times as short as 15 min on nasopharyngeal swab samples. This assay can readily be optimized for mass manufacture and is compatible with a low-cost meter.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dielectric Spectroscopy , Electrodes , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1831): 20200228, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284967


The goal of achieving enhanced diagnosis and continuous monitoring of human health has led to a vibrant, dynamic and well-funded field of research in medical sensing and biosensor technologies. The field has many sub-disciplines which focus on different aspects of sensor science; engaging engineers, chemists, biochemists and clinicians, often in interdisciplinary teams. The trends which dominate include the efforts to develop effective point of care tests and implantable/wearable technologies for early diagnosis and continuous monitoring. This review will outline the current state of the art in a number of relevant fields, including device engineering, chemistry, nanoscience and biomolecular detection, and suggest how these advances might be employed to develop effective systems for measuring physiology, detecting infection and monitoring biomarker status in wild animals. Special consideration is also given to the emerging threat of antimicrobial resistance and in the light of the current SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, zoonotic infections. Both of these areas involve significant crossover between animal and human health and are therefore well placed to seed technological developments with applicability to both human and animal health and, more generally, the reviewed technologies have significant potential to find use in the measurement of physiology in wild animals. This article is part of the theme issue 'Measuring physiology in free-living animals (Part II)'.

Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Synthetic Biology/methods , Wearable Electronic Devices , Zika Virus Infection/veterinary , Zoonoses/diagnosis , Animals , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Animals, Wild/virology , Biomarkers/analysis , Cell Engineering/methods , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Nanotechnology/instrumentation , Nanotechnology/methods , Point-of-Care Testing , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(4): 504-506, 2020 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-783522


We note that intussusception was likely associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection in 2 infants in Wuhan and London. The intussusception was reduced by enemas in Wuhan; the outcome was fatal. The intussusception was not reduced by enemas in London and required surgery; the outcome was favorable.

Coronavirus Infections/complications , Enema , Intussusception/therapy , Intussusception/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Infant , Intussusception/diagnostic imaging , London , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2