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1.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(3): 319-324, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235516

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infection caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) originated in China in December 2020 and declared pandemic by WHO. This coronavirus mainly spreads through the respiratory tract and enters cells through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough, and fatigue. Gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea, anorexia, and vomiting) may be present in 50% of patients and may be associated with worst prognosis. Other risk factors are older age, male gender, and underlying chronic diseases. Mitigation measures are essential to reduce the number of people infected. Hospitals are a place of increased SARS-CoV-2 exposure. This has implications in the organization of healthcare services and specifically endoscopy departments. Patients and healthcare workers safety must be optimized in this new reality. Comprehension of COVID-19 gastrointestinal manifestations and implications of SARS-CoV-2 in the management of patients with gastrointestinal diseases, under or not immunosuppressant therapies, is essential. In this review, we summarized the latest research progress and major societies recommendations regarding the implications of COVID-19 in gastroenterology, namely the adaptations that gastroenterology/endoscopy departments and professionals must do in order to optimize the provided assistance, as well as the implications that this infection will have, in particularly vulnerable patients such as those with chronic liver disease and inflammatory bowel disease under or not immunosuppressant therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Gastroenterologists , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Liver Diseases/therapy , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Clinical Decision-Making , Decision Support Techniques , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/adverse effects , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/immunology , Occupational Health , Patient Safety , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
2.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(11): 1460-1461, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323189
3.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257130

ABSTRACT

A 60-year-old female was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia. After initial remission with chemotherapy, she relapsed and underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Two months later, she presented to emergency department with watery diarrhea, abdominal pain and fever. She also tested positive for SARS-CoV2 on nasopharyngeal swab by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and both cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were detected in peripheral blood. Flexible sigmoidoscopy showed diffuse edema, erythema and loss of vascular pattern with interspersed segments of mucosal denudation and exudate and bBiopsies revealed epithelial cell apoptosis, diffuse crypt atrophy and dropout, with ulceration and both CMV and EBV were detected in colon mucosa, consistent with acute severe gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease complicated by CMV and EBV superinfection. Despite starting therapy with methylprednisolone, ganciclovir and rituximab,she presented unfavorable evolution and died after 5 weeks.

4.
J Gastrointestin Liver Dis ; 32(1): 7-9, 2023 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270160
7.
World J Hepatol ; 13(10): 1367-1377, 2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524347

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) changed dramatically all priorities on medical society and created several challenges for clinicians caring for patients with liver diseases. We performed a comprehensive review about how COVID-19 can affect the liver, the influence of liver diseases on the risk of developing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and COVID-19 severity and also some strategies to overcome all the challenges clinicians have to face in the management of patients with liver diseases in a period of time when all the focus turned on COVID-19. We analyze the relationship between COVID-19 and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, viral hepatitis, autoimmune liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver transplantation, as well as the approach to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.

9.
J Autoimmun ; 125: 102741, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482678

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is still raging across the world and vaccination is expected to lead us out of this pandemic. Although the efficacy of the vaccines is beyond doubt, safety still remains a concern. We report a case of a 65-year-old woman who experienced acute severe autoimmune hepatitis two weeks after receiving the first dose of Moderna-COVID-19 vaccine. Serum immunoglobulin G was elevated and antinuclear antibody was positive (1:100, speckled pattern). Liver histology showed a marked expansion of the portal tracts, severe interface hepatitis and multiple confluent foci of lobular necrosis. She started treatment with prednisolone, with a favorable clinical and analytical evolution. Some recent reports have been suggested that COVID-19 vaccination can lead to the development of autoimmune diseases. It is speculated that the vaccine can disturb self-tolerance and trigger autoimmune responses through cross-reactivity with host cells. Therefore, healthcare providers must remain vigilant during mass COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/etiology , Jaundice/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Antibodies, Antinuclear/blood , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , Bilirubin/blood , Female , Fibrosis/pathology , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/immunology , Humans , Jaundice/diagnosis , Liver/enzymology , Middle Aged , Molecular Mimicry/immunology , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
11.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20200723.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-1450469
12.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 114(1): 50, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329242

