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1.
Cell Rep ; 39(3): 110688, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763614

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant with a surprising number of spike mutations raises concerns about reduced sensitivity of this virus to antibody neutralization and subsequent vaccine breakthrough infections. Here, we infect Moderna mRNA-vaccinated or previously infected hamsters with the Omicron BA.1 variant. While the Moderna mRNA vaccine reduces viral loads in the respiratory tissues upon challenge with an early S-614G isolate, the vaccine efficacy is not as pronounced after infection with the Omicron variant. Previous infection with the early SARS-CoV-2 isolate prevents replication after rechallenge with either virus in the lungs of previously infected hamsters, but the Omicron variant replicates efficiently in nasal turbinate tissue. These results experimentally demonstrate in an animal model that the antigenic changes in the Omicron variant are responsible for vaccine breakthrough and re-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Mesocricetus , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
2.
J Virol ; 96(4): e0155121, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700556

ABSTRACT

Despite various attempts to treat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients with COVID-19 convalescent plasmas, neither appropriate approach nor clinical utility has been established. We examined the efficacy of administration of highly neutralizing COVID-19 convalescent plasma (hn-plasmas) and such plasma-derived IgG administration using the Syrian hamster COVID-19 model. Two hn-plasmas, which were in the best 1% of 340 neutralizing activity-determined convalescent plasmas, were intraperitoneally administered to SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters, resulting in a significant reduction of viral titers in lungs by up to 32-fold compared to the viral titers in hamsters receiving control nonneutralizing plasma, while with two moderately neutralizing plasmas (mn-plasmas) administered, viral titer reduction was by up to 6-fold. IgG fractions purified from the two hn-plasmas also reduced viral titers in lungs more than those from the two mn-plasmas. The severity of lung lesions seen in hamsters receiving hn-plasmas was minimal to moderate as assessed using microcomputerized tomography, which histological examination confirmed. Western blotting revealed that all four COVID-19 convalescent plasmas variably contained antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 components, including the receptor-binding domain and S1 domain. The present data strongly suggest that administering potent neutralizing activity-confirmed COVID-19 convalescent plasmas would be efficacious in treating patients with COVID-19. IMPORTANCE Convalescent plasmas obtained from patients who recovered from a specific infection have been used as agents to treat other patients infected with the very pathogen. To treat using convalescent plasmas, despite that more than 10 randomized controlled clinical trials have been conducted and more than 100 studies are currently ongoing, the effects of convalescent plasma against COVID-19 remained uncertain. On the other hand, certain COVID-19 vaccines have been shown to reduce the clinical COVID-19 onset by 94 to 95%, for which the elicited SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies are apparently directly responsible. Here, we demonstrate that highly neutralizing effect-confirmed convalescent plasmas significantly reduce the viral titers in the lung of SARS-CoV-2-infected Syrian hamsters and block the development of virally induced lung lesions. The present data provide a proof of concept that the presence of highly neutralizing antibody in COVID-19 convalescent plasmas is directly responsible for the reduction of viral replication and support the use of highly neutralizing antibody-containing plasmas in COVID-19 therapy with convalescent plasmas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Lung , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Male , Mesocricetus , Vero Cells
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318264

