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Value in Health ; 26(6 Supplement):S203, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20239044


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic catalyzed innovation in infection control measures, including widespread deployment of digital contact tracing systems. However, these technologies were not well understood by the general public and were complex for the public health community to implement, hampering adoption. Objective(s): To provide an overview of existing digital contact tracing systems, creating a framework for understanding design elements that impact their effectiveness as public health tools and offering a rubric for decision-makers to evaluate different systems for selection and implementation. Method(s): Scientific literature and publicly available information from relevant health authorities and other stakeholders was reviewed. Information was synthesized to develop a conceptual framework explaining how key design elements impact effectiveness of digital contact tracing systems and highlighting opportunities for future improvement. Result(s): A range of digital contact tracing interventions were deployed by governments worldwide and several professional sports leagues. Key design elements of the systems include: (1) data architecture (i.e., centralized versus decentralized systems, impacting privacy guarantees and data availability);(2) proximity detection technology (e.g., type of device signaling);(3) alert logic and timing (e.g., time- and distance-based criteria affecting sensitivity and specificity of alerts;real-time proximity alerts and/or bidirectional contact tracing, determining scope of infection prevention);(4) population (eligibility and availability);and (5) the structural and public health context of intervention (e.g., availability and timeliness of testing). Several systems demonstrated effectiveness in preventing transmission during COVID-19, though numerous limitations have also been documented in the literature. Conclusion(s): Digital contact tracing systems have the potential to mitigate the economic and public health impact of future infectious disease outbreaks, reducing community transmission and detecting potential cases earlier in the disease course. Lessons learned from solutions deployed during the COVID-19 pandemic provide an opportunity to improve multiple aspects of these systems, enhancing preparedness for future outbreaks.Copyright © 2023

Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety ; 31:611-612, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2084087
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety ; 31:614-614, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2083876
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety ; 31:608-608, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2083821
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety ; 31:622-622, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2083578
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety ; 30:187-187, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1381658
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety ; 30:98-98, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1381632
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259555


During COVID-19 restrictions in spring 2020, college students experienced closed dormitories and increased unemployment and many students moved in with their families. College students were vulnerable to food insecurity pre-pandemic and this study examined how the living situations and food security status changed for Midwestern university students due to COVID-19 restrictions. An email survey administered to Iowa State University students between the ages of 18 and 30 who physically attended campus prior to its closure produced 1434 responses. Students living with a parent or guardian increased by 44% and were less likely to experience food insecurity or less likely to work. They had lower stress and ate more home-cooked meals. Students living on their own had higher rates of food insecurity, greater stress, poorer health status, higher cooking self-efficacy, and worked more hours. Seventeen percent of all students were food insecure; related factors were non-White ethnicity, lower cooking self-efficacy, undergraduate status, receipt of financial aid, employment, stress, living in the same situation as before the campus closure, and consumption of more take-out or fast food. These individuals had more barriers to food access. Knowledge of these factors provide useful information to inform future support services for this population in similar conditions.

COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Food Security , Pandemics , Residence Characteristics , Students , Universities , Adolescent , Adult , Cooking , Cross-Sectional Studies , Employment , Family , Fast Foods , Feeding Behavior , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Midwestern United States , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress, Psychological , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult