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1.
Haematologica ; 2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841291

ABSTRACT

Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are at high risk of mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The optimal management of AML patients with COVID-19 has not been established. Our multicenter study included 388 adult AML patients with COVID-19 diagnosis between February 2020 and October 2021. The vast majority were receiving or had received AML treatment in the prior 3 months. COVID-19 was severe in 41.2% and critical in 21.1% of cases. The chemotherapeutic schedule was modified in 174 patients (44.8%), delayed in 68 and permanently discontinued in 106. After a median follow-up of 325 days, 180 patients (46.4%) had died; death was attributed to COVID-19 (43.3%), AML (26.1%) or to a combination of both (26.7%), whereas in 3.9% of cases the reason was unknown. Active disease, older age, and treatment discontinuation were associated with death, whereas AML treatment delay was protective. Seventy-nine patients had a simultaneous AML and COVID-19 diagnosis, with an improved survival when AML treatment could be delayed (80%; p.

2.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(3)2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742515

ABSTRACT

There is scarce information on the actual incidence of candidemia in COVID-19 patients. In addition, comparative studies of candidemia episodes in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients are heterogeneous. Here, we assessed the real incidence, epidemiology, and etiology of candidemia in COVID-19 patients, and compared them with those without COVID-19 (2020 vs. 2019 and 2020, respectively). We also genotyped all C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis isolates (n = 88), causing candidemia in both groups, providing for the first time a genotypic characterization of isolates gathered in patients with either COVID-19 or non-COVID-19. Incidence of candidemia was higher in patients with COVID-19 than non-COVID-19 (4.73 vs. 0.85 per 1000 admissions; 3.22 vs. 1.14 per 10,000 days of stay). No substantial intergroup differences were found, including mortality. Genotyping proved the presence of a low number of patients involved in clusters, allowing us to rule out rampant patient-to-patient Candida transmission. The four patients, involved in two clusters, had catheter-related candidemia diagnosed in the first COVID-19 wave, which demonstrates breaches in catheter management policies occurring in such an overwhelming situation. In conclusion, the incidence of candidemia in patients with COVID-19 is significantly higher than in those without COVID-19. However, genotyping shows that this increase is not due to uncontrolled intrahospital transmission.

3.
Mycoses ; 65(3): 362-373, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700157

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: (1) To describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of Aspergillus Endocarditis (AE) in a nationwide multicentric cohort (GAMES). (2) To compare the AE cases of the GAMES cohort, with the AE cases reported in the literature since 2010. (3) To identify variables related to mortality. METHODS: We recruited 10 AE cases included in the GAMES cohort (January 2008-December 2018) and 51 cases from the literature published from January 2010 to July 2019. RESULTS: 4528 patients with infectious endocarditis (IE) were included in the GAMES cohort, of them 10 (0.2%) were AE. After comparing our 10 cases with the 51 of the literature, no differences were found. Analysing the 61 AE cases together, 55.7% were male, median age 45 years. Their main underlying conditions were as follows: prosthetic valve surgery (34.4%) and solid organ transplant (SOT) (19.7%). Mainly affecting mitral (36.1%) and aortic valve (29.5%). Main isolated species were as follows: Aspergillus fumigatus (47.5%) and Aspergillus flavus (24.6%). Embolisms occurred in 54%. Patients were treated with antifungals (90.2%), heart surgery (85.2%) or both (78.7%). Overall, 52.5% died. A greater mortality was observed in immunosuppressed patients (59.4% vs. 24.1%, OR = 4.09, 95%CI = 1.26-13.19, p = .02), and lower mortality was associated with undergoing cardiac surgery plus azole therapy (28.1% vs. 65.5%, OR = 0.22, 95%CI = 0.07-0.72, p = .01). CONCLUSIONS: AE accounts for 0.2% of all IE episodes of a national multicentric cohort, mainly affecting patients with previous valvular surgery or SOT recipients. Mortality remains high especially in immunosuppressed hosts and azole-based treatment combined with surgical resection are related to a better outcome.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis , Endocarditis , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aspergillus , Aspergillus fumigatus , Endocarditis/drug therapy , Endocarditis/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318972

