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1.
ACR Open Rheumatol ; 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955882

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Some patients with rheumatic diseases might be at higher risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We aimed to develop a prediction model for COVID-19 ARDS in this population and to create a simple risk score calculator for use in clinical settings. METHODS: Data were derived from the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance Registry from March 24, 2020, to May 12, 2021. Seven machine learning classifiers were trained on ARDS outcomes using 83 variables obtained at COVID-19 diagnosis. Predictive performance was assessed in a US test set and was validated in patients from four countries with independent registries using area under the curve (AUC), accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. A simple risk score calculator was developed using a regression model incorporating the most influential predictors from the best performing classifier. RESULTS: The study included 8633 patients from 74 countries, of whom 523 (6%) had ARDS. Gradient boosting had the highest mean AUC (0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67-0.88) and was considered the top performing classifier. Ten predictors were identified as key risk factors and were included in a regression model. The regression model that predicted ARDS with 71% (95% CI: 61%-83%) sensitivity in the test set, and with sensitivities ranging from 61% to 80% in countries with independent registries, was used to develop the risk score calculator. CONCLUSION: We were able to predict ARDS with good sensitivity using information readily available at COVID-19 diagnosis. The proposed risk score calculator has the potential to guide risk stratification for treatments, such as monoclonal antibodies, that have potential to reduce COVID-19 disease progression.

2.
ACR Open Rheumatol ; 2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929748

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, such as ankylosing spondylitis (AS), has been variable. Here, we assess disease activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) through the pandemic in patients with AS. METHODS: In the open-label extension (OLE) of the phase 2b BE AGILE study, patients with AS received 160 mg of subcutaneous bimekizumab every 4 weeks. We assessed Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score with C-reactive protein (ASDAS-CRP), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life (ASQoL) scores in the OLE immediately before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (September 2019 to April 2021). RESULTS: A total of 232 patients remained in the BE AGILE OLE and were included in this post hoc study at the start of the analysis period (September 1, 2019); 12 patients had a COVID-19 treatment-emergent adverse event, and no cases resulted in death. The number of missed bimekizumab doses due to COVID-19 (11 doses) was minimal, and missed assessments remained low (≤5%) compared with the prepandemic period. Mean ASDAS-CRP (1.8), BASDAI (2.4), and ASQoL scores (2.8) in the OLE were low at pre-pandemic baseline and remained stable at 1.7 to 1.8, 2.2 to 2.4, and 2.0 to 2.8, respectively, across successive 3-month periods immediately before and during the pandemic. ASDAS-CRP, BASDAI, and ASQoL stability was consistent across major study countries. CONCLUSION: Disease activity and HRQoL remained stable during the COVID-19 pandemic in patients with AS receiving bimekizumab in the BE AGILE OLE, with no indication of negative effects on these outcomes.

3.
Rheumatol Adv Pract ; 6(2): rkac039, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878820

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim was to assess rheumatology clinicians' perceptions of telemedicine and their experiences before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey and collected responses from rheumatology clinicians worldwide, between November 2020 and February 2021, regarding use and perceptions of telemedicine in rheumatology. We summarized data with descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis for free-text responses. Results: The survey was completed by 349 rheumatology clinicians from 49 countries; 59% were female and about two-thirds were in the 30-50 years age group. Academic affiliations were held by 55% of participants, and 44% were from North America. Before the pandemic, 24% of participants had experience with telemedicine, whereas about three-quarters used telemedicine for the first time during the pandemic. Overall, 56% thought they provided less adequate care with telemedicine. More than half of clinicians felt that telemedicine was adequate for evaluating crystalline arthritis, inflammatory arthritis and lupus flares. Telemedicine was felt to be inadequate for flares of myositis, vasculitis and scleroderma. Technical problems were reported in 29% of telemedicine encounters and were most commonly related to patient-encountered difficulties. Conclusion: Most rheumatology clinicians used telemedicine for the first time during the pandemic. The quality of care provided was thought to be inferior to that provided in person for specific clinical situations. Additional efforts are needed to address barriers to effective telemedicine, such as patient-related technology issues, challenges with building rapport and performing a physical examination, and to define the appropriate scope of clinical scenarios conducive to telemedicine.

