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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 853682, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822362

ABSTRACT

The antibody and T cell responses after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination have not been formally compared between kidney and liver transplant recipients. Using a multiplex assay, we measured IgG levels against 4 epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and nucleocapsid (NC) antigen, SARS-CoV-2 variants, and common coronaviruses in serial blood samples from 52 kidney and 50 liver transplant recipients undergoing mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We quantified IFN-γ/IL-2 T cells reactive against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein by FluoroSpot. We used multivariable generalized linear models to adjust for the differences in immunosuppression between groups. In liver transplant recipients, IgG levels against every SARS-CoV-2 spike epitope increased significantly more than in kidney transplant recipients (MFI: 19,617 vs 6,056; P<0.001), a difference that remained significant after adjustments. Vaccine did not affect IgG levels against NC nor common coronaviruses. Elicited antibodies recognized all variants tested but at significantly lower strength than the original Wuhan strain. Anti-spike IFN-γ-producing T cells increased significantly more in liver than in kidney transplant recipients (IFN-γ-producing T cells 28 vs 11 spots/5x105 cells), but this difference lost statistical significance after adjustments. SARS-CoV-2 vaccine elicits a stronger antibody response in liver than in kidney transplant recipients, a phenomenon that is not entirely explained by the different immunosuppression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Transplantation , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Kidney , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
Kidney360 ; 3(2): 293-306, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776886

ABSTRACT

Background: The acute and long-term effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in individuals with GN are still unclear. To address this relevant issue, we created the International Registry of COVID-19 infection in GN. Methods: We collected serial information on kidney-related and -unrelated outcomes from 125 GN patients (63 hospitalized and 62 outpatients) and 83 non-GN hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and a median follow-up period of 6.4 (interquartile range 2.3-9.6) months after diagnosis. We used logistic regression for the analyses of clinical outcomes and linear mixed models for the longitudinal analyses of eGFR. All multiple regression models were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor use. Results: After adjustment for pre-COVID-19 eGFR and other confounders, mortality and AKI did not differ between GN patients and controls (adjusted odds ratio for AKI=1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46 to 3.60; P=0.64). The main predictor of AKI was pre-COVID-19 eGFR (adjusted odds ratio per 1 SD unit decrease in eGFR=3.04; 95% CI, 1.76 to 5.28; P<0.001). GN patients developing AKI were less likely to recover pre-COVID-19 eGFR compared with controls (adjusted 6-month post-COVID-19 eGFR=0.41; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.56; times pre-COVID-19 eGFR). Shorter duration of GN diagnosis, higher pre-COVID-19 proteinuria, and diagnosis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis or minimal change disease were associated with a lower post-COVID-19 eGFR. Conclusions: Pre-COVID-19 eGFR is the main risk factor for AKI regardless of GN diagnosis. However, GN patients are at higher risk of impaired eGFR recovery after COVID-19-associated AKI. These patients (especially those with high baseline proteinuria or a diagnosis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis or minimal change disease) should be closely monitored not only during the acute phases of COVID-19 but also after its resolution.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 799298, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775692

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI), electrolyte, and acid-base disorders complicate the clinical course of critically ill patients with coronavirus-associated disease (COVID-19) and are associated with poor outcomes. It is not known whether the severity of clinical conditions at admission in the intensive care unit (ICU) changes the clinical significance of AKI and/or electrolyte or acid-base disorders developing during ICU stay. We conducted a retrospective study in critically ill patients with COVID-19 to evaluate whether the severity of clinical conditions at admission in the ICU affects the impact of AKI and of serum electrolytes or acid-base status on mortality. We carried out a 28-day retrospective follow-up study on 115 critically ill patients consecutively admitted to ICU for severe COVID-19 at a tertiary care university hospital and surviving longer than 24 h. We collected baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, and longitudinal data on kidney function, kidney replacement therapy, serum electrolytes, and acid-base status. We used Cox proportional hazards multiple regression models to test the interaction between the time-varying variates new-onset AKI or electrolyte or acid-base disorders and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) or Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score at admission. After adjusting for age, sex, Charlson's comorbidity index, and AKI present at ICU admission, new-onset AKI was significantly associated with 28-day mortality only in the patients in the lowest and middle SOFA score tertiles [lowest SOFA tertile, hazard ratio (HR) 4.27 (95% CI: 1.27-14.44; P = 0.019), middle SOFA tertile, HR 3.17 (95% CI: 1.11-9.04, P = 0.031), highest SOFA tertile, HR 0.77 (95% CI: 0.24-2.50; P = 0.66); P = 0.026 for interaction with SOFA as a continuous variable]. After stratifying for APACHE II tertile, results were similar [adjusted HR (aHR) in the lowest tertile 6.24 (95% CI: 1.85-21.03, P = 0.003)]. SOFA or APACHE II at admission did not affect the relationship of serum electrolytes and acid-base status with mortality, except for new-onset acidosis which was associated with increased mortality, with the HR of death increasing with SOFA or APACHE II score (P < 0.001 and P = 0.013, respectively). Thus, unlike in the most severe critically ill patients admitted to the ICU for COVID-19, in patients with the less severe conditions at admission the development of AKI during the stay is a strong indicator of increased hazard of death.