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 nosocomial outbreaks in the first COVID-19 wave were likely associated to a shortage of personal protective equipment and scare indications on control measures. Having covered these limitations, updates on current SARS-CoV-2 nosocomial outbreaks are required. We carried out an in-depth analysis of a 27-day nosocomial outbreak in a gastroenterology ward in our hospital, potentially involving 15 patients and three healthcare workers. Patients had stayed in one of three neighbouring rooms in the ward. The severity of the infections in six of the cases and a high fatality rate suggested the possible involvement of a single virulent strain persisting in those rooms. Whole genome sequencing of the strains from 12 patients and one healthcare worker revealed an unexpected complexity. Five different SARS-CoV-2 strains were identified, two infecting a single patient each, ruling out their relationship with the outbreak;the remaining three strains were involved in three independent overlapping limited transmission clusters with three, three, and five cases. Whole genome sequencing was key to understand the complexity of this outbreak.

5.
Marchesi, Francesco, Salmanton-Garcia, Jon, Emarah, Ziad, Piukovics, Klára, Nucci, Marcio, Lopez-Garcia, Alberto, Racil, Zdenek, Farina, Francesca, Popova, Marina, Zompi, Sofia, Audisio, Ernesta, Ledoux, Marie-Pierre, Verga, Luisa, Weinbergerova, Barbora, Szotkowski, Tomas, Silva, Maria, Fracchiolla, Nicola Stefano, De Jonge, Nick, Collins, Graham, Marchetti, Monia, Magliano, Gabriele, GarcÍA-Vidal, Carolina, Biernat, Monika, Doesum, Jaap van, Machado, Marina, Demirkan, Fatih, Khabori, Murtadha Al, Zak, Pavel, Visek, Benjamin, Stoma, Igor, MÉNdez, Gustavo-Adolfo, Maertens, Johan, Khanna, Nina, Espigado, Ildefonso, Dragonetti, Giulia, Fianchi, Luana, Principe, Maria Ilaria Del, Cabirta, Alba, Ormazabal-VÉLez, Irati, Jaksic, Ozren, Buquicchio, Caterina, Bonuomo, Valentina, Batinić, Josip, Omrani, Ali, Lamure, Sylvain, Finizio, Olimpia, FernÁNdez, Noemí, Falces-Romero, Iker, Blennow, Ola, Bergantim, Rui, Ali, Natasha, Win, Sein, Praet, Jens V. A. N.; Tisi, Maria Chiara, Shirinova, Ayten, SchÖNlein, Martin, Prattes, Juergen, Piedimonte, Monica, Petzer, Verena, NavrÁTil, Milan, Kulasekararaj, Austin, Jindra, Pavel, Jiří, Glenthøj, Andreas, Fazzi, Rita, de Ramón, Cristina, Cattaneo, Chiara, Calbacho, Maria, Bahr, Nathan, El-Ashwl, Shaimaa Saber, Córdoba, Raúl, Hanakova, Michaela, Zambrotta, Giovanni, Sciumè, Mariarita, Booth, Stephen, Nunes-Rodrigues, Raquel, Sacchi, Maria Vittoria, GarcÍA-PoutÓN, Nicole, MartÍN-GonzÁLez, Juan-Alberto, Khostelidi, Sofya, GrÄFe, Stefanie, Rahimli, Laman, busca, alessandro, Corradini, Paolo, Hoenigl, Martin, Klimko, Nikolai, Koehler, Philipp, Pagliuca, Antonio, Passamonti, Francesco, Cornely, Oliver, pagano, Livio.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328805

