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1.
Biomedica ; 42(2): 302-314, 2022 06 01.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903844

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The inappropriate use of antibiotics is associated with a greater risk for antimicrobial resistance, high health care costs, adverse events, and worse clinical outcomes. Objective: To determine the prescription patterns and approved and nonapproved indications for macrolides in a group of patients from Colombia. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study on the indications for the use of macrolides in outpatients registered in a drug-dispensing database of approximately 8.5 million people affiliated with the Colombian health system. Sociodemographic, pharmacological, and clinical variables were considered. Results: A total of 9.344 patients had received a macrolide prescription; their median age was 40.1 years (interquartile range: 27.1-53.3 years) and 58.3% were women. The most commonly prescribed macrolide was azithromycin (38.8%) most frequently for Helicobacter pylori infection (15.9%) and pneumonia treatment (15.8%). A total of 31.3% of the prescriptions were used for unapproved indications: common cold (7.8%), COVID-19 (4.0%), and acute bronchitis (3.5%). Residence in the Caribbean region (OR=1.17; 95%CI 1.05-1.31), dental prescriptions (OR=2.75; 95%CI 1.91-3.96), presence of chronic respiratory comorbidities (OR=1.30; 95%CI 1.08-1.56), and prescription of erythromycin (OR=3.66; 95%CI 3.24-4.14) or azithromycin (OR=2.15; 95%CI 1,92-2.41) were associated with a higher probability of macrolide use for unapproved indications while being 18-64 years old (OR=0.81; 95%CI 0.71-0.93) or 65 years or older (OR=0.77; 95%CI 0.63-0.94) and residing in Bogotá-Cundinamarca (OR=0.74; 95%CI 0.65-0.85) were associated with reduced risk. Conclusions: Most patients received macrolides for respiratory tract infections; erythromycin and azithromycin were used for unapproved indications in people under 18 years of age and those with chronic respiratory diseases.


Introducción. El uso inadecuado de antibióticos se asocia con aumento de la resistencia antimicrobiana, mayores costos de atención médica, más efectos adversos y peores resultados clínicos. Objetivo. Determinar los patrones de prescripción y las indicaciones aprobadas y no aprobadas para macrólidos en un grupo de pacientes en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio de corte transversal sobre las indicaciones de uso de macrólidos en pacientes ambulatorios a partir de una base de datos de dispensación de medicamentos de 8,5 millones, aproximadamente, de personas afiliadas al sistema de salud de Colombia. Se consideraron variables sociodemográficas, farmacológicas y clínicas. Resultados. Se encontraron 9.344 pacientes que habían recibido prescripción de macrólidos; su mediana de edad era de 40,1 años (rango intercuartílico: 27,1-53,3 años) y el 58,3 % correspondía a mujeres. El macrólido más prescrito fue la azitromicina (38,8 %) y los usos más frecuentes fueron el tratamiento de la infección por Helicobacter pylori (15,9 %) y la neumonía (15,8 %). El 31,3 % de las prescripciones correspondía a indicaciones no aprobadas, destacándose el resfriado común (7,8 %), la Covid-19 (4,0 %) y la bronquitis aguda (3,5 %). La residencia en la región Caribe (OR=1,17; IC95% 1,05-1,31), las prescripciones odontológicas (OR=2,75; IC95% 1,91-3,96), las comorbilidades respiratorias crónicas (OR=1,30; IC95% 1,08-1,56), y la prescripción de eritromicina (OR=3,66; IC95% 3,24-4,14) o azitromicina (OR=2,15; IC95% 1,92-2,41), se asociaron con una mayor probabilidad de recibir macrólidos para indicaciones no aprobadas, en tanto que tener entre 18 y 64 años (OR=0,81; IC95% 0,71-0,93), 65 o más años (OR=0,77; IC95% 0,63-0,94) y residir en Bogotá-Cundinamarca (OR=0,74; IC95% 0,65-0,85) reducían dicho riesgo. Conclusiones. La mayoría de los pacientes recibieron macrólidos para infecciones del sistema respiratorio; la eritromicina y la azitromicina se prescribieron en indicaciones no aprobadas en menores de 18 años y en quienes presentaban enfermedades respiratorias crónicas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colombia/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies
2.
Ther Adv Drug Saf ; 13: 20420986221072376, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770143

