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2.
Gazzetta Medica Italiana Archivio per le Scienze Mediche ; 180(11):771-776, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1744431

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the effect of different respiratory protective masks (RPM) on ventilatory efficiency and operating lung volumes in a recreational runner. A healthy 36-years-old male runner underwent a pulmonary function test and cardiorespiratory exercise test with different RPM types and no mask (NM). Lung volumes and airflow resistance were similar regarding surgical and 3D knit masks compared to NM. Lower functional vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were observed for N95 compared to NM. Regarding ventilatory efficiency analysis, lower values for VE/VCO2 slope in the interval at rest-respiratory compensation point and at rest-peak of exercise were observed for the surgical, 3D knit, and N95 masks compared to NM. Tidal flow volume loop analysis showed an increase in end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) in the interval 80% of the ventilatory anaerobic threshold-peak of exercise, while there was a decrease with NM. Lower VO2max was observed for surgical, 3D knit, and N95 masks compared to NM and lower speed at VO2max. The athlete reported greater comfort with 3D knit compared to surgical and N95 masks. The use of different RPM types during a progressive running exercise by a recreational runner showed lower ventilatory response and exercise tolerance, as well as increased EELV, perceived exertion, and respiratory discomfort. © 2021 Edizioni Minerva Medica. All rights reserved.

3.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326735

ABSTRACT

The genome of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) was released on November 22, 2021, which has caused a flurry of media attention due the large number of mutations it contains. These raw data have spurred questions around vaccine efficacy. Given that neither the structural information nor the experimentally-derived antibody interaction of this variant are available, we have turned to predictive computational methods to model the mutated structure of the spike protein’s receptor binding domain and posit potential changes to vaccine efficacy. In this study, we predict some structural changes in the receptor-binding domain that may reduce antibody interaction without completely evading existing neutralizing antibodies (and therefore current vaccines).

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306581

ABSTRACT

Background: Pregnant women are susceptible to the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and the consequences on the fetus are still uncertain. Here, we present a case of a pregnant woman with subclinical hypothyroidism and PAI-1 4G/5G mutation who was infected with SARS-CoV-2 at the end of the third trimester of pregnancy. Methods: nested PCR were performed to detect the virus, followed by ssDNA sequencing. Results: transplacental transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can cause placental inflammation, ischemia and neonatal viremia, with complications such as preterm labor and damage to the placental barrier in patients with PAI-1 4G/5G mutation. Conclusion: we show the possibility of transplacental transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the last weeks of pregnancy.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316469

ABSTRACT

Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that etiologic agent of pandemic outbreak is a betacoronavirus named SARS-CoV-2. For public health interventions, a diagnostic test with high sensitivity and specificity is required. The gold standard protocol for diagnosis by WHO is the RT-PCR. To detect low viral load and large-scale screening a low-cost diagnostic test becomes necessary. Here we develop a cost-effective test capable of to detect the new coronavirues. We validated an auxiliary protocol for molecular diagnosis with RT-PCR SYBR Green methodology to successfully screen negative cases of SARS-CoV-2. Our results demonstrated that a set of primers with high specificity, and no homology with other viruses from Coronovideae family or human respiratory tract pathogenic viruses. Optimization of annealing temperature and polymerization time led to an high specificity in the PCR products. We have developed a more affordable and swift methodology for negative SARS-CoV-2 screening. This methodology can be applied on large scale populational to soften panic and economic burden through guidance for isolation strategies.

6.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(SUPPL 1):S303-S304, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185836

ABSTRACT

Background: The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on people living with HIV (PWH) are unknown. Beyond SARS-CoV-2 co-infection, the pandemic may have devastating consequences for HIV care delivery. Understanding these is crucial as reduced antiretroviral therapy (ART) availability alone could lead to ≥500,000 AIDS-related deaths in 2020-2021. With Latin America now a focal point in the pandemic, we sought to describe the impact of COVID-19 on HIV care at Latin American clinical sites. Methods: Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV epidemiology (CCASAnet) and additional Brazilian HIV care sites in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru were included. An electronic survey of COVID-19 effects on HIV clinic operations was administered in Spanish or English via phone and email, April 28-June 2, 2020. We also compared national COVID-19 case, mortality, and policy data from public sources. Results: Brazil's and Mexico's epidemics appear most pronounced, with >10,000 confirmed COVID-19-related deaths (Figure 1);countries implemented “social distancing” policies at different times after initial cases, with Haiti earliest and Mexico latest (Figure 2). Nearly all 13 sites reported decreased hours and providers for HIV care. Twelve of 13 reported increased use of telehealth, suspension/postponements of routine HIV appointments, and/or suspension of HIV research. Eleven of 13 reported initiation of new COVID-19 research but suspension of community HIV testing, and nearly half provided additional ART supplies. Nearly 70% reported impacts on HIV viral load testing and nearly 40% reported personal protective equipment stock-outs (Table). All 13 sites experienced changes in resources/services in tandem with national policies;there was wide variation, however, in the number of economic and health supports implemented thus far (e.g., quarantines, tax deferrals, interest rate reductions, etc.), from 172 COVID-19-related policies in Brazil to only 30 in Mexico Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has already had a substantial effect on daily operations of HIV clinics in Latin America. The downstream effects of these impacts on HIV outcomes in Latin America will need to be further studied. (Table Presented).