4.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854252

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To develop evidence-based Points to Consider (PtC) for the use of imaging modalities to guide interventional procedures in patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs). METHODS: European Alliance of Associations for Rheumatology (EULAR) standardised operating procedures were followed. A systematic literature review was conducted to retrieve data on the role of imaging modalities including ultrasound (US), fluoroscopy, MRI, CT and fusion imaging to guide interventional procedures. Based on evidence and expert opinion, the task force (25 participants consisting of physicians, healthcare professionals and patients from 11 countries) developed PtC, with consensus obtained through voting. The final level of agreement was provided anonymously. RESULTS: A total of three overarching principles and six specific PtC were formulated. The task force recommends preference of imaging over palpation to guide targeted interventional procedures at peripheral joints, periarticular musculoskeletal structures, nerves and the spine. While US is the favoured imaging technique for peripheral joints and nerves, the choice of the imaging method for the spine and sacroiliac joints has to be individualised according to the target, procedure, expertise, availability and radiation exposure. All imaging guided interventions should be performed by a trained specialist using appropriate operational procedures, settings and assistance by technical personnel. CONCLUSION: These are the first EULAR PtC to provide guidance on the role of imaging to guide interventional procedures in patients with RMDs.

5.
RMD Open ; 8(1)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779411

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: While COVID-19 vaccination prevents severe infections, poor immunogenicity in immunocompromised people threatens vaccine effectiveness. We analysed the clinical characteristics of patients with rheumatic disease who developed breakthrough COVID-19 after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We included people partially or fully vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 who developed COVID-19 between 5 January and 30 September 2021 and were reported to the Global Rheumatology Alliance registry. Breakthrough infections were defined as occurring ≥14 days after completion of the vaccination series, specifically 14 days after the second dose in a two-dose series or 14 days after a single-dose vaccine. We analysed patients' demographic and clinical characteristics and COVID-19 symptoms and outcomes. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in 197 partially or fully vaccinated people with rheumatic disease (mean age 54 years, 77% female, 56% white). The majority (n=140/197, 71%) received messenger RNA vaccines. Among the fully vaccinated (n=87), infection occurred a mean of 112 (±60) days after the second vaccine dose. Among those fully vaccinated and hospitalised (n=22, age range 36-83 years), nine had used B cell-depleting therapy (BCDT), with six as monotherapy, at the time of vaccination. Three were on mycophenolate. The majority (n=14/22, 64%) were not taking systemic glucocorticoids. Eight patients had pre-existing lung disease and five patients died. CONCLUSION: More than half of fully vaccinated individuals with breakthrough infections requiring hospitalisation were on BCDT or mycophenolate. Further risk mitigation strategies are likely needed to protect this selected high-risk population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Rheumatology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Neurology ; 98(14): 576-582, 2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775418

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), defined by hospitalization status, in patients with primary mitochondrial diseases (PMDs), thereby enabling future risk stratification and informed management decisions. METHODS: We undertook a cross-sectional, international, registry-based study. Data were extracted from the International Neuromuscular COVID-19 Database and collected between May 1, 2020, and May 31, 2021. The database included subjects with (1) PMD diagnosis (any age), clinically/histopathologically suspected and/or genetically confirmed; and (2) COVID-19 diagnosis classified as "confirmed", "probable", or "suspected" based on World Health Organization definitions. The primary outcome was hospitalization because of COVID-19. We collected demographic information, smoking status, coexisting comorbidities, outcomes after COVID-19 infection, and PMD genotype-phenotype. Baseline status was assessed using the modified Rankin scale (mRS) and the Newcastle Mitochondrial Disease Adult Scale (NMDAS). RESULTS: Seventy-nine subjects with PMDs from 10 countries were included (mean age 41.5 ± 18 years): 25 (32%) were hospitalized, 48 (61%) recovered fully, 28 (35%) improved with sequelae, and 3 (4%) died. Statistically significant differences in hospitalization status were observed in baseline status, including the NMDAS score (p = 0.003) and mRS (p = 0.001), presence of respiratory dysfunction (p < 0.001), neurologic involvement (p = 0.003), and more than 4 comorbidities (p = 0.002). In multivariable analysis, respiratory dysfunction was independently associated with COVID-19 hospitalization (odds ratio, 7.66; 95% CI, 2-28; p = 0.002). DISCUSSION: Respiratory dysfunction is an independent risk factor for severe COVID-19 in PMDs while high disease burden and coexisting comorbidities contribute toward COVID-19-related hospitalization. These findings will enable risk stratification and informed management decisions for this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mitochondrial Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Mitochondrial Diseases/complications , Mitochondrial Diseases/epidemiology , Mitochondrial Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(7): 998-1005, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765099