ABSTRACT

We developed an intranasal vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 using the replication-incompetent human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) vector BC-PIV, which can deliver ectopic gene as stable RNA and ectopic protein on the envelope. BC-PIV expressing the full-length prefusion-stabilized spike gene of SARS-CoV-2, S2PM, possessed a corona-like viral envelope. Intranasal vaccination of mice with BC-PIV/S2PM induced high levels of neutralizing IgG and mucosal IgA antibodies against the spike protein. While BC-PIV showed hemagglutinating activity, BC-PIV/S2PM lacked such activity, in accordance with the presence of the massive spike protein on the viral surface. Furthermore, single-dose intranasal vaccination of hamsters with BC-PIV/S2PM completely protected the lungs from SARS-CoV-2 at 11 weeks post-immunization, and prime-boost vaccination conferred virtually complete protection of the nasal turbinates against SARS-CoV-2 challenge at 11 weeks post-priming. Thus, this chimeric hPIV2/spike intranasal vaccine is one of the strong candidates for an ultimate vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 to curtail virus transmission.Funding: This work was supported in part by Grants-in-Aid from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (17K19652, 20K21614), by a Research Program on Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) (JP19fk0108113), Mie University (for research institutes of excellence), Mie Prefecture, Junior Chamber International Yokkaichi, and MediciNova, Inc.Conflict of Interest: J.O., M.F., M.Im., R.O., S.Y., Y.Kaw., and T.N. are patent applicants for recombinant BCPIV vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. M.F. is a founder of BioComo, Inc., and J.O. is an employee of BioComo, Inc. J.O., M.F., M.M., and T.N. have shares of stock in Biocomo, Inc. M.M. is a scientific advisor of JEOL Ltd. T.N. is a scientific advisor of MediciNova, Inc. The other authors declare no competing interests.Ethical Approval: Recombinant DNA experiments with SARS-CoV-2 S gene fragments were approved by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (Approved No. 2019-728, 729;2020-362, 373, 948). The animal studies were approved by the Animal Care Committees of Mie University(Approved No. 23-33) and the Animal Experiment Committee of the Institute of Medical Science, the University of Tokyo (Approved No. PA19-75), and all methods were performed under institutional regulations of animal experiments in accordance with the current national guidelines. Animal experiments using SARS-CoV-2 S gene fragments orSARS-CoV-2 were also approved by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (Approved No. 2019-728, 729;2020-362, 373, 2020-948).

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308391

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to wreak havoc as worldwide SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, and death rates climb unabated. Effective vaccines remain the most promising approach to counter SARS-CoV-2. Yet, while promising results are emerging from COVID-19 vaccine trials, the need for multiple doses and the challenges associated with the widespread distribution and administration of vaccines remain concerns. Here, we engineered the coat protein of the MS2 bacteriophage 1,2 and generated nanoparticles displaying multiple copies of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. The use of these nanoparticles as vaccines generated high neutralizing antibody titers and protected Syrian hamsters 3 from a challenge with SARS-CoV-2 after a single immunization with no infectious virus detected in the lungs. This nanoparticle-based vaccine platform thus provides protection after a single immunization and may be broadly applicable for protecting against SARS-CoV-2 and future pathogens with pandemic potential.

5.
mBio ; : e0304421, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662302

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide since December 2019, causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although vaccines for this virus have been developed rapidly, repurposing drugs approved to treat other diseases remains an invaluable treatment strategy. Here, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of drugs on SARS-CoV-2 replication in a hamster infection model and in in vitro assays. Favipiravir significantly suppressed virus replication in hamster lungs. Remdesivir inhibited virus replication in vitro, but was not effective in the hamster model. However, GS-441524, a metabolite of remdesivir, effectively suppressed virus replication in hamsters. Co-administration of favipiravir and GS-441524 more efficiently reduced virus load in hamster lungs than did single administration of either drug for both the prophylactic and therapeutic regimens; prophylactic co-administration also efficiently inhibited lung inflammation in the infected animals. Furthermore, pretreatment of hamsters with favipiravir and GS-441524 effectively protected them from virus transmission via respiratory droplets upon exposure to infected hamsters. Repurposing and co-administration of antiviral drugs may help combat COVID-19. IMPORTANCE During a pandemic, repurposing drugs that are approved for other diseases is a quick and realistic treatment option. In this study, we found that co-administration of favipiravir and the remdesivir metabolite GS-441524 more effectively blocked SARS-CoV-2 replication in the lungs of Syrian hamsters than either favipiravir or GS-441524 alone as part of a prophylactic or therapeutic regimen. Prophylactic co-administration also reduced the severity of lung inflammation. Moreover, co-administration of these drugs to naive hamsters efficiently protected them from airborne transmission of the virus from infected animals. Since both drugs are nucleotide analogs that interfere with the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of many RNA viruses, these findings may also help encourage co-administration of antivirals to combat future pandemics.

