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1.
Andrology ; 2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575098

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that, after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, male reproductive function and semen quality may be damaged OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a panel of inflammatory mediators in semen in patients recovered from coronavirus disease 2019. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sexually active men with previous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and proven recovery from coronavirus disease 2019 were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Clinical, uro-andrological data and semen specimens were prospectively collected. For previously hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 patients, data on serum inflammatory markers were retrospectively collected. RESULTS: A total of 43 men were enrolled in the study. Of these, 32 men were normozoospermic, three were oligozoospermic, and eight were crypto-azoospermic. Serum inflammatory markers (procalcitonin and C-reactive protein) were analyzed in previously hospitalized patients both at admission and at peak of infection. Levels at admission were statistically significantly higher in patients resulting in crypto-azoospermic with respect to those resulting in normozoospermic (p = 0.05; p = 0.03 and p = 0.02, respectively) after healing. Seminal cytokine levels were similar among all groups. Interleukin-1ß and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were significantly negatively related to sperm total number and concentration, whereas interleukin-4 was correlated with sperm motility. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Negative correlations between interleukin-1ß and tumor necrosis factor-α and sperm number and the overall high levels of semen cytokines indicate a potential detrimental role of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 driven inflammation on spermatogenesis. Overall, our results indicate that male patients recovering from coronavirus disease 2019 deserve accurate follow-up for their fertility status.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294747

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent reports evidenced an impairment of semen parameters in men affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In particular, our group previously reported that 1 over 4 COVID-19 healed men were found to be crypto- / azoo-spermic. Moreover, most patients had elevated IL-8 semen levels at sperm analysis. The aim of our study was to assess semen parameters and inflammation by evaluating a panel of sperm cytokine levels (IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, INF gamma, TNF-alpha) on average 1 month after the second SARS-CoV-2 negative nasopharyngeal swab and 3 months later. Methods: : Ten men who showed normozoospermia (n=3), oligozoospermia (n=3) or crypto/azoospermia (n=4) 1 month after healing from COVID-19 in our previous study, were re-called and re-evaluated 3 months after the first semen analysis. Semen parameters were evaluated according to WHO manual and seminal plasma cytokine levels by an ELISA method. Results: : At 3-months follow-up, 8 men showed an overall increase of semen parameters compared to levels assessed after 1 month. In particular, of the 4 crypto-/azoo-spermic men 1 month after healing, 2 resulted oligozoospermic, 1 normozoospermic and only 1 remained azoospermic. Two of the 3 oligozoospermic men turned normozoozpermic. Semen cytokine levels were remarkably high one month after healing and remained elevated after 3 months, with the exception of IL-6. Conclusions: : This is the first longitudinal, prospective study comparing semen parameters and semen inflammatory markers one and three months after recovering from COVID-19. Our data indicate an overall tendency to an improvement of semen parameters although a genital tract inflammatory condition appears to persist at least 3 months after COVID-19 recovery. This condition could have an impact on male fertility requiring a careful follow up of these patients.

3.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(1): 137-144, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477604

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients and occurs in about 30% of patients with pneumonia. Hyponatremia has been associated with a worse outcome in several pathologic conditions The main objective of this study was to determine whether serum sodium alterations may be independent predictors of the outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this observational study, data from 441 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to a University Hospital were collected. After excluding 61 patients (no serum sodium at admission available, saline solution infusion before sodium assessment, transfer from another hospital), data from 380 patients were analyzed. RESULTS: 274 (72.1%) patients had normonatremia at admission, 87 (22.9%) patients had hyponatremia and 19 (5%) patients had hypernatremia. We found an inverse correlation between serum sodium and IL-6, whereas a direct correlation between serum sodium and PaO2/FiO2 ratio was observed. Patients with hyponatremia had a higher prevalence of non-invasive ventilation and ICU transfer than those with normonatremia or hypernatremia. Hyponatremia was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (2.7-fold increase vs normonatremia) and each mEq/L of serum sodium reduction was associated with a 14.4% increased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that serum sodium at admission may be considered as an early prognostic marker of disease severity in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sodium/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fluorocarbons/blood , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydrocarbons, Brominated/blood , Hypernatremia/epidemiology , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS Virus
4.
Environ Impact Assess Rev ; 90: 106602, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225212

ABSTRACT

There is a wide debate on the connections between pollution and COVID-19 propagation. This note faces this problem by exploring the peculiar case of the correlation between outdoor light pollution and the ratio between infected people and population. We discuss the empirical case of Italian provinces (NUTS-3 level), which represent an interesting context for the noticeable entity of contagions and for the relevant level of outdoor light pollution. The empirical results, based on a multivariate cross section model controlling for income, density, population ageing and environmental pollution, show that there is a positive relation between outdoor light pollution per capita and the strength of COVID-19 infection. This effect is statistically more robust in a non linear specification than in a linear one. We interpret our findings as a piece of evidence related to the impact of outdoor light pollution on human health, thus suggesting policies aimed at reducing this important source of pollution.