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Some adults with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) are at increased risk of COVID-19-related death. Excluding post-COVID-19 multisystem inflammatory syndrome of children, children and young people (CYP) are overall less prone to severe COVID-19 and most experience a mild or asymptomatic course. However, it is unknown if CYP with RMDs are more likely to have more severe COVID-19. This analysis aims to describe outcomes among CYP with underlying RMDs with COVID-19. METHODS: Using the European Alliance of Associations for Rheumatology COVID-19 Registry, the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) Registry, and the CARRA-sponsored COVID-19 Global Paediatric Rheumatology Database, we obtained data on CYP with RMDs who reported SARS-CoV-2 infection (presumptive or confirmed). Patient characteristics and illness severity were described, and factors associated with COVID-19 hospitalisation were investigated. RESULTS: 607 CYP with RMDs <19 years old from 25 different countries with SARS-CoV-2 infection were included, the majority with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA; n=378; 62%). Forty-three (7%) patients were hospitalised; three of these patients died. Compared with JIA, diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective tissue disease, vasculitis, or other RMD (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.7 to 11) or autoinflammatory syndrome (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.1 to 8.6) was associated with hospitalisation, as was obesity (OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.3 to 12). CONCLUSIONS: This is the most significant investigation to date of COVID-19 in CYP with RMDs. It is important to note that the majority of CYP were not hospitalised, although those with severe systemic RMDs and obesity were more likely to be hospitalised.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile , COVID-19 , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Rheumatic Diseases , Adolescent , Arthritis, Juvenile/complications , Arthritis, Juvenile/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Musculoskeletal Diseases/epidemiology , Obesity/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
10.
Brain ; 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705039

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against viruses has rarely been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). An association with the COVID-19 vaccine is unknown. We performed a population-based study of National Health Service data in England and a multicentre surveillance study from UK hospitals, to investigate the relationship between COVID-19 vaccination and GBS. Firstly, case dates of GBS identified retrospectively in the National Immunoglobulin Database from 8 December 2021 to 8 July 2021 were linked to receipt dates of a COVID-19 vaccines using data from the National Immunisation Management System in England. For the linked dataset, GBS cases temporally associated with vaccination within a 6-week risk window of any COVID-19 vaccine were identified. Secondly, we prospectively collected incident UK-wide (four nations) GBS cases from 1 January 2021 to 7 November 2021 in a separate UK multicentre surveillance database. For this multicentre UK-wide surveillance dataset, we explored phenotypes of reported GBS cases to identify features of COVID-19 vaccine-associated GBS. 996 GBS cases were recorded in the National Immunoglobulin Database from January to October 2021. A spike of GBS cases above the 2016-2020 average occurred in March-April 2021. 198 GBS cases occurred within 6 weeks of the first-dose COVID-19 vaccination in England (0.618 cases per 100,000 vaccinations, 176 ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca), 21 tozinameran (Pfizer), 1 mRNA-1273 (Moderna)). The 6-week excess of GBS (compared to the baseline rate of GBS cases 6-12 weeks after vaccination) occurs with a peak at 24 days post-vaccination; first-doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 accounted for the excess. No excess was seen for second-dose vaccination. The absolute number of excess GBS cases from January-July 2021 was between 98-140 cases for first-dose ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination. First-dose tozinameran and second-dose of any vaccination showed no excess GBS risk. Detailed clinical data from 121 GBS patients were reported in the separate multicentre surveillance dataset during this timeframe. No phenotypic or demographic differences identified between vaccine-associated and non-vaccinated GBS cases occurring in the same timeframe. Analysis of the linked NID/NIMS dataset suggests that first-dose ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination is associated with an excess GBS risk of 0.576 (95%CI 0.481-0.691) cases per 100,000 doses. However, examination of a multicentre surveillance dataset suggests that no specific clinical features, including facial weakness, are associated with vaccination-related GBS compared to non-vaccinated cases. The pathogenic cause of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 specific first dose link warrants further study.

