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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-338380

ABSTRACT

Secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) plays a crucial role in the mucosal immunity for preventing the invasion of the exogenous antigens, however, little has been understood about the neutralizing activity of serum IgA. Here, to examine the role of IgA antibodies against COVID-19 illnesses, we determined the neutralizing activity of serum/plasma IgG and IgA purified from previously SARS-CoV-2-infected and COVID-19 mRNA-vaccine-receiving individuals. We found that serum/plasma IgA possesses substantial but rather modest neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 compared to IgG with no significant correlation with the disease severity. Neutralizing IgA and IgG antibodies achieved the greatest activity at approximately 25 and 35 days after symptom onset, respectively. However, neutralizing IgA activity quickly diminished and went down below the detection limit approximately 70 days after onset, while substantial IgG activity was observed till 200 days after onset. The total neutralizing activity in sera/plasmas of those with COVID-19 largely correlated with that in purified-IgG and purified-IgA and levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2-S1-binding IgG and anti-SARS-CoV-2-S1-binding IgA. In individuals who were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 but had no detectable neutralizing IgA activity, a single dose of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 elicited potent serum/plasma neutralizing IgA activity but the second dose did not further strengthen the neutralization antibody response. The present data show that the systemic immune stimulation with natural infection and COVID-19 mRNA-vaccines elicit both SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing IgG and IgA response in serum, but the IgA response is modest and diminishes faster compared to IgG response.

2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 121: 85-88, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873077

ABSTRACT

Although messenger ribonucleic acid vaccines are substantially effective toward SARS-CoV-2 infection, patients with hematologic malignancies are still prone to the virus. Herein, we report a fatal case of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant infection in a patient with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with remission by bendamustine-rituximab (BR) therapy completed a year ago. The serologic study revealed impaired responsiveness toward vaccines and prolonged high viral load after infection. BR therapy seemingly induced an immune escape. Prevention and treatment strategies for such vulnerable patients should be clarified immediately.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Bendamustine Hydrochloride/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Rituximab/adverse effects
3.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(7): 991-994, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828874

ABSTRACT

Management of COVID-19 patients with humoral immunodeficiency is challenging. We describe a woman with COVID-19 with multiple relapses due to anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody treatment. She was successfully treated with casirivimab/imdevimab and confirmed to have neutralizing antibodies. This case suggests that monoclonal antibodies have therapeutic and prophylactic value in patients with humoral immunodeficiency.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776380

ABSTRACT

BNT162b2, an mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech, New York, NY, USA), is one of the most effective COVID-19 vaccines and has been approved by more than 130 countries worldwide. However, several studies have reported that the COVID-19 vaccine shows high interpersonal variability in terms of humoral and cellular responses, such as those with respect to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, IgM, neutralizing antibodies, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The objective of this study is to investigate the kinetic changes in anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG (IgG-S) profiles and adverse reactions and their associations with HLA profiles (HLA-A, -C, -B, -DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DPA1 and -DPB1) among 100 hospital workers from the Center Hospital of the National Center for Global Health and Medicine (NCGM), Tokyo, Japan. DQA1*03:03:01 (p = 0.017; Odd ratio (OR) 2.80, 95%confidence interval (CI) 1.05-7.25) was significantly associated with higher IgG-S production after two doses of BNT162b2, while DQB1*06:01:01:01 (p = 0.028, OR 0.27, 95%CI 0.05-0.94) was significantly associated with IgG-S declines after two doses of BNT162b2. No HLA alleles were significantly associated with either local symptoms or fever. However, C*12:02:02 (p = 0.058; OR 0.42, 95%CI 0.15-1.16), B*52:01:01 (p = 0.031; OR 0.38, 95%CI 0.14-1.03), DQA1*03:02:01 (p = 0.028; OR 0.39, 95%CI 0.15-1.00) and DPB1*02:01:02 (p = 0.024; OR 0.45, 95%CI 0.21-0.97) appeared significantly associated with protection against systemic symptoms after two doses of BNT162b2 vaccination. Further studies with larger sample sizes are clearly warranted to determine HLA allele associations with the production and long-term sustainability of IgG-S after COVID-19 vaccination.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331225

