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Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(3): 253-260, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009986


BACKGROUND: Personal protective equipment (PPE) is a critical need during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Alternative sources of surgical masks, including 3-dimensionally (3D) printed approaches that may be reused, are urgently needed to prevent PPE shortages. Few data exist identifying decontamination strategies to inactivate viral pathogens and retain 3D-printing material integrity. OBJECTIVE: To test viral disinfection methods on 3D-printing materials. METHODS: The viricidal activity of common disinfectants (10% bleach, quaternary ammonium sanitizer, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or 70% isopropanol and exposure to heat (50°C, and 70°C) were tested on four 3D-printed materials used in the healthcare setting, including a surgical mask design developed by the Veterans' Health Administration. Inactivation was assessed for several clinically relevant RNA and DNA pathogenic viruses, including severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 and all viruses tested were completely inactivated by a single application of bleach, ammonium quaternary compounds, or hydrogen peroxide. Similarly, exposure to dry heat (70°C) for 30 minutes completely inactivated all viruses tested. In contrast, 70% isopropanol reduced viral titers significantly less well following a single application. Inactivation did not interfere with material integrity of the 3D-printed materials. CONCLUSIONS: Several standard decontamination approaches effectively disinfected 3D-printed materials. These approaches were effective in the inactivation SARS-CoV-2, its surrogates, and other clinically relevant viral pathogens. The decontamination of 3D-printed surgical mask materials may be useful during crisis situations in which surgical mask supplies are limited.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Masks , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation , 2-Propanol , DNA, Viral/drug effects , Decontamination/methods , HIV-1/drug effects , Healthy Volunteers , Hot Temperature , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Personal Protective Equipment , Printing, Three-Dimensional , RNA, Viral/drug effects , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
J Virol ; 94(3)2020 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-124739


The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a cytoplasmic receptor/transcription factor that modulates several cellular and immunological processes following activation by pathogen-associated stimuli, though its role during virus infection is largely unknown. Here, we show that AhR is activated in cells infected with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a coronavirus (CoV), and contributes to the upregulation of downstream effector TCDD-inducible poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (TiPARP) during infection. Knockdown of TiPARP reduced viral replication and increased interferon expression, suggesting that TiPARP functions in a proviral manner during MHV infection. We also show that MHV replication induced the expression of other genes known to be downstream of AhR in macrophages and dendritic cells and in livers of infected mice. Further, we found that chemically inhibiting or activating AhR reciprocally modulated the expression levels of cytokines induced by infection, specifically, interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), consistent with a role for AhR activation in the host response to MHV infection. Furthermore, while indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) drives AhR activation in other settings, MHV infection induced equal expression of downstream genes in wild-type (WT) and IDO1-/- macrophages, suggesting an alternative pathway of AhR activation. In summary, we show that coronaviruses elicit AhR activation by an IDO1-independent pathway, contributing to upregulation of downstream effectors, including the proviral factor TiPARP, and to modulation of cytokine gene expression, and we identify a previously unappreciated role for AhR signaling in CoV pathogenesis.IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses are a family of positive-sense RNA viruses with human and agricultural significance. Characterizing the mechanisms by which coronavirus infection dictates pathogenesis or counters the host immune response would provide targets for the development of therapeutics. Here, we show that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is activated in cells infected with a prototypic coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), resulting in the expression of several effector genes. AhR is important for modulation of the host immune response to MHV and plays a role in the expression of TiPARP, which we show is required for maximal viral replication. Taken together, our findings highlight a previously unidentified role for AhR in regulating coronavirus replication and the immune response to the virus.

Cytokines/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase/metabolism , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/biosynthesis , Proviruses/physiology , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , Cytokines/genetics , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase/genetics , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/genetics , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/genetics , Signal Transduction