ABSTRACT

Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are at high risk of mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The optimal management of AML patients with COVID-19 has not been established. Our multicenter study included 388 adult AML patients with COVID-19 diagnosis between February 2020 and October 2021. The vast majority were receiving or had received AML treatment in the prior 3 months. COVID-19 was severe in 41.2% and critical in 21.1% of cases. The chemotherapeutic schedule was modified in 174 patients (44.8%), delayed in 68 and permanently discontinued in 106. After a median follow-up of 325 days, 180 patients (46.4%) had died. Death was attributed to COVID-19 (43.3%), AML (26.1%) or to a combination of both (26.7%). Active disease, older age, and treatment discontinuation were associated with death, whereas AML treatment delay was protective. Seventy-nine patients had a simultaneous AML and COVID-19 diagnosis, with an improved survival when AML treatment could be delayed. Patients with COVID-19 diagnosis between January and August 2020 had a significantly lower survival. COVID-19 in AML patients was associated with a high mortality rate and modifications of therapeutic algorithms. The best approach to improve survival was to delay AML treatment.

6.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(1): e0168921, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630019

ABSTRACT

This multicenter study evaluated the IMMY Aspergillus Galactomannan Lateral Flow Assay (LFA) with automated reader for diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory failure (ARF) requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission between 03/2020 and 04/2021. A total of 196 respiratory samples and 148 serum samples (n = 344) from 238 patients were retrospectively included, with a maximum of one of each sample type per patient. Cases were retrospectively classified for COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) status following the 2020 consensus criteria, with the exclusion of LFA results as a mycological criterion. At the 1.0 cutoff, sensitivity of LFA for CAPA (proven/probable/possible) was 52%, 80% and 81%, and specificity was 98%, 88% and 67%, for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), nondirected bronchoalveolar lavage (NBL), and tracheal aspiration (TA), respectively. At the 0.5 manufacturer's cutoff, sensitivity was 72%, 90% and 100%, and specificity was 79%, 83% and 44%, for BALF, NBL and TA, respectively. When combining all respiratory samples, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) was 0.823, versus 0.754, 0.890 and 0.814 for BALF, NBL and TA, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of serum LFA were 20% and 93%, respectively, at the 0.5 ODI cutoff. Overall, the Aspergillus Galactomannan LFA showed good performances for CAPA diagnosis, when used from respiratory samples at the 1.0 cutoff, while sensitivity from serum was limited, linked to weak invasiveness during CAPA. As some false-positive results can occur, isolated results slightly above the recommended cutoff should lead to further mycological investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0153221, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607174

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination has proven to be effective at preventing symptomatic disease but there are scarce data to fully understand whether vaccinated individuals can still behave as SARS-CoV-2 transmission vectors. Based on viral genome sequencing and detailed epidemiological interviews, we report a nosocomial transmission event involving two vaccinated health care-workers (HCWs) and four patients, one of them with fatal outcome. Strict transmission control measures, as during the prevaccination period, must be kept between HCWs and HCWs-patients in nosocomial settings. IMPORTANCE COVID-19 vaccination has proven to be effective at preventing symptomatic disease. Although some transmission events involving vaccinated cases have also been reported, scarce information is still available to fully understand whether vaccinated individuals may still behave as vectors in SARS-CoV-2 transmission events. Here, we report a SARS-CoV-2 nosocomial transmission event, supported on whole genome sequencing, in early March 2021 involving two vaccinated HCWs and four patients in our institution. Strict transmission control measures between HCWs and HCWs - patients in nosocomial settings must not be relaxed, and should be kept as strictly as during the prevaccination period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/virology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vaccination , Whole Genome Sequencing
8.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 38(5): 394-398, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605075