5.
J Gynecol Oncol ; 33(1): e10, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573883

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has correlated with the disruption of screening activities and diagnostic assessments. Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common gynecological malignancies and it is often detected at an early stage, because it frequently produces symptoms. Here, we aim to investigate the impact of COVID-19 outbreak on patterns of presentation and treatment of EC patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective study involving 54 centers in Italy. We evaluated patterns of presentation and treatment of EC patients before (period 1: March 1, 2019 to February 29, 2020) and during (period 2: April 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021) the COVID-19 outbreak. RESULTS: Medical records of 5,164 EC patients have been retrieved: 2,718 and 2,446 women treated in period 1 and period 2, respectively. Surgery was the mainstay of treatment in both periods (p=0.356). Nodal assessment was omitted in 689 (27.3%) and 484 (21.2%) patients treated in period 1 and 2, respectively (p<0.001). While, the prevalence of patients undergoing sentinel node mapping (with or without backup lymphadenectomy) has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic (46.7% in period 1 vs. 52.8% in period 2; p<0.001). Overall, 1,280 (50.4%) and 1,021 (44.7%) patients had no adjuvant therapy in period 1 and 2, respectively (p<0.001). Adjuvant therapy use has increased during COVID-19 pandemic (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on the characteristics and patterns of care of EC patients. These findings highlight the need to implement healthcare services during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endometrial Neoplasms , Endometrial Neoplasms/epidemiology , Endometrial Neoplasms/therapy , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Clin Med ; 10(7)2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186975

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common finding in kidney donors and recipients. AKI in kidney donor, which increases the risk of delayed graft function (DGF), may not by itself jeopardize the short- and long-term outcome of transplantation. However, some forms of AKI may induce graft rejection, fibrosis, and eventually graft dysfunction. Therefore, various strategies have been proposed to identify conditions at highest risk of AKI-induced DGF, that can be treated by targeting the donor, the recipient, or even the graft itself with the use of perfusion machines. AKI that occurs early post-transplant after a period of initial recovery of graft function may reflect serious and often occult systemic complications that may require prompt intervention to prevent graft loss. AKI that develops long after transplantation is often related to nephrotoxic drug reactions. In symptomatic patients, AKI is usually associated with various systemic medical complications and could represent a risk of mortality. Electronic systems have been developed to alert transplant physicians that AKI has occurred in a transplant recipient during long-term outpatient follow-up. Herein, we will review most recent understandings of pathophysiology, diagnosis, therapeutic approach, and short- and long-term consequences of AKI occurring in both the donor and in the kidney transplant recipient.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248276, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148243

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Effective treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are urgently needed. We hypothesized that colchicine, by counteracting proinflammatory pathways implicated in the uncontrolled inflammatory response of COVID-19 patients, reduces pulmonary complications, and improves survival. METHODS: This retrospective study included 71 consecutive COVID-19 patients (hospitalized with pneumonia on CT scan or outpatients) who received colchicine and compared with 70 control patients who did not receive colchicine in two serial time periods at the same institution. We used inverse probability of treatment propensity-score weighting to examine differences in mortality, clinical improvement (using a 7-point ordinary scale), and inflammatory markers between the two groups. RESULTS: Amongst the 141 COVID-19 patients (118 [83.7%] hospitalized), 70 (50%) received colchicine. The 21-day crude cumulative mortality was 7.5% in the colchicine group and 28.5% in the control group (P = 0.006; adjusted hazard ratio: 0.24 [95%CI: 0.09 to 0.67]); 21-day clinical improvement occurred in 40.0% of the patients on colchicine and in 26.6% of control patients (adjusted relative improvement rate: 1.80 [95%CI: 1.00 to 3.22]). The strong association between the use of colchicine and reduced mortality was further supported by the diverging linear trends of percent daily change in lymphocyte count (P = 0.018), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.003), and in C-reactive protein levels (P = 0.009). Colchicine was stopped because of transient side effects (diarrhea or skin rashes) in 7% of patients. CONCLUSION: In this retrospective cohort study colchicine was associated with reduced mortality and accelerated recovery in COVID-19 patients. This support the rationale for current larger randomized controlled trials testing the safety/efficacy profile of colchicine in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colchicine/metabolism , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
13.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(5): 829-837, 2021 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016033