ABSTRACT

A 54-year-old male with a past medical history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and diastolic heart failure, was admitted due to COVID-19 pneumonia. Respiratory failure gradually deteriorated and the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU), where mechanical ventilation and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) were started. On the second day in the ICU, he went into septic shock due to ventilator-associated pneumonia. Five days later, the patient had new-onset melena and laboratory data showed a hemoglobin level of 7.8 g/dL. He required blood transfusions and vasopressor requirements increased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Ischemia , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 52(7): 1243-1244, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751797
16.
Endosc Int Open ; 9(1): E76-E86, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010106

ABSTRACT

Background and study aims The impact of COVID-19 mitigation measures on stent placement procedures has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 mitigation measures on upper stenting during SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, as well as the use of personal protection equipment (PPE) and risk of contamination for patients and staff. Patients and methods This was a multicenter, retrospective study of consecutive patients who underwent stent placement for upper gastrointestinal obstruction during the second half of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak period in comparison to same period one year before. Results A total of 29 stents were placed for upper gastrointestinal obstruction during the study period, corresponding to an increase of 241 % comparing to the same period in 2019 (n = 12). No significant major differences were found between the two time periods regarding patients' baseline characteristics, post-stenting management and number of staff involved in stent placement. Fellows' involvement was significantly lower in 2020 compared to 2019 (21 % vs 67 %; P  = 0.01). The majority of procedures were performed using FFP2 /FFP3 mask (76 %), protective eyewear (86 %), two pairs of gloves (65 %), hairnet (76 %) and full disposable gowns (90 %). One patient tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 after the procedure. None of the medical staff involved in stenting procedures developed COVID-19 14 days after procedure. Conclusion Upper gastrointestinal stenting increased during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak period, which could be related to yearly variation on the number of procedures or reflect a change of oncologic treatment practice during COVID times.

17.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 55(1): 1-11, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940825

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the least deadly but most infectious coronavirus strain transmitted from wild animals. It may affect many organ systems. Aim of the current guideline is to delineate the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the liver. Asymptomatic aminotransferase elevations are common in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease. Its pathogenesis may be multifactorial. It may involve primary liver injury and indirect effects such as "bystander hepatitis," myositis, toxic liver injury, hypoxia, and preexisting liver disease. Higher aminotransferase elevations, lower albumin, and platelets have been reported in severe compared with mild COVID-19. Despite the dominance of respiratory disease, acute on chronic liver disease/acute hepatic decompensation have been reported in patients with COVID-19 and preexisting liver disease, in particular cirrhosis. Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) has a higher risk of respiratory disease progression than those without MAFLD. Alcohol-associated liver disease may be severely affected by COVID-19-such patients frequently have comorbidities including metabolic syndrome and smoking-induced chronic lung disease. World Gastroenterology Organization (WGO) recommends that interventional procedures such as endoscopy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography should be performed in emergency cases or when they are considered strictly necessary such as high risk varices or cholangitis. Hepatocellular cancer surveillance may be postponed by 2 to 3 months. A short delay in treatment initiation and non-surgical approaches should be considered. Liver transplantation should be restricted to patients with high MELD scores, acute liver failure and hepatocellular cancer within Milan criteria. Donors and recipients should be tested for SARS-CoV-2 and if found positive donors should be excluded and liver transplantation postponed until recovery from infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Liver Diseases/therapy , Liver Diseases/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Prognosis , Risk Factors
18.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 52(2): 267-275, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-936652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative pathogen of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), became a global threat to human health. Liver impairment has been frequently reported as a common manifestation, although its clinical significance is still unclear, particularly in patients with underlying chronic liver disease (CLD). AIMS: To summarise the changes in liver function tests during SARS-CoV-2 infection and the impact of COVID-19 in patients with underlying CLD. METHODS: A literature review using online database PubMed was done using the search terms "SARS-CoV-2", "COVID-19", "liver", "cirrhosis" and "liver transplantation". RESULTS: COVID-19 is frequently associated with different degrees of abnormal liver function tests, most notably transaminases, which are usually transitory and of mild degree. Available evidence suggests that liver injury may result from direct pathogenic effect by the virus, systemic inflammation or toxicity from commonly used drugs in this subset of patients. SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is associated with minimal or no increase in liver enzymes, thus the presence of abnormal liver function tests should trigger evaluation for underlying liver diseases. Although it seems that patients with CLD are not at greater risk for acquiring the infection, those with cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases or liver transplant may have a greater risk for severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal liver function tests during the course of COVID-19 are common, though clinically significant liver injury is rare. Further research is needed focusing on the effect of existing liver-related comorbidities on treatment and outcome of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Liver Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Humans , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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