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Cureus ; 14(10): e29939, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145084

ABSTRACT

Introduction Olfactory dysfunction (OD) is often a devaluated sensorial affection. The objective evaluation of this dysfunction doesn't evaluate its compromise in patients' daily life. Therefore, the use of a Portuguese-validated tool is of uttermost importance to objectively scale the pathology presented by these patients. Objective We aim to validate and cross-culturally adapt the Olfactory Disorders Questionnaire (ODQ) in the Portuguese language. Methods A prospective study was carried out to evaluate and compare 56 consecutive patients who had olfactory disorders and 54 asymptomatic controls. A cross-cultural adaptation process was taken into account in order to transform the original English tool into a valid Portuguese version. We explored the psychometric properties of the European-Portuguese version of the Portuguese version of ODQ (PT-ODQ) concerning its internal consistency, reproducibility, feasibility, and discriminatory validity. Results Cronbach alpha for the tool was 0.924 showing strong internal consistency. We also found a statistically significant difference in PT-ODQ between patients with olfactory disorders and patients without olfactory disorders, according to the Mann-Whitney test. Conclusions The PT-ODQ seems to be a valid tool for assessing the individual effect of olfactory disorders on patients' quality of life and, therefore, could be applied in olfactory disorders research and daily practice.

2.
ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec ; : 1-9, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098087

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To date, little is known about predisposing factors for persistent COVID-19-induced olfactory dysfunction (pCIOD). The objective was to determine whether olfactory cleft (OC) measurements associate with pCIOD risk. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three subgroups were recruited: group A included patients with pCIOD, group B included patients without olfactory dysfunction following SARS-CoV-2 infection (ntCIOD), and group C consisted in controls without past history of SARS-CoV-2 infection (noCOVID-19). Olfactory perception threshold (OPT) and visual analog scale for olfactory impairment (VAS-olf) were obtained. OC measurements were obtained through computed tomography scans. Results were subsequently compared. RESULTS: A total of 55 patients with a mean age of 39 ± 10 years were included. OPT was significantly lower in pCIOD patients (group A: 4.2 ± 2.1 vs. group B: 12.3 ± 1.8 and group C: 12.2 ± 1.5, p < 0.001). VAS-olf was significantly higher in pCIOD (group A: 6 ± 2.6 vs. group B: 1.7 ± 1.6 and group C: 1.6 ± 1.5, p < 0.001). OC length was significantly higher in group A (42.8 ± 4.6) compared to group B (39.7 ± 3.4, p = 0.047) and C (39.8 ± 4, p = 0.037). The odd of pCIOD occurring after COVID-19 infection increased by 21% (95% CI [0.981, 1.495]) for a one unit (mm) increase in OC length. The odd of pCIOD occurring was 6.9 times higher when OC length >40 mm. CONCLUSION: Longer OC may be a predisposing factor for pCIOD. This study is expected to encourage further research on OC morphology and its impact on olfactory disorders.

3.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; : 34894221111093, 2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: So far, no original studies explored non-randomized, standardized protocols for COVID-19 associated olfactory dysfunction. The main objective was to determine the efficacy of a new protocol for post-COVID olfactopathy while assessing the benefit of adding adjuvant therapies to olfactory training. METHODS: Patients suffering from long-lasting post-COVID-19 olfactory dysfunction were evaluated. A non-randomized protocol based on individual nasal endoscopy findings and patient's preferences was applied. Patients were assigned for olfactory training alone or olfactory training + adjuvant therapy. Participants performed olfactory objective and subjective evaluations at first consultation and 3 months after treatment, and results were compared. RESULTS: A total of 47 patients were enrolled. All groups showed significant improvement in olfactory thresholds at 3-month follow-up suggesting protocol effectiveness (olfactory training group alone showed a mean threshold difference of 2.9, P < .001; Olfactory training + Topical Corticosteroid showed a mean threshold difference of 4, P = .006; Olfactory training + Topical Corticosteroid + Vitamin B complex showed a mean threshold difference of 4.4, P = .006; Olfactory training + Intranasal Vitamin A and E showed a mean threshold difference of 4.4, P < .001). Olfactory training alone showed lower mean olfactory threshold improvement, when compared to patients undergoing olfactory training + adjuvant therapy (olfactory training alone mean improvement 2.9 ± 2.3 vs olfactory training + adjuvants mean improvement 4.3 ± 2.458, P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the first studies to demonstrate results in the treatment of post-COVID-19 persistent olfactory impairment. A customized approach based on endoscopy findings and patient's preferences may be a valid option for the management of persistent post-COVID-19 olfactory disorder. Adjuvant therapy could be considered in addition to olfactory training, but further studies are needed in order to confirm their effectiveness in this setting. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2c (outcomes research).

4.
Parkinsons Dis ; 2021: 5534282, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183402

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To overcome travel restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic, consumer-based technology was rapidly deployed to the smartphones of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) participating in a 12-month exercise trial. The aim of the project was to determine the feasibility of utilizing a combined synchronous and asynchronous self-administered smartphone application to characterize PD symptoms. METHODS: A synchronous video virtual visit was completed for the administration of virtual Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III (vMDS-UPDRS III). Participants asynchronously completed a mobile application consisting of a measure of upper extremity bradykinesia (Finger Tapping Test) and information processing. RESULTS: Twenty-three individuals completed the assessments. The mean vMDS-UPDRS III was 23.65 ± 8.56 points. On average, the number of taps was significantly greater for the less affected limb, 97.96 ± 17.77 taps, compared to the more affected, 89.33 ± 18.66 taps (p = 0.025) with a significantly greater number of freezing episodes for the more affected limb (p < 0.05). Correlation analyses indicated the number of errors and the number of freezing episodes were significantly related to clinical ratings of vMDS-UPDRS III bradykinesia (Rho = 0.44, p < 0.01; R = 0.43, p < 0.01, resp.) and finger tapping performance (Rho = 0.31, p = 0.03; Rho = 0.32, p = 0.03, resp.). Discussion. The objective characterization of bradykinesia, akinesia, and nonmotor function and their relationship with clinical disease metrics indicate smartphone technology provides a remote method of characterizing important aspects of PD performance. While theoretical and position papers have been published on the potential of telemedicine to aid in the management of PD, this report translates the theory into a viable reality.

5.
Neuromodulation ; 24(2): 331-336, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917754

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a well-established therapy for the management of patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. Patients implanted with DBS require life-long management of the medical device as well as medications. Patients are often challenged to frequently visit the specialized DBS centers and such challenges are aggravated depending on geography, socioeconomic factors, and support systems. We discuss the need for digital health solutions to overcome these barriers to better and safely take care of patients, especially in the current COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of the literature was conducted for technology and logistics necessary in forming a digital health program. RESULTS: Digital health encounters can take place in both a synchronous and asynchronous manner. Factors involving patients include cognitive capacity, physical safety, physical capacity, connectivity, and technological security. Physician factors include examining the patient, system diagnostics, and adjusting stimulation or medications. Technology is focused on bridging the gap between patient and physician through integrating the DBS lead, implantable pulse generator (IPG), programmer, novel devices/applications to grade motor function, and teleconference modalities. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with Parkinson's disease, digital health has the potential to drastically change the landscape after DBS surgery. Furthermore, technology is fundamental in connectivity, diagnostic evaluation, and security in order to create stable and useful patient-focused care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Brain Stimulation/methods , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Telemedicine , Humans
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