ABSTRACT

Since SAR-COV-2 infection emerged and spread worldwide, little is known about its impact on people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We performed a single-center retrospective study to describe the potential particularities and risk factors for respiratory failure (RF) in that population. This single-center retrospective study included patients infected with HIV, whose current follow-up is run in this center, above18 years of age, with diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 5, 2020 and April 15, 2021. We collected data regarding HIV immunological and virological status, main epidemiological characteristics, as well as those conditions considered to potentially influence in SARS-CoV-2 evolution; and clinical, microbiological, radiological, respiratory status, and survival concerning coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We compared all that, for patients with and without RF and performed a logistic regression for suspected risk factors for RF. One hundred seventy-seven HIV patients were diagnosed from COVID-19 (mean age 53.8 years, 81.3% male). At diagnosis, 95.5% were receiving ART and 91.3% had undetectable viral load, with median CD4 count of 569 cells/µL. One hundred thirty-eight patients (78.4%) had symptoms, 44 (25%) developed RF and 53 (31%) developed bilateral pneumonia. The most commonly used treatments were: steroids (26.7%) and hydroxychloroquine (13.1%). When comparing patients with and without RF, we found statistically significant differences for 20 of the analyzed variables such as age (p < .001) and CD4 (p 0.002), and route of HIV transmission by intravenous drug users IVDU (p 0.002) were determined. In multivariate analysis, age [odds ratio (OR) 1.095] and CD4 count less than 350 cells/µL (OR 3.36) emerged as risk factor for RF. People living with HIV whose CD4 count is <350 cells are at higher risk of developing RF when infected by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
9.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 168, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with hematological malignancies (HM) are at high risk of mortality from SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19). A better understanding of risk factors for adverse outcomes may improve clinical management in these patients. We therefore studied baseline characteristics of HM patients developing COVID-19 and analyzed predictors of mortality. METHODS: The survey was supported by the Scientific Working Group Infection in Hematology of the European Hematology Association (EHA). Eligible for the analysis were adult patients with HM and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 observed between March and December 2020. RESULTS: The study sample includes 3801 cases, represented by lymphoproliferative (mainly non-Hodgkin lymphoma n = 1084, myeloma n = 684 and chronic lymphoid leukemia n = 474) and myeloproliferative malignancies (mainly acute myeloid leukemia n = 497 and myelodysplastic syndromes n = 279). Severe/critical COVID-19 was observed in 63.8% of patients (n = 2425). Overall, 2778 (73.1%) of the patients were hospitalized, 689 (18.1%) of whom were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Overall, 1185 patients (31.2%) died. The primary cause of death was COVID-19 in 688 patients (58.1%), HM in 173 patients (14.6%), and a combination of both COVID-19 and progressing HM in 155 patients (13.1%). Highest mortality was observed in acute myeloid leukemia (199/497, 40%) and myelodysplastic syndromes (118/279, 42.3%). The mortality rate significantly decreased between the first COVID-19 wave (March-May 2020) and the second wave (October-December 2020) (581/1427, 40.7% vs. 439/1773, 24.8%, p value < 0.0001). In the multivariable analysis, age, active malignancy, chronic cardiac disease, liver disease, renal impairment, smoking history, and ICU stay correlated with mortality. Acute myeloid leukemia was a higher mortality risk than lymphoproliferative diseases. CONCLUSIONS: This survey confirms that COVID-19 patients with HM are at high risk of lethal complications. However, improved COVID-19 prevention has reduced mortality despite an increase in the number of reported cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
11.
mSphere ; 6(4): e0038921, 2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341306