ABSTRACT

In the present prospective study, 225 individuals in Kumamoto General Hospital, Japan, who received two-doses of BNT162b2 vaccine were enrolled/followed up over 150 days. Neutralizing activity (NT 50 ) of sera on day-60 post-1st -dose against wild-type (SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan )(n = 211) and 9 variants (VOCs;Alpha/Beta/Gamma/Delta, and VUM;Kappa)(n = 45) were examined. Also, antiviral activity (EC 50 ) of IgG obtained from day-60 sera against SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan and 9 variants were evaluated (n = 45). Finally, time-dependent alterations of IgG-activity (n = 25) against SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan /variants were examined. Day-60 sera showed reduced NT 50 by more than 50% against all variants, and greatest reduction was seen with Beta. IgG of high-responders (IgG high s) and moderate-responders (IgG moderate s) showed similar fold-changes in EC 50 against each variant compared to SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan . However, absolute EC 50 of IgG high s were 2 ~ 3-folds greater than those of IgG moderate s against all SARS-CoV-2s. Evaluation of EC 50 of IgG obtained at different time-points (day-28 to -150) revealed time-dependent reduction of IgG-activity against various VOCs/VUM. However, against Delta, relatively long-lasting favorable EC 50 (at least 150 days) of both IgG were observed. Our data strongly suggest that rapid expansion of vaccine administration in Japan was remarkably effective to repress SARS-CoV-2 pandemic with the spread of Delta, and give insights in better understanding of the antiviral-efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and vaccine-elicited immune-response.

6.
Vaccine ; 40(13): 1924-1927, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757911

ABSTRACT

High vaccine reactogenicities may reflect stronger immune responses, but the epidemiological evidence for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines is sparse and inconsistent. We observed that a fever of ≥38℃ after two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine was associated with higher severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike IgG titers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 119: 18-20, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739799

ABSTRACT

We present a case of a 58-year-old Japanese man with a history of 2 previous COVID-19 infections, who received 2 doses of mRNA-1273 vaccine. We are not aware of any previous study regarding antibody tendency after 2 infections and 2 vaccinations. We evaluated his IgG titer of antispike protein and neutralizing activity from the first infection before and after 2 doses of vaccine. Both antispike IgG titer and neutralizing activity showed a tendency to decline almost 1 year after initial infection; they rapidly increased after the first vaccination, and they remained high after the second vaccination. Although this is a single case report, it seems to have generalizability because the findings are consistent with previous reports regarding single infections or 3 doses of vaccination. Our findings suggest that a single booster shot may provide sufficient protection and aid the understanding of immunologic responses of vaccination in patients with COVID-19 with history of re-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
10.
CEN Case Rep ; 2022 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734073

ABSTRACT

Hemodialysis patients are vulnerable to severe and lethal COVID-19, and their protective immunity against COVID-19 is not yet fully understood. Therefore, we report a case of COVID-19 reinfection in a hemodialysis patient 81 days after the first episode and discuss the role of antibodies in SARS-CoV-2 infection. A hemodialysis patient developed asymptomatic COVID-19 due to an outbreak in a hospital on October 29th, 2020. As he was hospitalized and did not develop any symptoms, he was discharged on November 9th. On January 18th, he presented with symptomatic COVID-19 due to close household contact. Then, he developed respiratory failure and was transferred to National Center for Global Health and Medicine if he would need intensive care. He recovered with oxygen inhalation, favipiravir, and steroid treatment, and was discharged on February 12th. To evaluate anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies during two hospital stays, we measured immunoglobulin (Ig) G specific for S1 subunit of Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 (IgG-S1) , IgG specific for the full-length S protein (anti-Spike IgG) and neutralizing antibodies. No seroconversion occurred 5 days after initial infection, the seroconversion of IgG-S1 was observed 10 days after the second infection. Similar to IgG-S1 antibody titer results, anti-Spike IgG and neutralizing antibodies increased from 12 days after the second infection. In conclusion, we experienced a case of COVID-19 reinfection in a hemodialysis patient 81 days after the first episode and showed the kinetics and role of antibodies in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further studies are needed to understand SARS-CoV-2 reinfection risk in hemodialysis patients and its clinical significance.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While increasing coverage of effective vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), emergent variants raise concerns about breakthrough infection. Data are limited, however, whether breakthrough infection during the epidemic of the variant is ascribed to insufficient vaccine-induced immunogenicity. METHODS: We described incident COVID-19 in relation to the vaccination program among workers of a referral hospital in Tokyo. During the predominantly Delta epidemic, we followed 2,415 fully vaccinated staff (BNT162b2) for breakthrough infection and selected three matched controls. We measured post-vaccination neutralizing antibodies against the wild-type, Alpha (B.1.1.7), and Delta (B.1.617.2) strains using live viruses and anti-spike antibodies using quantitative assays, and compared them using the generalized estimating equation model between the two groups. RESULTS: No COVID-19 cases occurred 1-2 months after the vaccination program during the fourth epidemic wave in Japan, dominated by the Alpha variant, while 22 cases emerged 2-4 months after the vaccination program during the fifth wave, dominated by the Delta variant. In the vaccinated cohort, all 17 cases of breakthrough infection were mild or asymptomatic and had returned to work early. There was no measurable difference between cases and controls in post-vaccination neutralizing antibody titers against the wild-type, Alpha, and Delta, and anti-spike antibody titers, while neutralizing titers against the variants were considerably lower than those against the wild-type. CONCLUSIONS: Post-vaccination neutralizing antibody titers were not decreased among patients with breakthrough infection relative to their controls under the Delta variant rampage. The result points to the importance of infection control measures in the post-vaccination era, irrespective of immunogenicity profile.

