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1.
Pathogens ; 11(10)2022 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043896

ABSTRACT

Mucosal immunity, including secretory IgA (sIgA), plays an important role in the early defence against SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the local immune response in tears in relation to blood antibody reservoirs has not yet been conducted. A total of 179 symptomatic laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were included in this single-centre study. Conjunctival swabs were analysed by a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. In parallel, tear samples collected by Schirmer test strips and plasma samples were analysed by ELISA to detect anti-S1 IgA levels. The concentrations of selected inflammatory cytokines in tears were determined by a magnetic bead assay. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 sIgA was present in the tears of 81 (45.25%) confirmed COVID-19 patients, and the tear IgA levels were correlated with the plasma IgA levels (Rs = +0.29, p = 0.0003). SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the conjunctival sac was identified in 18 COVID-19 patients (10%). Positive correlations between the tear IgA level and the concentrations of several cytokines TNF-α (Rs = +0.23, p = 0.002), IL-1ß (Rs = +0.25, p < 0.001), IL-2 (Rs = +0.20, p = 0.007), IL-4 (Rs = +0.16, p = 0.04), IL-5 (Rs = +0.36, p < 0.001), IL-6 (Rs = +0.32, p < 0.001), IL-8 (Rs = +0.31, p < 0.001), VEGF (Rs = +0.25, p < 0.001) and GM-CSF (Rs = +0.27, p < 0.001) were also found. Quantitative tear film-based sIgA could potentially serve as a rapid and easily accessible biomarker of external mucosal immunity to SARS-CoV-2. The concentration of sIgA is directly related to individual host immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043779

ABSTRACT

The exact pathophysiology of severe COVID-19 is not entirely elucidated, but it has been established that hyperinflammatory responses and cytokine storms play important roles. The aim of this study was to examine CMV status, select chemokines, and complement components in COVID-19, and how concentrations of given molecules differ over time at both molecular and proteomic levels. A total of 210 COVID-19 patients (50 ICU and 160 non-ICU patients) and 80 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Concentrations of select chemokines (CXCL8, CXCL10, CCL2, CCL3, CCR1) and complement factors (C2, C9, CFD, C4BPA, C5AR1, CR1) were examined at mRNA and protein levels with regard to a COVID-19 course (ICU vs. non-ICU group) and CMV status at different time intervals. We detected several significant differences in chemokines and complement profiles between ICU and non-ICU groups. Pro-inflammatory chemokines and the complement system appeared to greatly contribute to the pathogenesis and development of severe COVID-19. Higher concentrations of CXCL8 and CCL2 in the plasma, with reduced mRNA expression presumably through negative feedback mechanisms, as well as CMV-positive status, correlated with more severe courses of COVID-19. Therefore, CXCL8, CCL2, and CMV seropositivity should be considered as new prognostic factors for severe COVID-19 courses. However, more in-depth research is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Chemokine CCL2/metabolism , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Humans , Prognosis , Proteomics , RNA, Messenger
3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 153: 113396, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2003883

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have shown that methylation changes identified in blood cells of COVID-19 patients have a potential to be used as biomarkers of SARS-CoV-2 infection outcomes. However, different studies have reported different subsets of epigenetic lesions that stratify patients according to the severity of infection symptoms, and more importantly, the significance of those epigenetic changes in the pathology of the infection is still not clear. We used methylomics and transcriptomics data from the largest so far cohort of COVID-19 patients from four geographically distant populations, to identify casual interactions of blood cells' methylome in pathology of the COVID-19 disease. We identified a subset of methylation changes that is uniformly present in all COVID-19 patients regardless of symptoms. Those changes are not present in patients suffering from upper respiratory tract infections with symptoms similar to COVID-19. Most importantly, the identified epigenetic changes affect the expression of genes involved in interferon response pathways and the expression of those genes differs between patients admitted to intensive care units and only hospitalized. In conclusion, the DNA methylation changes involved in pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which are specific to COVID-19 patients, can not only be utilized as biomarkers in the disease management but also present a potential treatment target.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Epigenesis, Genetic , Humans , Interferons/genetics , Interferons/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7225, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890252