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 nosocomial outbreaks in the first COVID-19 wave were likely associated with a shortage of personal protective equipment and scarce indications on control measures. Having covered these limitations, updates on current SARS-CoV-2 nosocomial outbreaks are required. We carried out an in-depth analysis of a 27-day nosocomial outbreak in a gastroenterology ward in our hospital, potentially involving 15 patients and 3 health care workers. Patients had stayed in one of three neighboring rooms in the ward. The severity of the infections in six of the cases and a high fatality rate made the clinicians suspect the possible involvement of a single virulent strain persisting in those rooms. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of the strains from 12 patients and 1 health care worker revealed an unexpected complexity. Five different SARS-CoV-2 strains were identified, two infecting a single patient each, ruling out their relationship with the outbreak; the remaining three strains were involved in three independent, overlapping, limited transmission clusters with three, three, and five cases. Whole-genome sequencing was key to understand the complexity of this outbreak. IMPORTANCE We report a complex epidemiological scenario of a nosocomial COVID-19 outbreak in the second wave, based on WGS analysis. Initially, standard epidemiological findings led to the assumption of a homogeneous outbreak caused by a single SARS-CoV-2 strain. The discriminatory power of WGS offered a strikingly different perspective consisting of five introductions of different strains, with only half of them causing secondary cases in three independent overlapping clusters. Our study exemplifies how complex the SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the nosocomial setting during the second COVID-19 wave occurred and leads to extending the analysis of outbreaks beyond the initial epidemiological assumptions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Cross Infection/virology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods , Young Adult
12.
J Infect Dis ; 224(5): 788-792, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262141

ABSTRACT

A 77-year-old man (case R) with previous diagnosis of a mild COVID-19 episode was hospitalized 35 days later. On day 23 postadmission, he developed a second COVID-19 episode, now severe, and finally died. Initially, case R's COVID-19 recurrence was interpreted as a reinfection due to the exposure to a SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR-positive roommate. However, whole-genome sequencing indicated that case R's recurrence corresponded to a reactivation of the strain involved in his first episode. Case R's reactivation had major consequences, leading to a more severe episode, and causing subsequent transmission to another 2 hospitalized patients, 1 of them with fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Reinfection/diagnosis , Reinfection/virology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Male , Recurrence , Reinfection/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1077-1086, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067634

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 emerged in China at the end of 2019. Because of the severe immunomodulation and lymphocyte depletion caused by this virus and the subsequent administration of drugs directed at the immune system, we anticipated that patients might experience fungal superinfection. We collected data from 186 patients who had coronavirus disease-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) worldwide during March-August 2020. Overall, 182 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), including 180 with acute respiratory distress syndrome and 175 who received mechanical ventilation. CAPA was diagnosed a median of 10 days after coronavirus disease diagnosis. Aspergillus fumigatus was identified in 80.3% of patient cultures, 4 of which were azole-resistant. Most (52.7%) patients received voriconazole. In total, 52.2% of patients died; of the deaths, 33.0% were attributed to CAPA. We found that the cumulative incidence of CAPA in the ICU ranged from 1.0% to 39.1%.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Aged , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Incidence , International Cooperation , Male , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/mortality , Registries , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 14(2): 249-260, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050071

ABSTRACT

Background: We report the long-term outcomes, changes in laboratory parameters, the incidence of secondary nosocomial infections and treatment cost of a Spanish cohort of patients with severe COVID-19 that received tocilizumab (TCZ).Methods: Retrospective cohort of PCR confirmed adult patients who received TCZ from March 1 to 24, 2020 in a tertiary hospital was analyzed. Patients were followed up until 10 May 2020.Results: We included 162 patients (median age 64 years; 70.4% male). At time of TCZ administration, 48.1% of patients were on invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Over a median follow-up of 53 days, 46.9% of patients were discharge in good conditions and 19.8% were still hospitalized. The overall mortality was 33.3%, being higher in patients on IMV than those who did not (46.2% vs 26.7%, P < 0.001). A significant improvement in the lymphocyte count, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and D-dimer was observed. Overall, 43.2% patients presented nosocomial infections, causing death in 8%. Infections were more prevalent in ICU units (63.0% vs 17.1%, P < 0.001). The total cost of TCZ was €371,784.Conclusions: Among the patients who used TCZ, one third died, regardless the improvement in some inflammatory biomarkers. The incidence of secondary nosocomial infections was high.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology
15.
Mucosal Immunol ; 14(2): 296-304, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049958