7.
Revista Chilena de Nutricion ; 48(1):103-108, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1138810

ABSTRACT

The objective of this mini review was to discuss the relationship between nutritional deficiencies and mental health, and to present a structure that helps to visualize these associations based on a literature review and the scenarios of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of the nutritional deficiencies on the occurrence and/or worsening of mental health problems, mainly related to the most drastic measures of social distance during the COVID-19 pandemic. Studies have already shown that a nutritionally unbalanced diet may be associated with greater chances of mental health problems. Insufficient levels of micronutrients can, by regulating the stress response, immune and oxidative systems, negatively affect brain functions and, consequently, cognitive functions and mental health of individuals. The current pandemic of COVID-19 reveals an increase in food and nutritional insecurity, and a worsening of this situation among already vulnerable populations. Micronutrient deficiencies may be exacerbated in a context of increased food insecurity and the COVID-19 pandemic, which may contribute to increased mental health problems. © 2021, Sociedad Chilena de Nutricion Bromatologia y Toxilogica. All rights reserved.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2224, 2021 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049969

ABSTRACT

Phylogenetic analysis has demonstrated that the etiologic agent of the 2020 pandemic outbreak is a betacoronavirus named SARS-CoV-2. For public health interventions, a diagnostic test with high sensitivity and specificity is required. The gold standard protocol for diagnosis by the Word Health Organization (WHO) is RT-PCR. To detect low viral loads and perform large-scale screening, a low-cost diagnostic test is necessary. Here, we developed a cost-effective test capable of detecting SARS-CoV-2. We validated an auxiliary protocol for molecular diagnosis with the SYBR Green RT-PCR methodology to successfully screen negative cases of SARS-CoV-2. Our results revealed a set of primers with high specificity and no homology with other viruses from the Coronovideae family or human respiratory tract pathogenic viruses, presenting with complementarity only for rhinoviruses/enteroviruses and Legionella spp. Optimization of the annealing temperature and polymerization time led to a high specificity in the PCR products. We have developed a more affordable and swift methodology for negative SARS-CoV-2 screening. This methodology can be applied on a large scale to soften panic and economic burden through guidance for isolation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Organic Chemicals , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Benzothiazoles , DNA, Single-Stranded , Diamines , Enterovirus , Genome, Viral , Humans , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Quinolines , Rhinovirus , Sensitivity and Specificity , Temperature , Viral Load
9.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ; 31:252, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-984647

ABSTRACT

Background: The kidney may be affected by coronavirus (COVID) in the setting of acute kidney injury (AKI) or glomerular diseases. Data about AKI in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients of Latin-America are scarce. The aim of this study is evaluate the risk of AKI, dialysis (HD) and death in ICU patients diagnosed with COVID pneumonia in a brazilian center. Methods: Analysis from medical records of ICU patients with diagnosis of COVID pneumonia in a brazilian single-center. AKI was defined according to KDIGO criteria. Results: During the period of February 2nd to May 4th, 95 ICU patients diagnosed with COVID were analyzed. There was predominance of male (64.2%), median age of 64.9 years, previous diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes and obesity in 51.6%, 27.4 and 30.5% respectively. AKI was diagnosed in 54 (56.8%) patients and 32 (59.2%) of them required HD. Mortality rate was 17.9%. Patients with AKI, compared to no-AKI were statisticaly significant more frequently hypertensive and diabetic, worse SAPS3 and SOFA scores and need for organ support therapies. Laboratory tests depicted more anemia, lymphopenia, and higher levels of inflamatory markers as well as longer lenght of stay in ICU, hospital and death. Similar findings were seen in those ones who required HD compared to those with conservador treatment. Comparing patients who undergone death to survivors, they were older, more frequently diabetic, worse SAPS3 and SOFA scores and need for organ support therapies, AKI and dialysis. Multinomial logistic regression predicted that hypertension (p=0.01), mechanical ventilation (p=0.01) and use of hydroxychloroquine (p=0.009) were independent risks factors for AKI;hypertension (p=0.002), mechanical ventilation (p=0.03), use of vasopressor (p=0.04), and use of hydroxychloroquine (p=0.009) for HD patients;and age >;65 years (p=0.03) and AKI (p=0.04) for death. Conclusions: In our study, AKI was a common complication of ICU COVID patients, it was associated to hypertension, organ support therapies and use of hydroxichloroquine. As well as age >;65 years, AKI was an independent risk fator to death.

10.
SenSys - Proc. ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sens. Syst. ; : 671-672, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-991877

ABSTRACT

Covidmonitor is a crowdsensing tool to support epidemologists and public health authorities in monitoring the covid-19 pandemic. The tool collects data to support transdisciplinary studies aiming at improving the knowledge of the pandemic evolution as well as monitor the citizens' behaviour and mental health. Covidmonitor leverages a previously existing mobile crowdsensing platform, SenseMyCity, adapted in collaboration with epidemology, public health and psychology researchers. Our biggest challenge was to identify the relevant metrics for the target trans-disciplinary studies and map them to collectable data. Covidmonitor explores the concept of citizens as probes to sample collective behaviour. The mobile application launches questionnaires about hygiene practices, use of personal protection equipment, health and emotional state. The questionnaires are triggered by different logic, adequate to the multi-dimensional perspectives of the target studies. Covidmonitor also seamlessly collects relevant mobility data without significant battery consumption. Finally, it enables voluntary sharing of location and symptom history, to facilitate tracing in case of infection. The tool considers user privacy and data minimisation by design, and is currently under preliminary scrutiny of the data protection regulator in Portugal. © 2020 Owner/Author.

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