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1.
biorxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.09.30.509852

ABSTRACT

Memory B cells (MBCs) generate rapid antibody responses upon secondary encounter with a pathogen. Here, we investigated the kinetics, avidity and cross-reactivity of serum antibodies and MBCs in 155 SARS-CoV-2 infected and vaccinated individuals over a 16-month timeframe. SARS-CoV-2-specific MBCs and serum antibodies reached steady-state titers with comparable kinetics in infected and vaccinated individuals. Whereas MBCs of infected individuals targeted both pre- and postfusion Spike (S), most vaccine-elicited MBCs were specific for prefusion S, consistent with the use of prefusion-stabilized S in mRNA vaccines. Furthermore, a large fraction of MBCs recognizing postfusion S cross-reacted with human betacoronaviruses. The avidity of MBC-derived and serum antibodies increased over time resulting in enhanced resilience to viral escape by SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 sub-lineages, albeit only partially for BA.4 and BA.5 sublineages. Overall, the maturation of high-affinity and broadly-reactive MBCs provides the basis for effective recall responses to future SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Lymphoma, B-Cell , Infections , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
2.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.05.11.20098442

ABSTRACT

Background&Aims: The Milan metropolitan area in Northern Italy was among the most severely hit by the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. The aim of this study was to examine the seroprevalence trends of SARS-CoV-2 in healthy asymptomatic adults, the risk factors, and laboratory correlates. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a random sample of blood donors since the start of the outbreak (February 24th to April 8th 2020, n=789). Presence of IgM/IgG antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2-Nucleocapsid protein was assessed by a lateral flow immunoassay. Results: The test had a 100/98.3 sensitivity/specificity, and for IgG+ was validated in a subset by an independent ELISA against the Spike protein (N=34, P<0.001). At the outbreak start, the overall adjusted seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was 2.7%, 95% c.i. 0.3-6% (P<0.0001 vs. 120 historical controls). During the study period characterized by a gradual implementation of social distancing measures, there was a progressive increase in adjusted seroprevalence to 5.2%, 95% c.i. 2.4-9.0, due to a rise in IgG+ tests to 5%, 95%CI 2.8-8.2 (P=0.004 for trend, adjusted weekly increase 2.7+/-1.3%), but not of IgM+ (P=NS). At multivariate logistic regression analysis, seroconversion to IgG+ was more frequent in younger (P=0.043), while recent infections (IgM+) in older individuals (P=0.002). IgM+ was independently associated with higher triglycerides, eosinophils, and lymphocytes (P<0.05). Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection was already circulating in Milan at the outbreak start. Social distancing may have been more effective in younger individuals, and by the end of April 2.4-9.0% of healthy adults had evidence of seroconversion. Asymptomatic infection may affect lipid profile and blood count.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
3.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.03.15.20032870

ABSTRACT

This report describes the isolation, the molecular characterization and the phylogenetic analysis of the first three complete genomes of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from three patients involved in the first outbreak of COVID-19 in Lombardy, Italy. Early molecular epidemiological tracing suggests that SARS-CoV-2 was present in Italy weeks before the first reported cases of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
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