6.
Nature ; 603(7902): 687-692, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641974

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of B.1.1.529, the Omicron variant1,2, has raised concerns of escape from protection by vaccines and therapeutic antibodies. A key test for potential countermeasures against B.1.1.529 is their activity in preclinical rodent models of respiratory tract disease. Here, using the collaborative network of the SARS-CoV-2 Assessment of Viral Evolution (SAVE) programme of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), we evaluated the ability of several B.1.1.529 isolates to cause infection and disease in immunocompetent and human ACE2 (hACE2)-expressing mice and hamsters. Despite modelling data indicating that B.1.1.529 spike can bind more avidly to mouse ACE2 (refs. 3,4), we observed less infection by B.1.1.529 in 129, C57BL/6, BALB/c and K18-hACE2 transgenic mice than by previous SARS-CoV-2 variants, with limited weight loss and lower viral burden in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. In wild-type and hACE2 transgenic hamsters, lung infection, clinical disease and pathology with B.1.1.529 were also milder than with historical isolates or other SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Overall, experiments from the SAVE/NIAID network with several B.1.1.529 isolates demonstrate attenuated lung disease in rodents, which parallels preliminary human clinical data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Cricetinae , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Viral Load
7.
Vet Pathol ; 59(4): 696-706, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582699

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019, which ranges from fatal disease in some to mild or subclinical in most affected individuals. Many recovered human patients report persistent respiratory signs; however, lung disease in post-acute infection is poorly understood. Our objective was to describe histologic lung lesions and viral loads following experimental SARS-CoV-2 infection in 11 cats. Microscopic evaluation at 3, 6, 10, or 28 days postinoculation (DPI) identified mild to moderate patchy interstitial pneumonia, bronchiolar epithelial damage, and occlusive histiocytic bronchiolitis. Based on immunohistochemistry, alveolar septal thickening was due to CD204-positive macrophages, fewer B and T lymphocytes, type II pneumocytes, and capillary proliferation with a relative dearth of fibrosis. In blood vessel endothelium, there was reactive hypertrophy or vacuolar degeneration and increased MHC II expression at all time points. Unexpectedly, one cat from the 28 DPI group had severe subacute regionally extensive lymphohistiocytic pneumonia with multifocal consolidation, vasculitis, and alveolar fibrin. Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction identified SARS-CoV-2 RNA within the lung at 3 and 6 DPI, and viral RNA was below the limit of detection at 10 and 28 DPI, suggesting that pulmonary lesions persist beyond detection of viral RNA. These findings clarify our comparative understanding of disease induced by SARS-CoV-2 and suggest that cats can serve as an informative model to study post-acute pulmonary sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/pathology , Cats , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lung/pathology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Virol ; 96(4): e0155121, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532963

ABSTRACT

Despite various attempts to treat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients with COVID-19 convalescent plasmas, neither appropriate approach nor clinical utility has been established. We examined the efficacy of administration of highly neutralizing COVID-19 convalescent plasma (hn-plasmas) and such plasma-derived IgG administration using the Syrian hamster COVID-19 model. Two hn-plasmas, which were in the best 1% of 340 neutralizing activity-determined convalescent plasmas, were intraperitoneally administered to SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters, resulting in a significant reduction of viral titers in lungs by up to 32-fold compared to the viral titers in hamsters receiving control nonneutralizing plasma, while with two moderately neutralizing plasmas (mn-plasmas) administered, viral titer reduction was by up to 6-fold. IgG fractions purified from the two hn-plasmas also reduced viral titers in lungs more than those from the two mn-plasmas. The severity of lung lesions seen in hamsters receiving hn-plasmas was minimal to moderate as assessed using microcomputerized tomography, which histological examination confirmed. Western blotting revealed that all four COVID-19 convalescent plasmas variably contained antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 components, including the receptor-binding domain and S1 domain. The present data strongly suggest that administering potent neutralizing activity-confirmed COVID-19 convalescent plasmas would be efficacious in treating patients with COVID-19. IMPORTANCE Convalescent plasmas obtained from patients who recovered from a specific infection have been used as agents to treat other patients infected with the very pathogen. To treat using convalescent plasmas, despite that more than 10 randomized controlled clinical trials have been conducted and more than 100 studies are currently ongoing, the effects of convalescent plasma against COVID-19 remained uncertain. On the other hand, certain COVID-19 vaccines have been shown to reduce the clinical COVID-19 onset by 94 to 95%, for which the elicited SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies are apparently directly responsible. Here, we demonstrate that highly neutralizing effect-confirmed convalescent plasmas significantly reduce the viral titers in the lung of SARS-CoV-2-infected Syrian hamsters and block the development of virally induced lung lesions. The present data provide a proof of concept that the presence of highly neutralizing antibody in COVID-19 convalescent plasmas is directly responsible for the reduction of viral replication and support the use of highly neutralizing antibody-containing plasmas in COVID-19 therapy with convalescent plasmas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Lung , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Male , Mesocricetus , Vero Cells
9.
Nature ; 602(7896): 300-306, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532072

