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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 735658, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512062

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Situation Room is a physical or virtual space where experts systematically analyze information to characterize a health situation, especially during emergencies. Decision-making processes are made toward solving health needs and promoting collaboration among institutions and social sectors. This paper presents the context and circumstances that led the University of Guadalajara (UdeG) to install a local health situation room (HSR) to address the COVID-19 pandemic at this institution based in the state of Jalisco, Mexico, a narrative is also made of its working processes and some of its results. Methods: The design of this situation room for COVID-19 was based on the methodology established by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)/WHO. This local-type situation room was installed on February 12, 2020. The health problem was characterized, and strategic lines, objectives, and goals were established; the first analysis was derived from an action plan deployed at the UdeG. The strategic lines were situational diagnosis, preventive actions, and containment strategies. Results: The situation room influenced the activities of the UdeG before the epidemic cases started in the state. One of the actions with the greatest impact was developing a mathematical model for predicting COVID-19 cases. Subsequently, new models have been developed according to the epidemiological evolution of the disease, helping manage the epidemic in the state. Another important result was the early closing of face-to-face university activities, reducing contagion risks and the mobility of more than 310,000 students, faculty, and administrative personnel throughout Jalisco. Conclusions: A consequence of the closure was that the confinement generated by the pandemic was the change to virtual meetings from April 2020 to date; but at the same time, this working format was a strength, since it influenced the decision of the university board to change all the academic activities to virtual format before other educational, economic, and social activities in the state did. By April 2020, the situation room transcended its institutional boundaries and was invited to participate at the Jalisco State's Health Committee. Its recommendations have helped to maintain the state with one of Mexico's lowest COVID-19 incidence and mortality rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374394

ABSTRACT

Developing countries have reported lower molecular diagnostic testing levels due to a lack of resources. Therefore, antibody tests represent an alternative to detect exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and analyze possible risk factors. We aimed to describe and compare the clinical-epidemiological characteristics and the quality of food intake in Mexican individuals with a positive or negative test to antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. We carried out antibody tests and applied a survey to 1799 individuals; 42% were positive, and diabetes was more prevalent in these cases (p < 0.01). No differences were identified in the blood type nor influenza vaccination between groups. Coughing, respiratory distress, muscle pain, joint pain, and anosmia were the most prevalent symptoms among seropositive cases (p < 0.0001). Food intake quality was similar in both groups, except for the most consumed type of fat (p = 0.006). In conclusion, this study supports the association of diabetes as a principal risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Mexican population. The results do not support previous associations between blood group or influenza vaccination as protective factors against SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, frequent consumption of polyunsaturated fats is highlighted as a new possible associated factor with COVID-19, which more studies should corroborate as with all novel findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Comorbidity , Eating , Humans , Mass Screening , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 672562, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268237

ABSTRACT

Background: Several variants of the SARS-CoV-2 have been documented globally during the current COVID-19 pandemic. The N501Y, 69-70del, K417N, and E484K SARS-CoV-2 mutations have been documented among the most relevant due to their potential pathogenic biological effects. This study aimed to design, validate, and propose a fast real-time RT-qPCR assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 mutations with possible clinical and epidemiological relevance in the Mexican population. Methods: Targeting spike (S) gene mutations of SARS-CoV-2 (N501Y, 69-70del, K417N, and E484K), specific primers, and probes for three specific quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) assays were designed, and validated using Sanger sequencing. These assays were applied in clinical samples of 1060 COVID-19 patients from Jalisco Mexico. Results: In silico analyzes showed high specificity of the three assays. Amplicons of samples were confirmed through sequencing. The screening of samples of COVID-19 patients allowed the identification of the E484K mutation in nine individuals and the identification of P.2 Brazilian variant in Mexico. Conclusion: This work provides low-cost RT-qPCR assays for rapid screening and molecular surveillance of mutations with potential clinical impact. This strategy allowed the detection of E484K mutation and P.2 variant for the first time in samples from the Mexican population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Brazil , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Mutation , Pandemics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
4.
J Clin Med ; 10(11)2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D are known to be beneficial in viral infections; it is also known that its deficiency is associated with a prognosis more critical of Coronavirus Disease 2019. This study aimed to determine baseline vitamin D serum concentrations and the effects of its supplementation in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic Coronavirus Disease 2019 outpatients. METHODS: 42 outpatients were included, 22 of which received a supplement of 10,000 IU of vitamin D3 for 14 days; the remaining 20 outpatients were designated as a control group. Serum levels of transferrin, ferritin, vitamin D, and D-dimer were measured at baseline in both groups. After 14 days, serum levels of total vitamin D were determined in the supplemented group. RESULTS: At baseline, only 19% of infected outpatients had vitamin D levels corresponding to sufficiency. All outpatients with vitamin D insufficiency had at least one symptom associated with the disease, while only 75% of patients with symptoms presented sufficiency. On the seventh and fourteenth day of follow-up, the supplemented group presented fewer symptoms with respect to those non-supplemented. A vitamin D3 dose of 10,000 IU/daily for 14 days was sufficient to raise vitamin D serum concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D appear to be linked to the development of symptoms in positive outpatients. Vitamin D supplementation could have significant benefits in the Western Mexican population.

5.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(4)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063435

ABSTRACT

Currently, the world is under a pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2), responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19). This disease is characterized by a respiratory syndrome that can progress to an acute respiratory distress syndrome. To date, limited effective therapies are available for the prevention or treatment of COVID­19; therefore, it is necessary to propose novel treatment options with immunomodulatory effects. Vitamin D serves functions in bone health and has been recently reported to exert protective effects against respiratory infections. Observational studies have demonstrated an association between vitamin D deficiency and a poor prognosis of COVID­19; this is alarming as vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem. In Latin America, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is unknown, and currently, this region is in the top 10 according to the number of confirmed COVID­19 cases. Supplementation with vitamin D may be a useful adjunctive treatment for the prevention of COVID­19 complications. The present review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the potential immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D in the prevention of COVID­19 and sets out vitamin D recommendations for the Latin American population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Bone and Bones , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Latin America , Prevalence , Renin-Angiotensin System
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