12.
J Virol ; 96(4): e0155121, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700556

ABSTRACT

Despite various attempts to treat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients with COVID-19 convalescent plasmas, neither appropriate approach nor clinical utility has been established. We examined the efficacy of administration of highly neutralizing COVID-19 convalescent plasma (hn-plasmas) and such plasma-derived IgG administration using the Syrian hamster COVID-19 model. Two hn-plasmas, which were in the best 1% of 340 neutralizing activity-determined convalescent plasmas, were intraperitoneally administered to SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters, resulting in a significant reduction of viral titers in lungs by up to 32-fold compared to the viral titers in hamsters receiving control nonneutralizing plasma, while with two moderately neutralizing plasmas (mn-plasmas) administered, viral titer reduction was by up to 6-fold. IgG fractions purified from the two hn-plasmas also reduced viral titers in lungs more than those from the two mn-plasmas. The severity of lung lesions seen in hamsters receiving hn-plasmas was minimal to moderate as assessed using microcomputerized tomography, which histological examination confirmed. Western blotting revealed that all four COVID-19 convalescent plasmas variably contained antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 components, including the receptor-binding domain and S1 domain. The present data strongly suggest that administering potent neutralizing activity-confirmed COVID-19 convalescent plasmas would be efficacious in treating patients with COVID-19. IMPORTANCE Convalescent plasmas obtained from patients who recovered from a specific infection have been used as agents to treat other patients infected with the very pathogen. To treat using convalescent plasmas, despite that more than 10 randomized controlled clinical trials have been conducted and more than 100 studies are currently ongoing, the effects of convalescent plasma against COVID-19 remained uncertain. On the other hand, certain COVID-19 vaccines have been shown to reduce the clinical COVID-19 onset by 94 to 95%, for which the elicited SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies are apparently directly responsible. Here, we demonstrate that highly neutralizing effect-confirmed convalescent plasmas significantly reduce the viral titers in the lung of SARS-CoV-2-infected Syrian hamsters and block the development of virally induced lung lesions. The present data provide a proof of concept that the presence of highly neutralizing antibody in COVID-19 convalescent plasmas is directly responsible for the reduction of viral replication and support the use of highly neutralizing antibody-containing plasmas in COVID-19 therapy with convalescent plasmas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Lung , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Male , Mesocricetus , Vero Cells
13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312156