ABSTRACT

Mass disasters result in extensive health problems and make health care delivery problematic, as has been the case during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although COVID-19 was initially considered a pulmonary problem, it soon became clear that various other organs were involved. Thus, many care providers, including kidney health personnel, were overwhelmed or developed burnout. This review aims to describe the spectrum of burnout in mass disasters and suggests solutions specifically for nephrology personnel by extending previous experience to the COVID-19 pandemic. Burnout (a psychologic response to work-related stress) is already a frequent part of routine nephrology practice and, not surprisingly, is even more common during mass disasters due to increased workload and specific conditions, in addition to individual factors. Avoiding burnout is essential to prevent psychologic and somatic health problems in personnel as well as malpractice, understaffing, and inadequate health care delivery, all of which increase the health care burden of disasters. Burnout may be prevented by predisaster organizational measures, which include developing an overarching plan and optimizing health care infrastructure, and ad hoc disaster-specific measures that encompass both organizational and individual measures. Organizational measures include increasing safety, decreasing workload and fear of malpractice, optimizing medical staffing and material supplies, motivating personnel, providing mental health support, and enabling flexibility in working circumstances. Individual measures include training on coping with stress and problematic conditions, minimizing the stigma of emotional distress, and maintaining physical health. If these measures fall short, asking for external help is mandatory to avoid an inefficient disaster health care response. Minimizing burnout by applying these measures will improve health care provision, thus saving as many lives as possible.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Psychological/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cyclonic Storms , Earthquakes , Health Personnel , Nephrology , SARS-CoV-2 , Burnout, Psychological/prevention & control , Disaster Planning , Humans
14.
BMJ Open ; 10(7):e036893-e036893, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662299

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In patients on maintenance haemodialysis (HD), intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a clinical problem that nephrologists and dialysis nurses face daily in their clinical routine. Despite the technological advances in the field of HD, the incidence of hypotensive events occurring during a standard dialytic treatment is still very high. Frequently recurring hypotensive episodes during HD sessions expose patients not only to severe immediate complications but also to a higher mortality risk in the medium term. Various strategies aimed at preventing IDH are currently available, but there is lack of conclusive data on more integrated approaches combining different interventions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a prospective, randomised, open-label, crossover trial (each subject will be used as his/her own control) that will be performed in two distinct phases, each of which is divided into several subphases. In the first phase, 27 HD sessions for each patient will be used, and will be aimed at the validation of a new ultrafiltration (UF) profile, designed with an ascending/descending shape, and a standard dialysate sodium concentration. In the second phase, 33 HD sessions for each patient will be used and will be aimed at evaluating the combination of different UF and sodium profiling strategies through individualised dialysate sodium concentration. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial protocol has been reviewed and approved by the local Institutional Ethics Committee (Comitato Etico AVEN, prot. 43391 22.10.19). The results of the trial will be presented at local and international conferences and submitted for publication to a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT03949088).

15.
Am J Transplant ; 20(11): 3140-3148, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638753

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplant recipients may be at a high risk of developing critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness due to chronic immunosuppression and comorbidities. We identified hospitalized adult kidney transplant recipients at 12 transplant centers in the United States, Italy, and Spain who tested positive for COVID-19. Clinical presentation, laboratory values, immunosuppression, and treatment strategies were reviewed, and predictors of poor clinical outcomes were determined through multivariable analyses. Among 9845 kidney transplant recipients across centers, 144 were hospitalized due to COVID-19 during the 9-week study period. Of the 144 patients, 66% were male with a mean age of 60 (±12) years, and 40% were Hispanic and 25% were African American. Prevalent comorbidities included hypertension (95%), diabetes (52%), obesity (49%), and heart (28%) and lung (19%) disease. Therapeutic management included antimetabolite withdrawal (68%), calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal (23%), hydroxychloroquine (71%), antibiotics (74%), tocilizumab (13%), and antivirals (14%). During a median follow-up period of 52 days (IQR: 16-66 days), acute kidney injury occurred in 52% cases, with respiratory failure requiring intubation in 29%, and the mortality rate was 32%. The 46 patients who died were older, had lower lymphocyte counts and estimated glomerular filtration rate levels, and had higher serum lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, and interleukin-6 levels. In sum, hospitalized kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 have higher rates of acute kidney injury and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Aged , Comorbidity , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Graft Rejection/epidemiology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , North America/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
16.
J Nephrol ; 33(4): 667-680, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-505584

ABSTRACT

Italy was the first Western country to face the COVID-19 pandemic. Here we report the results of a national survey on kidney transplantation activity in February and March 2020, and the results of a three-round Delphi consensus promoted by four scientific societies: the Italian Society of Organ Transplantation, the Italian Society of Nephrology, the Italian Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, and the Italian Group on Antimicrobial Stewardship. All 41 Italian transplant centers were invited to express their opinion in the Delphi rounds along with a group of seven experts. The survey revealed that, starting from March 2020, there was a decline in kidney transplantation activity in Italy, especially for living-related transplants. Overall, 60 recipients tested positive for SARS-CoV2 infection, 57 required hospitalization, 17 were admitted to the ICU, and 11 died. The online consensus had high response rates at each round (95.8%, 95.8%, and 89.5%, respectively). Eventually, 27 of 31 proposed statements were approved (87.1%), 12 at the first or second round (38.7%), and 3 at the third (9.7%). Based on the Italian experience, we discuss the reasons for the changes in kidney transplantation activity during the COVID-19 pandemic in Western countries. We also provide working recommendations for the organization and management of kidney transplantation under these conditions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Living Donors , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
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