6.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 22(2): 275-296, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092722

ABSTRACT

The presence of SARS-CoV-2 was officially documented in Europe at the end of February 2020. Despite many observations, the real impact of COVID-19 in the European Union (EU), its underlying factors and their contribution to mortality and morbidity outcomes were never systematically investigated. The aim of the present work is to provide an overview and a meta-analysis of main predictors and of country differences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-associated mortality rate (MR) in hospitalized patients. Out of 3714 retrieved articles, 87 studies were considered, including 35,486 patients (mean age 60.9 ± 8.2 years) and 5867 deaths. After adjustment for confounders, diabetes mellitus was the best predictors of MR in an age- and sex-dependent manner, followed by chronic pulmonary obstructive diseases and malignancies. In both the US and Europe, MR was higher than that reported in Asia (25[20;29] % and 20[17;23] % vs. 13[10;17]%; both p < 0.02). Among clinical parameters, dyspnea, fatigue and myalgia, along with respiratory rate, emerged as the best predictors of MR. Finally, reduced lymphocyte and platelet count, along with increased D-dimer levels, all significantly contributed to increased mortality. The optimization of glucose profile along with an adequate thrombotic complications preventive strategy must become routine practice in diseased SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Aged , Asia/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
7.
Andrology ; 9(1): 88-98, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-327349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of new severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) due to coronavirus (CoV) 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has stressed the importance of effective diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of clinical worsening and mortality. Epidemiological data showing a differential impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on women and men have suggested a potential role for testosterone (T) in determining gender disparity in the SARS-CoV-2 clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the association between T level and SARS-CoV-2 clinical outcomes (defined as conditions requiring transfer to higher or lower intensity of care or death) in a cohort of patients admitted in the respiratory intensive care unit (RICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of 31 male patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and recovered in the respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) of the "Carlo Poma" Hospital in Mantua were analyzed. Several biochemical risk factors (ie, blood count and leukocyte formula, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, D-dimer, fibrinogen, interleukin 6 (IL-6)) as well as total testosterone (TT), calculated free T (cFT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined. RESULTS: Lower TT and cFT were found in the transferred to ICU/deceased in RICU group vs groups of patients transferred to IM or maintained in the RICU in stable condition. Both TT and cFT showed a negative significant correlation with biochemical risk factors (ie, the neutrophil count, LDH, and PCT) but a positive association with the lymphocyte count. Likewise, TT was also negatively associated with CRP and ferritin levels. A steep increase in both ICU transfer and mortality risk was observed in men with TT < 5 nmol/L or cFT < 100 pmol/L. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates for the first time that lower baseline levels of TT and cFT levels predict poor prognosis and mortality in SARS-CoV-2-infected men admitted to RICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Testosterone/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Progression , Down-Regulation , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
8.
Andrology ; 9(1): 19-22, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186333

ABSTRACT

Preliminary published data depict a much greater prevalence of males with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) referred for intensive care unit admission and severe sequelae in several countries. In this context, males seem to not only be more susceptible to the infection compared to female subjects, at least in Western countries, but their case fatality rate attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infection is also highest. Therefore, we may speculate that the different hormonal milieu could have a more profound pathophysiological role in association with SARS-CoV-2, with endogenous testosterone leaving men more prone to develop more serious complications related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Another option is that SARS-CoV-2 infection per se causes an acute stage of male hypogonadism, the depletion of androgenic action triggering serious or an even fatal course of the disease. Therefore, we strongly advocate the development of a prospective multidimensional andrological translational research project in men, which we called the PROTEGGIMI study. In this Opinion Article, we will not only highlight novel research activity in this area but also invite other researchers and learned scientific societies to join us in our efforts to understand an important and very newly discovered gap in knowledge, which may have serious implications for the lives of millions of men.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Frailty/virology , Health Status Disparities , Hypogonadism/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Testosterone/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Frailty/metabolism , Frailty/mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hypogonadism/metabolism , Hypogonadism/mortality , Male , Research Design , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sex Factors
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