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), persists worldwide with limited therapeutic options. Since membrane fusion between SARS-CoV-2 and host cells is essential for the early step of the infection, the membrane compositions, including sphingolipids, in host cells are considered to affect the viral infection. However, the role of sphingolipids in the life cycle of SARS-CoV-2 remains unclear. Here, we assessed several inhibitors of sphingolipid metabolism enzymes against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-mediated cell-cell fusion and viral infection in vitro . Among the compounds tested, only N -(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR, also known as fenretinide), an inhibitor of dihydroceramide Δ4-desaturase 1 (DES1) and well known for having antitumour activity, suppressed cell-cell fusion (50% effective concentration [EC 50 ] = 4.1 µM) and viral infection ([EC 50 ] = 4.4 µM), wherein the EC 50 values are below its plasma concentration in previous clinical trials on tumours. DES1 catalyses the introduction of a double bond in dihydroceramide, and the inhibition efficiencies observed were consistent with an increased ratio of saturated sphinganine-based lipids to total sphingolipids and the decreased cellular membrane fluidity. These findings, together with the accumulated clinical data regarding the safety of 4-HPR, make it a likely candidate drug to treat COVID-19.

14.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327352

ABSTRACT

BNT162b2, an mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech), is one of the most effective COVID-19 vaccines and has been approved by more than 130 countries worldwide. However, several studies have reported that the COVID-19 vaccine shows high interpersonal variability in terms of humoral and cellular responses, such as those with respect to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, IgM, neutralizing antibodies, and CD4+ & CD8+ T cells. The objective of this study is to investigate the kinetic changes in anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG (IgG-S) profiles and adverse reactions and their associations with HLA profiles among 100 hospital workers from the Center Hospital of the National Center for Global Health and Medicine (NCGM), Tokyo, Japan. DQA1*03:03:01 (P = 0.017;Odd ratio (OR) 2.80, 95%Confidence interval (CI) 1.05-7.25) was significantly associated with higher IgG-S production after two doses of BNT162b2 while DQB1*06:01:01:01 (P = 0.028, OR 0.27, 95%CI 0.05-0.94) was significantly associated with IgG-S declines after two doses of BNT162b2. No HLA alleles were significantly associated with either local symptoms or fever. However, C*12:02:02 (P = 0.058;OR 0.42, 95%CI 0.15-1.16), B*52:01:01 (P = 0.031;OR 0.38, 95%CI 0.14-1.03), DQA1*03:02:01 (P = 0.028;OR 0.39, 95%CI 0.15-1.00) and DPB1*02:01:02 (P = 0.024;OR 0.45, 95%CI 0.21-0.97) appeared significantly associated with protection against systemic symptoms after two doses of BNT162b2 vaccination. Further studies with larger sample sizes are clearly warranted to determine HLA allele associations with the production and long-term sustainability of IgG-S after COVID-19 vaccination.

16.
J Virol ; 96(4): e0155121, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532963

ABSTRACT

Despite various attempts to treat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients with COVID-19 convalescent plasmas, neither appropriate approach nor clinical utility has been established. We examined the efficacy of administration of highly neutralizing COVID-19 convalescent plasma (hn-plasmas) and such plasma-derived IgG administration using the Syrian hamster COVID-19 model. Two hn-plasmas, which were in the best 1% of 340 neutralizing activity-determined convalescent plasmas, were intraperitoneally administered to SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters, resulting in a significant reduction of viral titers in lungs by up to 32-fold compared to the viral titers in hamsters receiving control nonneutralizing plasma, while with two moderately neutralizing plasmas (mn-plasmas) administered, viral titer reduction was by up to 6-fold. IgG fractions purified from the two hn-plasmas also reduced viral titers in lungs more than those from the two mn-plasmas. The severity of lung lesions seen in hamsters receiving hn-plasmas was minimal to moderate as assessed using microcomputerized tomography, which histological examination confirmed. Western blotting revealed that all four COVID-19 convalescent plasmas variably contained antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 components, including the receptor-binding domain and S1 domain. The present data strongly suggest that administering potent neutralizing activity-confirmed COVID-19 convalescent plasmas would be efficacious in treating patients with COVID-19. IMPORTANCE Convalescent plasmas obtained from patients who recovered from a specific infection have been used as agents to treat other patients infected with the very pathogen. To treat using convalescent plasmas, despite that more than 10 randomized controlled clinical trials have been conducted and more than 100 studies are currently ongoing, the effects of convalescent plasma against COVID-19 remained uncertain. On the other hand, certain COVID-19 vaccines have been shown to reduce the clinical COVID-19 onset by 94 to 95%, for which the elicited SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies are apparently directly responsible. Here, we demonstrate that highly neutralizing effect-confirmed convalescent plasmas significantly reduce the viral titers in the lung of SARS-CoV-2-infected Syrian hamsters and block the development of virally induced lung lesions. The present data provide a proof of concept that the presence of highly neutralizing antibody in COVID-19 convalescent plasmas is directly responsible for the reduction of viral replication and support the use of highly neutralizing antibody-containing plasmas in COVID-19 therapy with convalescent plasmas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Lung , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Male , Mesocricetus , Vero Cells
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22848, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532101