ABSTRACT

Bacteria that colonize the human gastrointestinal tract are essential for good health. The gut microbiota has a critical role in pulmonary immunity and host's defense against viral respiratory infections. The gut microbiota's composition and function can be profoundly affected in many disease settings, including acute infections, and these changes can aggravate the severity of the disease. Here, we discuss mechanisms by which the gut microbiota arms the lung to control viral respiratory infections. We summarize the impact of viral respiratory infections on the gut microbiota and discuss the potential mechanisms leading to alterations of gut microbiota's composition and functions. We also discuss the effects of gut microbial imbalance on disease outcomes, including gastrointestinal disorders and secondary bacterial infections. Lastly, we discuss the potential role of the lung-gut axis in coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Lung/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Diet , Dietary Fiber/metabolism , Dysbiosis/immunology , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Humans , Immunity, Mucosal , Influenza, Human/immunology , Probiotics , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Respiratory Tract Infections
16.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 57(2): 106249, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996948

ABSTRACT

Few large series describe the clinical characteristics, outcomes and costs of COVID-19 in Western countries. This cohort reports the first 1255 adult cases receiving anti-COVID-19 treatment at a Spanish hospital (1-24 March 2020). Treatment costs were calculated. A logistic regression model was used to explore risk factors on admission associated with ARDS. A bivariate Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) model was employed to determine the HR between individual factors and death. We included 1255 patients (median age 65 years; 57.8% male), of which 92.3% required hospitalisation. The prevalence of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus (DM) was 45.1%, 31.4% and 19.9%, respectively. Lymphocytopenia (54.8%), elevated alanine aminotransferase (33.0%) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (58.5%) were frequent. Overall, 36.7% of patients developed ARDS, 10.0% were admitted to an ICU and 21.3% died. The most frequent antiviral combinations were lopinavir/ritonavir plus hydroxychloroquine (44.2%), followed by triple therapy with interferon beta-1b (32.7%). Corticosteroids and tocilizumab were used in 25.3% and 12.9% of patients, respectively. Total cost of anti-COVID-19 agents was €511 825 (€408/patient). By multivariate analysis, risk factors associated with ARDS included older age, obesity, DM, severe hypoxaemia, lymphocytopenia, increased creatine kinase and increased C-reactive protein. In multivariate Cox model, older age (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.06-1.09), cardiovascular disease (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.79), DM (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.09-1.92), severe hypoxaemia (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.49-2.72), lymphocytopenia (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.20-2.20) and increased C-reactive protein (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06) were risk factors for mortality.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/economics , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Immunosuppressive Agents/economics , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Spain/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
17.
Mycoses ; 64(2): 132-143, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934033

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Information on the recently COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) entity is scarce. We describe eight CAPA patients, compare them to colonised ICU patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and review the published literature from Western countries. METHODS: Prospective study (March to May, 2020) that included all COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary hospital. Modified AspICU and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria were used. RESULTS: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis was diagnosed in eight patients (3.3% of 239 ICU patients), mostly affected non-immunocompromised patients (75%) with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) receiving corticosteroids. Diagnosis was established after a median of 15 days under mechanical ventilation. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in two patients with positive Aspergillus fumigatus cultures and galactomannan (GM) index. Serum GM was positive in 4/8 (50%). Thoracic CT scan findings fulfilled EORTC/MSG criteria in one case. Isavuconazole was used in 4/8 cases. CAPA-related mortality was 100% (8/8). Compared with colonised patients, CAPA subjects were administered tocilizumab more often (100% vs. 40%, p = .04), underwent longer courses of antibacterial therapy (13 vs. 5 days, p = .008), and had a higher all-cause mortality (100% vs. 40%, p = .04). We reviewed 96 similar cases from recent publications: 59 probable CAPA (also putative according modified AspICU), 56 putative cases and 13 colonisations according AspICU algorithm; according EORTC/MSG six proven and two probable. Overall, mortality in the reviewed series was 56.3%. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis must be considered a serious and potentially life-threatening complication in patients with severe COVID-19 receiving immunosuppressive treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Aspergillus fumigatus/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/mortality , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
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