11.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704550

ABSTRACT

The first EULAR provisional recommendations on the management of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) in the context of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), largely based on expert opinion, were published in June 2020. Since then, an unprecedented number of clinical studies have accrued in the literature. Several SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been approved for population-wide vaccination programmes in EULAR-affiliated countries. Studies regarding vaccination of patients with (inflammatory) RMDs have released their first results or are underway.EULAR found it opportune to carefully review to what extent the initially consensus expert recommendations stood the test of time, by challenging them with the recently accumulated body of scientific evidence, and by incorporating evidence-based advice on SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. EULAR started a formal (first) update in January 2021, performed a systematic literature review according to EULAR's standard operating procedures and completed a set of updated overarching principles and recommendations in July 2021. Two points to consider were added in November 2021, because of recent developments pertaining to additional vaccination doses.

13.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(5): 695-709, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595585

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the safety of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in people with inflammatory/autoimmune rheumatic and musculoskeletal disease (I-RMD). METHODS: Physician-reported registry of I-RMD and non-inflammatory RMD (NI-RMDs) patients vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. From 5 February 2021 to 27 July 2021, we collected data on demographics, vaccination, RMD diagnosis, disease activity, immunomodulatory/immunosuppressive treatments, flares, adverse events (AEs) and SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections. Data were analysed descriptively. RESULTS: The study included 5121 participants from 30 countries, 90% with I-RMDs (n=4604, 68% female, mean age 60.5 years) and 10% with NI-RMDs (n=517, 77% female, mean age 71.4). Inflammatory joint diseases (58%), connective tissue diseases (18%) and vasculitis (12%) were the most frequent diagnostic groups; 54% received conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), 42% biological DMARDs and 35% immunosuppressants. Most patients received the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine (70%), 17% AstraZeneca/Oxford and 8% Moderna. In fully vaccinated cases, breakthrough infections were reported in 0.7% of I-RMD patients and 1.1% of NI-RMD patients. I-RMD flares were reported in 4.4% of cases (0.6% severe), 1.5% resulting in medication changes. AEs were reported in 37% of cases (37% I-RMD, 40% NI-RMD), serious AEs in 0.5% (0.4% I-RMD, 1.9% NI-RMD). CONCLUSION: The safety profiles of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with I-RMD was reassuring and comparable with patients with NI-RMDs. The majority of patients tolerated their vaccination well with rare reports of I-RMD flare and very rare reports of serious AEs. These findings should provide reassurance to rheumatologists and vaccine recipients and promote confidence in SARS-CoV-2 vaccine safety in I-RMD patients.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , COVID-19 , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Rheumatic Diseases , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Muscular Diseases , Musculoskeletal Diseases/chemically induced , Musculoskeletal Diseases/drug therapy , Musculoskeletal Diseases/epidemiology , Registries , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatologists , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
15.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(3): 422-432, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560917

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Perform a systematic literature review (SLR) on risk and prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs). METHODS: Literature was searched up to 31 May 2021, including (randomised) controlled trials and observational studies with patients with RMD. Pending quality assessment, data extraction was performed and risk of bias (RoB) was assessed. Quality assessment required provision of (1) an appropriate COVID-19 case definition, and (2a) a base incidence (for incidence data) or (2b) a comparator, >10 cases with the outcome and risk estimates minimally adjusted for age, sex and comorbidities (for risk factor data). RESULTS: Of 5165 records, 208 were included, of which 90 passed quality assessment and data were extracted for incidence (n=42), risk factor (n=42) or vaccination (n=14). Most studies had unclear/high RoB. Generally, patients with RMDs do not face more risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 (n=26 studies) or worse prognosis of COVID-19 (n=14) than individuals without RMDs. No consistent differences in risk of developing (severe) COVID-19 were found between different RMDs (n=19). Disease activity is associated with worse COVID-19 prognosis (n=2), possibly explaining the increased risk seen for glucocorticoid use (n=13). Rituximab is associated with worse COVID-19 prognosis (n=7) and possibly Janus kinase inhibitors (n=3). Vaccination is generally immunogenic, though antibody responses are lower than in controls. Vaccine immunogenicity is negatively associated with older age, rituximab and mycophenolate. CONCLUSION: This SLR informed the July 2021 update of the European Alliance of Associations for Rheumatology recommendations for the management of RMDs in the context of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Musculoskeletal Diseases/virology , Rheumatic Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/drug effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Incidence , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Musculoskeletal Diseases/drug therapy , Prognosis , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Risk Factors , Rituximab/adverse effects
16.
RMD Open ; 7(3)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495559