ABSTRACT

AIM: Quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic altered the supply and demand of health services. This, together with the 'infodemic' and generalized panic, could alter the patterns of self-medication in the population. The objective was to characterize the patterns of self-medication in four cities of Colombia during mandatory preventive isolation in 2020. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study done in four Colombian cities during mandatory national preventive isolation between June and September 2020. A sample of 397 adults who responded to an online survey, based on the Instrument for Systematic Data Collection for Self-medication (Instrumento de Recolección Sistemática de Datos para la Automedicación-IRIS-AM), was obtained. The use of social networks (including WhatsApp) as the source of information about medications was explored. RESULTS: The 397 people surveyed had a median age of 31.0 years, and 58.2% were women. The prevalence of self-medication during lockdown was 34.3% (n = 136). Medications targeting the nervous system (n = 117; 86.0% of those participants with self-medication) and the musculoskeletal system (n = 68; 50.0%) were the most commonly used. Ten (7.4%) of the self-medicated patients reported doing so to prevent COVID-19, and 15 (11.0%) named social networks as the source of information. CONCLUSION: More than one-third of the participants reported self-medication during COVID-19 lockdown, mainly with analgesic-type nervous system medications. People who reported self-medication to prevent COVID-19 often got their information from social networks, the Internet, and WhatsApp. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: Self-medication during mandatory COVID-19 isolation: Introduction: Self-medication refers to the use of medications to treat self-diagnosed disorders or symptoms, and it can lead to health problems. This habit is widely practiced by the people, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The objective was to characterize the patterns of self-medication in four cities of Colombia during mandatory preventive isolation in 2020 due the quarantine by COVID-19 explored pandemic. Methods: We made a cross-sectional study between June and September 2020, and a sample of 397 adults who responded to an online survey. The use of social networks (including WhatsApp) as the source of information about medications was explored. Results: The prevalence of self-medication during lockdown was 34.3% (n = 136). Medications targeting the nervous system (n = 117; 86.0% of those participants with self-medication) and the musculoskeletal system (strategies n = 68; 50.0%) were the most commonly used. Conclusion: People who reported self-medication to prevent COVID-19 often got their information from social networks, the Internet, and WhatsApp. These findings raise the possibility of designing pedagogical strategies on this topic.

3.
Drugs Real World Outcomes ; 8(3): 417-425, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients are admitted to intensive care units so they can be comprehensively managed and provided with services not covered in general hospital wards, with the aim to increase their chances of survival. These procedures include invasive mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with survival in critically ill patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit of a tertiary-level hospital in Colombia. METHODS: This was a retrospective follow-up study of a cohort of adult patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit in San José de Buga Hospital, between 2017 and 2018. Sociodemographic, clinical, and pharmacological variables were identified. Using Cox regression, variables associated with survival and complications were identified. RESULTS: A total of 357 patients were analyzed. The average age was 64.8 ± 18.9 years, and 52.9% were male. The most frequent diagnoses were sepsis/septic shock (38.4%) and trauma (17.4%). The main factors associated with shorter survival were advanced age (HR 0.97; 95% CI 0.96-0.99), a diagnosis of septic shock (HR 0.29; 95% CI 0.18-0.48) or diabetes mellitus at admission (HR 0.57; 95% CI 0.33-0.98), a healthcare-associated infection (HR 0.51; 95% CI 0.33-0.80), and the need for vasopressors (HR 0.36; 95% CI 0.22-0.59). The administration of systemic corticosteroids was associated with a higher probability of survival (HR 1.93; 95% CI 1.15-3.25). CONCLUSIONS: The use of systemic corticosteroids was associated with a greater probability of survival in critically ill patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit. The identification of the variables associated with a higher risk of dying should allow care protocols to be improved, thereby extending the life expectancy of these patients.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260169, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526694

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected millions of people worldwide, and several sociodemographic variables, comorbidities and care variables have been associated with complications and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors associated with admission to intensive care units (ICUs) and mortality in patients with COVID-19 from 4 clinics in Colombia. METHODS: This was a follow-up study of a cohort of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between March and August 2020. Sociodemographic, clinical (Charlson comorbidity index and NEWS 2 score) and pharmacological variables were identified. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify variables associated with the risk of admission to the ICU and death (p<0.05). RESULTS: A total of 780 patients were analyzed, with a median age of 57.0 years; 61.2% were male. On admission, 54.9% were classified as severely ill, 65.3% were diagnosed with acute respiratory distress syndrome, 32.4% were admitted to the ICU, and 26.0% died. The factors associated with a greater likelihood of ICU admission were severe pneumonia (OR: 9.86; 95%CI:5.99-16.23), each 1-point increase in the NEWS 2 score (OR:1.09; 95%CI:1.002-1.19), history of ischemic heart disease (OR:3.24; 95%CI:1.16-9.00), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR:2.07; 95%CI:1.09-3.90). The risk of dying increased in those older than 65 years (OR:3.08; 95%CI:1.66-5.71), in patients with acute renal failure (OR:6.96; 95%CI:4.41-11.78), admitted to the ICU (OR:6.31; 95%CI:3.63-10.95), and for each 1-point increase in the Charlson comorbidity index (OR:1.16; 95%CI:1.002-1.35). CONCLUSIONS: Factors related to increasing the probability of requiring ICU care or dying in patients with COVID-19 were identified, facilitating the development of anticipatory intervention measures that favor comprehensive care and improve patient prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Colombia , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Sex Factors
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