ABSTRACT

During the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a variety of mutations have accumulated in the viral genome of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and, at the time of writing, four variants of concern are considered to be potentially hazardous to human society1. The recently emerged B.1.617.2/Delta variant of concern is closely associated with the COVID-19 surge that occurred in India in the spring of 2021 (ref. 2). However, the virological properties of B.1.617.2/Delta remain unclear. Here we show that the B.1.617.2/Delta variant is highly fusogenic and notably more pathogenic than prototypic SARS-CoV-2 in infected hamsters. The P681R mutation in the spike protein, which is highly conserved in this lineage, facilitates cleavage of the spike protein and enhances viral fusogenicity. Moreover, we demonstrate that the P681R-bearing virus exhibits higher pathogenicity compared with its parental virus. Our data suggest that the P681R mutation is a hallmark of the virological phenotype of the B.1.617.2/Delta variant and is associated with enhanced pathogenicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Membrane Fusion , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cricetinae , Giant Cells/metabolism , Giant Cells/virology , Male , Mesocricetus , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Virulence/genetics , Virus Replication
10.
iScience ; 24(12): 103379, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517302

ABSTRACT

We developed an intranasal vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) using the replication-incompetent human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) vector BC-PIV, which can deliver ectopic gene as stable RNA and ectopic protein on the envelope. BC-PIV expressing the full-length prefusion-stabilized spike gene (K986P/V987P) of SARS-CoV-2, S-2PM, possessed a corona-like viral envelope. Intranasal vaccination of mice with BC-PIV/S-2PM induced high levels of neutralizing immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mucosal IgA antibodies against the spike protein. Although BC-PIV showed hemagglutinating activity, BC-PIV/S-2PM lacked such activity, in accordance with the presence of the massive spike protein on the viral surface. Furthermore, single-dose intranasal vaccination of hamsters with BC-PIV/S-2PM completely protected the lungs from SARS-CoV-2 at 11-week post-immunization, and boost vaccination two weeks before the challenge conferred virtually complete protection of the nasal turbinates against SARS-CoV-2. Thus, this chimeric hPIV2/spike intranasal vaccine is a promising vaccine candidate for SARS-CoV-2 to curtail virus transmission.

11.
mBio ; 12(5): e0198721, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494967

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has raised concerns about the detrimental effects of antibodies. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection is one of the biggest concerns in terms of not only the antibody reaction to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) upon reinfection with the virus but also the reaction to COVID-19 vaccines. In this study, we evaluated ADE of infection by using COVID-19 convalescent-phase plasma and BHK cells expressing human Fcγ receptors (FcγRs). We found that FcγRIIA and FcγRIIIA mediated modest ADE of infection against SARS-CoV-2. Although ADE of infection was observed in monocyte-derived macrophages infected with SARS-CoV-2, including its variants, proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression was not upregulated in macrophages. SARS-CoV-2 infection thus produces antibodies that elicit ADE of infection, but these antibodies do not contribute to excess cytokine production by macrophages. IMPORTANCE Viruses infect cells mainly via specific receptors at the cell surface. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection is an alternative mechanism of infection for viruses to infect immune cells that is mediated by antibodies and IgG receptors (FcγRs). Because ADE of infection contributes to the pathogenesis of some viruses, such as dengue virus and feline coronavirus, it is important to evaluate the precise mechanism of ADE and its contribution to the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. Here, using convalescent-phase plasma from COVID-19 patients, we found that two types of FcγRs, FcγRIIA and FcγRIIIA, mediate ADE of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although ADE of infection was observed for SARS-CoV-2 and its recent variants, proinflammatory cytokine production in monocyte-derived macrophages was not upregulated. These observations suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection produces antibodies that elicit ADE of infection, but these antibodies may not be involved in aberrant cytokine release by macrophages during SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Cytokines/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement/physiology , Cell Line , Cricetinae , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, IgG/genetics
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(27)2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276013