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To update the EULAR 2020 systematic literature review (SLR) on efficacy and safety of immunomodulatory agents in SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: As part of a EULAR taskforce, a systematic literature search update was conducted from 11 December 2020 to 14 July 2021. Two reviewers independently identified eligible studies and extracted data on efficacy and safety of immunomodulatory agents used therapeutically in SARS-CoV-2 infection at any stage of disease. The risk of bias (RoB) was assessed with validated tools. RESULTS: Of the 26 959 records, 520 articles were eligible for inclusion. Studies were mainly at high or unclear RoB. New randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on tocilizumab clarified its benefit in patients with severe and critical COVID-19, mainly if associated with glucocorticoids. There are emergent data on the usefulness of baricitinib and tofacitinib in severe COVID-19. Other therapeutic strategies such as the use of convalescent plasma and anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies showed efficacy in subjects not mounting normal anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. CONCLUSION: This new SLR confirms that some immunomodulators (tocilizumab and JAK inhibitors) have a role for treating severe and critical COVID-19. Although better evidence is available compared with the previous SLR, the need of RCT with combination therapy (glucocorticoids+anti-cytokines) versus monotherapy with glucocorticoids still remains alongside the need for standardisation of inclusion criteria and outcomes to ultimately improve the care and prognosis of affected people. This SLR informed the 2021 update of the EULAR points to consider on the use of immunomodulatory therapies in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunotherapy , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive
17.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 3(10): e707-e714, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact and consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with rheumatic disease are unclear. We developed the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance Patient Experience Survey to assess the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with rheumatic disease worldwide. METHODS: Survey questions were developed by key stakeholder groups and disseminated worldwide through social media, websites, and patient support organisations. Questions included demographics, rheumatic disease diagnosis, COVID-19 diagnosis, adoption of protective behaviours to mitigate COVID-19 exposure, medication access and changes, health-care access and communication with rheumatologists, and changes in employment or schooling. Adults age 18 years and older with inflammatory or autoimmune rheumatic diseases were eligible for inclusion. We included participants with and without a COVID-19 diagnosis. We excluded participants reporting only non-inflammatory rheumatic diseases such as fibromyalgia or osteoarthritis. FINDINGS: 12 117 responses to the survey were received between April 3 and May 8, 2020, and of these, 10 407 respondents had included appropriate age data. We included complete responses from 9300 adults with rheumatic disease (mean age 46·1 years; 8375 [90·1%] women, 893 [9·6%] men, and 32 [0·3%] participants who identified as non-binary). 6273 (67·5%) of respondents identified as White, 1565 (16·8%) as Latin American, 198 (2·1%) as Black, 190 (2·0%) as Asian, and 42 (0·5%) as Native American or Aboriginal or First Nation. The most common rheumatic disease diagnoses included rheumatoid arthritis (3636 [39·1%] of 9300), systemic lupus erythematosus (2882 [31·0%]), and Sjögren's syndrome (1290 [13·9%]). Most respondents (6921 [82·0%] of 8441) continued their antirheumatic medications as prescribed. Almost all (9266 [99·7%] of 9297) respondents adopted protective behaviours to limit SARS-CoV-2 exposure. A change in employment status occurred in 2524 (27·1%) of 9300) of respondents, with a 13·6% decrease in the number in full-time employment (from 4066 to 3514). INTERPRETATION: People with rheumatic disease maintained therapy and followed public health advice to mitigate the risks of COVID-19. Substantial employment status changes occurred, with potential implications for health-care access, medication affordability, mental health, and rheumatic disease activity. FUNDING: American College of Rheumatology.