ABSTRACT

Tear fluid cytokine levels may serve as biomarkers of innate immune system response against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, our aim was to analyze panel of selected inflammatory cytokines in tears of COVID-19 patients in relation to presence of SARS-CoV-2 viral load in conjunctival secretions. In this study concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1b, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 p70, GM-CSF, and IFN-γ were determined by a magnetic bead assay in tear film collected from 232 symptomatic COVID-19 patients. SARS-CoV-2 ocular infection was confirmed based on positive conjunctival swab-based RT-PCR testing. Viral RNA in conjunctival sac was detected in 21 patients (9%). No relation between presence and the duration of ophthalmic symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 infection detected in conjunctival secretions was found. The tear film concentrations of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-5, IL-8 and GM-CSF were found to be significantly greater among patients with positive conjunctival swab results as compared to the group negative for SARS-CoV-2 in conjunctival sac. Our current data depict a group of inflammatory mediators in human tears, which may play a significant role in ocular pathology of SARS-CoV-2 conjunctival infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Conjunctiva , Cytokines , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Humans , Interleukin-5 , Interleukin-8 , SARS-CoV-2 , Tears , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
5.
J Clin Med ; 11(9)2022 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the presence and duration of ophthalmic symptoms in the early phase of COVID-19 to assess the corresponding local immune response on the ocular surface. METHODS: The study included data from 180 COVID-19 patients and 160 age-matched healthy controls. The main finding was the occurrence of ophthalmological manifestations at the time of admission to the hospital and during the preceding 7 days. Tear film concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1b, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 p70, GM-CSF, and IFN-γ were determined by a magnetic bead assay. RESULTS: Among the COVID-19 patients, 12.64% had at least one ocular symptom at the time of admission, and 24.14% had symptoms within the preceding 7 days (p < 0.001 vs. controls). We found that the COVID-19 patients complained more frequently about eye tearing (p = 0.04) and eye pain (p = 0.01) than controls. A multivariate analysis of the patients and controls adjusted for age and sex revealed that COVID-19 was an independent factor associated with higher VEGF and IL-10 tear film concentrations (ß = +0.13, p = 0.047 and ß = +0.34, p < 0.001, respectively) and lower IL-1ß, IL-8, and GM-CSF levels (ß = -0.25, p < 0.001; ß = -0.18, p = 0.004; and ß = -0.82, p = 0.0 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 does not attract a strong local response of the conjunctival immune system; therefore, ophthalmic symptoms may not constitute a substantial element in the clinical picture of novel COVID-19 infection.

6.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(3)2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760768

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: We present a retrospective report on the cardio-hematological care of hematology patients at a university hospital in Poland during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: The number of hospitalizations at the Hematology Department and cardio-hematology consultations throughout 2019 and 2020 was analyzed. The types of cardiac procedures, risk factors, and complications were also assessed. Results: A significant reduction in the number of hospitalizations was observed in 2020 as compared to 2019. However, there were no significant differences in the incidence of hematological diseases between both of the analyzed years. In 2019, 299 cardiac consultations were performed in hematological patients, and there was a total of 352 such consultations performed in 2020 (p = 0.042). Less high-risk tests (transesophageal and stress echocardiography) were performed in 2020, in favor of the use of cardiac computed tomography in cardiac diagnostics as it was safer during the pandemic. At least one cardiovascular risk factor during cardiac consultation was noted in 42% and 48% of hematological patients in 2019 and 2020, respectively. Among 651 examined hematological patients, the most common findings were mild cardiac complications of hemato-oncological treatment, which were found in 57 patients. Conclusions: This study seems to confirm that during a pandemic there is an increased demand for well-organized cardio-hematology consultations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
7.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(1)2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637531

ABSTRACT

The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of asymptomatic infection and the occurrence of symptomatic COVID-19 on specific biochemical, renal, and immune parameters-renalase, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) cystatin C (CysC), and creatinine-and their weekly fluctuations during a one-month observation period in COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital. The study involved 86 individuals: 30 patients with diagnosed COVID-19, 28 people with asymptomatic infection confirmed with IgG antibodies-the IG(+) group-and 28 individuals without any (IgG, IgE) anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies-the IG(-) group. In the COVID-19 group, blood was drawn four times: (1) on day 0/1 after admission to hospital (C1 group), (2) 7 days later (C7 group), (3) 14 days later (C14 group), and (4) 28 days later (C28 group). In the IG(-) and IG(+) groups, blood was drawn once. There were no significant differences in creatinine, Cys C, and uric acid between any of the analyzed groups. NGAL levels were significantly higher in IG(+) and at all time-points in the COVID-19 groups than in controls. A similar observation was made for renalase at the C7, C14, and C28 time-points. Plasma renalase, NGAL, and CysC are unrelated to kidney function in non-critically ill COVID-19 patients and those with asymptomatic infection. Renalase and NGAL are most likely related to the activation of the immune system rather than kidney function. Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection causes a rise in plasma NGAL levels similar to those observed in symptomatic COVID-19 patients. Therefore, more attention should be paid to tracking and monitoring the health of these people.

8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(7)2021 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314694

ABSTRACT

We present one of few cases of COVID-19 occurrence during the early phase of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We observed an interesting correlation between the patient's rapid clinical deterioration and myeloid reconstitution that cannot be assigned to engraftment syndrome. Our report emphasizes the need to investigate whether timely steroid therapy upon neutrophil engraftment in the setting of COVID-19 could limit the extent of lung injury and prevent ARDS. Furthermore, we discuss a significant issue of possible prolonged incubation of the virus in heavily pretreated hematological patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplantation, Autologous
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