ABSTRACT

While mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are exceedingly effective in preventing symptomatic infection, their immune response features remain to be clarified. In the present prospective study, 225 healthy individuals in Japan, who received two BNT162b2 doses, were enrolled. Correlates of BNT162b2-elicited SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing activity (50% neutralization titer: NT50; assessed using infectious virions) with various determinants were examined and the potency of sera against variants of concerns was determined. Significant rise in NT50s was seen in sera on day 28 post-1st dose. A moderate inverse correlation was seen between NT50s and ages, but no correlation seen between NT50s and adverse effects. NT50s and SARS-CoV-2-S1-binding-IgG levels on day 28 post-1st dose and pain scores following the 2nd dose were greater in women than in men. The average half-life of NT50s was ~ 68 days, and 23.6% (49 out of 208 individuals) failed to show detectable neutralizing activity on day 150. While sera from elite-responders (NT50s > 1,500: the top 4% among the participants) potently to moderately blocked all variants of concerns examined, some sera with low NT50s failed to block the B.1.351-beta strain. Since BNT162b2-elicited immunity against SARS-CoV-2 is short, an additional vaccine or other protective measures are needed.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacokinetics , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Immunologic Tests , Japan , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
18.
J Virol ; 95(17): e0080721, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486516

ABSTRACT

The membrane fusion between the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and host cells is essential for the initial step of infection; therefore, the host cell membrane components, including sphingolipids, influence the viral infection. We assessed several inhibitors of the enzymes pertaining to sphingolipid metabolism, against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S)-mediated cell-cell fusion and viral infection. N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR), an inhibitor of dihydroceramide Δ4-desaturase 1 (DES1), suppressed cell-cell fusion and viral infection. The analysis of sphingolipid levels revealed that the inhibition efficiencies of cell-cell fusion and viral infection in 4-HPR-treated cells were consistent with an increased ratio of saturated sphinganine-based lipids to total sphingolipids. We investigated the relationship of DES1 with the inhibition efficiencies of cell-cell fusion. The changes in the sphingolipid profile induced by 4-HPR were mitigated by the supplementation with exogenous cell-permeative ceramide; however, the reduced cell-cell fusion could not be reversed. The efficiency of cell-cell fusion in DES1 knockout (KO) cells was at a level comparable to that in wild-type (WT) cells; however, the ratio of saturated sphinganine-based lipids to the total sphingolipids was higher in DES1 KO cells than in WT cells. 4-HPR reduced cell membrane fluidity without any significant effects on the expression or localization of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor. Therefore, 4-HPR suppresses SARS-CoV-2 S-mediated membrane fusion through a DES1-independent mechanism, and this decrease in membrane fluidity induced by 4-HPR could be the major cause for the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 infection. IMPORTANCE Sphingolipids could play an important role in SARS-CoV-2 S-mediated membrane fusion with host cells. We studied the cell-cell fusion using SARS-CoV-2 S-expressing cells and sphingolipid-manipulated target cells, with an inhibitor of the sphingolipid metabolism. 4-HPR (also known as fenretinide) is an inhibitor of DES1, and it exhibits antitumor activity and suppresses cell-cell fusion and viral infection. 4-HPR suppresses membrane fusion through a decrease in membrane fluidity, which could possibly be the cause for the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is accumulating clinical data on the safety of 4-HPR. Therefore, it could be a potential candidate drug against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane/metabolism , Fenretinide/pharmacology , Membrane Fluidity/drug effects , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Cell Fusion , Cell Membrane/genetics , Gene Knockout Techniques , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Membrane Fluidity/genetics , Oxidoreductases/deficiency , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
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