18.
J Rheumatol ; 49(1): 110-114, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478163

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pregnancy outcomes in patients with rheumatic disease who were pregnant at the time of infection. METHODS: Since March 2020, the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance has collected cases of patients with rheumatic disease with COVID-19. We report details of pregnant women at the time of COVID-19 infection, including obstetric details separately ascertained from providers. RESULTS: We report on 39 patients, including 22 with obstetric detail available. The mean and median age was 33 years, range 24-45 years. Rheumatic disease diagnoses included rheumatoid arthritis (n = 9), systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 9), psoriatic arthritis/other inflammatory arthritides (n = 8), and antiphospholipid syndrome (n = 6). Most had a term birth (16/22), with 3 preterm births, 1 termination, and 1 miscarriage; 1 woman had yet to deliver at the time of report. One-quarter (n = 10/39) of pregnant women were hospitalized following COVID-19 diagnosis. Two of 39 (5%) required supplemental oxygen (both hospitalized); no patients died. The majority did not receive specific medication treatment for their COVID-19 (n = 32/39, 82%), and 7 patients received some combination of antimalarials, colchicine, anti-interleukin 1ß, azithromycin, glucocorticoids, and lopinavir/ritonavir. CONCLUSION: Women with rheumatic diseases who were pregnant at the time of COVID-19 had favorable outcomes. These data have limitations due to the small size and methodology; however, they provide cautious optimism for pregnancy outcomes for women with rheumatic disease particularly in comparison to the increased risk of poor outcomes that have been reported in other series of pregnant women with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Rheumatology , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Rheumatic Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(1): 34-40, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462913

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To update the EULAR points to consider (PtCs) on the use of immunomodulatory therapies in COVID-19. METHODS: According to the EULAR standardised operating procedures, a systematic literature review up to 14 July 2021 was conducted and followed by a consensus meeting of an international multidisciplinary task force. The new statements were consolidated by formal voting. RESULTS: We updated 2 overarching principles and 12 PtC. Evidence was only available in moderate to severe and critical patients. Glucocorticoids alone or in combination with tocilizumab are beneficial in COVID-19 cases requiring oxygen therapy and in critical COVID-19. Use of Janus kinase inhibitors (baricitinib and tofacitinib) is promising in the same populations of severe and critical COVID-19. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies and convalescent plasma may find application in early phases of the disease and in selected subgroups of immunosuppressed patients. There was insufficient robust evidence for the efficacy of other immunomodulators with further work being needed in relation to biomarker-based stratification for IL-1 therapy CONCLUSIONS: Growing evidence supports incremental efficacy of glucocorticoids alone or combined with tocilizumab/Janus kinase inhibitors in moderate to severe and critical COVID-19. Ongoing studies may unmask the potential application of other therapeutic approaches. Involvement of rheumatologists, as systemic inflammatory diseases experts, should be encouraged in clinical trials of immunomodulatory therapy in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Consensus Development Conferences as Topic , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Immunomodulation , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
20.
RMD Open ; 7(3)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We describe the early experiences of adults with systemic rheumatic disease who received the COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: From 2 April to 30 April 2021, we conducted an online, international survey of adults with systemic rheumatic disease who received COVID-19 vaccination. We collected patient-reported data on clinician communication, beliefs and intent about discontinuing disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) around the time of vaccination, and patient-reported adverse events after vaccination. RESULTS: We analysed 2860 adults with systemic rheumatic diseases who received COVID-19 vaccination (mean age 55.3 years, 86.7% female, 86.3% white). Types of COVID-19 vaccines were Pfizer-BioNTech (53.2%), Oxford/AstraZeneca (22.6%), Moderna (21.3%), Janssen/Johnson & Johnson (1.7%) and others (1.2%). The most common rheumatic disease was rheumatoid arthritis (42.3%), and 81.2% of respondents were on a DMARD. The majority (81.9%) reported communicating with clinicians about vaccination. Most (66.9%) were willing to temporarily discontinue DMARDs to improve vaccine efficacy, although many (44.3%) were concerned about rheumatic disease flares. After vaccination, the most reported patient-reported adverse events were fatigue/somnolence (33.4%), headache (27.7%), muscle/joint pains (22.8%) and fever/chills (19.9%). Rheumatic disease flares that required medication changes occurred in 4.6%. CONCLUSION: Among adults with systemic rheumatic disease who received COVID-19 vaccination, patient-reported adverse events were typical of those reported in the general population. Most patients were willing to temporarily discontinue DMARDs to improve vaccine efficacy. The relatively low frequency of rheumatic disease flare requiring medications was reassuring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Rheumatology , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
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