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) plays a key role in viral infectivity. It is also the major antigen stimulating the host's protective immune response, specifically, the production of neutralizing antibodies. Recently, a new variant of SARS-CoV-2 possessing multiple mutations in the S protein, designated P.1, emerged in Brazil. Here, we characterized a P.1 variant isolated in Japan by using Syrian hamsters, a well-established small animal model for the study of SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19). In hamsters, the variant showed replicative abilities and pathogenicity similar to those of early and contemporary strains (i.e., SARS-CoV-2 bearing aspartic acid [D] or glycine [G] at position 614 of the S protein). Sera and/or plasma from convalescent patients and BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccinees showed comparable neutralization titers across the P.1 variant, S-614D, and S-614G strains. In contrast, the S-614D and S-614G strains were less well recognized than the P.1 variant by serum from a P.1-infected patient. Prior infection with S-614D or S-614G strains efficiently prevented the replication of the P.1 variant in the lower respiratory tract of hamsters upon reinfection. In addition, passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies to hamsters infected with the P.1 variant or the S-614G strain led to reduced virus replication in the lower respiratory tract. However, the effect was less pronounced against the P.1 variant than the S-614G strain. These findings suggest that the P.1 variant may be somewhat antigenically different from the early and contemporary strains of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Replication , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Cricetinae , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lung/pathology , Mesocricetus , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , X-Ray Microtomography
13.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 597, 2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236095

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to wreak havoc as worldwide SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, and death rates climb unabated. Effective vaccines remain the most promising approach to counter SARS-CoV-2. Yet, while promising results are emerging from COVID-19 vaccine trials, the need for multiple doses and the challenges associated with the widespread distribution and administration of vaccines remain concerns. Here, we engineered the coat protein of the MS2 bacteriophage and generated nanoparticles displaying multiple copies of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. The use of these nanoparticles as vaccines generated high neutralizing antibody titers and protected Syrian hamsters from a challenge with SARS-CoV-2 after a single immunization with no infectious virus detected in the lungs. This nanoparticle-based vaccine platform thus provides protection after a single immunization and may be broadly applicable for protecting against SARS-CoV-2 and future pathogens with pandemic potential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Drug Delivery Systems , Female , Humans , Immunization/methods , Levivirus/genetics , Levivirus/immunology , Mesocricetus , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Models, Animal , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Nanotechnology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Protein Engineering , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/administration & dosage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Combined/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Combined/genetics , Vaccines, Combined/immunology , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/genetics , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/immunology
14.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(2): e1009373, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105836

ABSTRACT

The evolutionary mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 viruses adapt to mammalian hosts and, potentially, undergo antigenic evolution depend on the ways genetic variation is generated and selected within and between individual hosts. Using domestic cats as a model, we show that SARS-CoV-2 consensus sequences remain largely unchanged over time within hosts, while dynamic sub-consensus diversity reveals processes of genetic drift and weak purifying selection. We further identify a notable variant at amino acid position 655 in Spike (H655Y), which was previously shown to confer escape from human monoclonal antibodies. This variant arises rapidly and persists at intermediate frequencies in index cats. It also becomes fixed following transmission in two of three pairs. These dynamics suggest this site may be under positive selection in this system and illustrate how a variant can quickly arise and become fixed in parallel across multiple transmission pairs. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in cats involved a narrow bottleneck, with new infections founded by fewer than ten viruses. In RNA virus evolution, stochastic processes like narrow transmission bottlenecks and genetic drift typically act to constrain the overall pace of adaptive evolution. Our data suggest that here, positive selection in index cats followed by a narrow transmission bottleneck may have instead accelerated the fixation of S H655Y, a potentially beneficial SARS-CoV-2 variant. Overall, our study suggests species- and context-specific adaptations are likely to continue to emerge. This underscores the importance of continued genomic surveillance for new SARS-CoV-2 variants as well as heightened scrutiny for signatures of SARS-CoV-2 positive selection in humans and mammalian model systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adaptation, Biological , Animals , Biological Evolution , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cats , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation , Humans , Phylogeny , Selection, Genetic
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 660-663, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048933

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 readily transmits between domestic cats. We found that domestic cats that recover from an initial infection might be protected from reinfection. However, we found long-term persistence of inflammation and other lung lesions after infection, despite a lack of clinical symptoms and limited viral replication in the lungs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/immunology , Cat Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cats , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Virus Replication/immunology
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