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1.
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association ; 37(Suppl 3), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998301

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS mRNA-1273 vaccine (previously known as vaccine Moderna) has shown 94.1% efficacy at preventing COVID-19 illness in the general population. Vaccine-related adverse events (AEs) were usually mild or moderate in intensity and resolved within a few days. Nevertheless, the fear of developing AEs led some patients on haemodialysis to deny vaccination or additional booster doses. No studies have been conducted to evaluate the reactogenicity of the mRNA-1273 vaccine in dialysis patients. To inform public health and clinical practice, we investigated the safety of the mRNA-1273 vaccine in a cohort of patients on haemodialysis. METHOD We conducted a retrospective analysis of in-centre haemodialysis patients without a prior COVID-19 diagnosis who underwent mRNA-1273 vaccine from 1 March to 30 April 2021. mRNA-1273 vaccine was performed in all patients without signs of ongoing infection or COVID-19 who provided written consent from 24 March to 30 April 2021. AEs occurring after the first and the second doses were collected and classified as local or systemic. RESULTS Overall, 126 patients on chronic maintenance dialysis were vaccinated with two doses of mRNA-1273 vaccine. Mean age was 68 (IQR, 54.7–76) years and 53.6% of patients were aged ≥65 years (Table 1). AEs occurred in 57.9% and 61.9% of patients after the first dose and second dose, respectively. The most common AEs were injection-site pain (61.9%), erythema (4.8%), itching (4.8%), swelling (16.7%), axillary swelling/tenderness (2.4%), fever (17.5%) headache (7.9%), fatigue (23.8%), myalgia (17.5%), arthralgia (12.7%), dyspnoea (2.4%), nausea/vomiting (7.1%), diarrhoea (5.6%), shivers (4%) and vertigo (1.6%).Table 1. Demographic and clinical characteristics of haemodialysis patients who underwent RNA-1273 vaccine administrationBasal characteristicsAll patients(n = 126) Age (year)68 (54.7–6) (range)19–92 ≥ 65 years71 (56.3) Males, n (%)71 (56.31) Ethnic origin, n. (%)  Caucasian110 (87.3) African15 (11.9) Hispanic1 (0.8)Etiology of ESRD, n. (%)  Nephrosclerosis54 (42.9) Glomerulonephritis26 (20.6) Diabetes14 (11.1) ADPKD4 (3.2) Nephrotoxic4 (3.2) Pyelonephritis4 (3.2) Interstitial3 (2.4) HIVAN2 (1.6) Others10 (7.9) NA5 (4)HD treatment schedule, n (%)  3 times per week115 (91.2) 2 times per week7 (5.5) 4 times per week4 (3.1)Infectious disease, n. (%)  HBV3 (2.3) HCV3 (2.3) HIV2 (1.5)Time elapsed from the first to the second dose of vaccine, day28 (28–28)Follow-up, day68 (66–70) ESRD, end-stage renal disease;HBV, hepatitis B virus;HCV, hepatitis C virus. The rates of local AEs were similar after the first and second doses (P = .8), whereas systemic AEs occurred more frequently after the second dose (P = .001). Fever (P = .03), fatigue (P = .02) and nausea/vomiting (P = .03) were significantly more frequent after the second dose of the vaccine (Figure 1). Analysis of the data detected statistically significant differences in duration of axillary swelling/tenderness (P = .07) and diarrhoea (P = .02) between the first and second. In both cases, these symptoms lasted longer after the second dose of the vaccine. There were no age-related differences in the rate of AEs between older (≥65 years) and younger participants (18–64 years). Lastly, we noted a lower rate of AEs in hemodialysis patients after the first dose (57.9% versus 84.2%) and second doses (61.9% versus 88.6%) compared to the general population.FIGURE 1: Number of patients who experienced AEs after the two doses. CONCLUSION RNA-1273 vaccine was associated with the development of transient AEs after the first (57.9%) and second doses (61.9%) in patients on haemodialysis. Systemic AEs were more common after the second dose than the first dose of vaccine. The duration of AEs lasted for a few days, without any apparent consequences. These data confirm the safety of the RNA-1273 vaccine in haemodialysis patients and support the promotion of COVID-19 vaccination in h sitant patients.

2.
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association ; 37(Suppl 3), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS A great amount of information has been divulged on the epidemiology and outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with ESRD. The majority of the studies have been conducted in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and kidney transplant recipients. Unfortunately, few studies focused on the outcome of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Information regarding this subset of the population has been extrapolated from aggregated data including a higher percentage of HD patients. As a result, the impact of COVID-19 is indefinite in patients receiving PD. We conducted a study to better understand how patients on PD have been affected by COVID-19. METHOD We conducted a single-center retrospective analysis of 141 PD patients followed at the University Hospital of Modena, Italy from 1 March 2020 to 31 December 2021. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was performed through nasopharyngeal swab RT–PCR testing. Duration of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) shedding measured the time elapsed from diagnosis of COVID-19 to one or two (if available) negative nasopharyngeal PCR tests. Median and interquartile range or mean and standard deviation were used for continuous variables and percentage for categorical variables. A P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS During the pandemic, 18 out of 141 (12.7%) patients receiving PD dialysis contracted COVID-19. Median age was 60 (50.2–66.5) years with a predominance of males (72.2%) The percentage of patients on APD accounted for 33.3%. The infection was symptomatic in out of 18 (94.4%) patients. Fever (94.4%) and cough (55.6%) were the most common symptoms. Viral shedding, traced with nasopharyngeal swabs lasted 26 (14.5–3.5) days. Two patients were inactive on the waiting list for kidney transplantation for a mean of 43 ± 1.4 days. COVID-19 caused hospital admission of seven (38.9%) patients. During hospitalization two (11.1%) patients switched from PD to HD for ultrafiltration failure and inadequate solute clearance and two (11.1%) died for septic shock with multiorgan failure. In our cohort of patients, excess death due to COVID-19 was 22.2%. Half of the patients contracted the infection before the availability of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. There were no statistically significant differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients in terms of symptoms, viral shedding and hospital admission or (Table 1). We underline that COVID-19 was fatal only in two unvaccinated patients.Table 1. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients on PD with COVID-19VariablesAllpatientsUnvaccinated patientsVaccinated patientsP-value(n. 18)(n. 9)(n. 9)Age, years60 (50.2–66.5)54 (52–65)62 (39–73)0.96Male, n. (%)13 (72.2)8 (88.8)5 (55.5)0.29Dialysis vintage, years0.9 (0.7–2.4)1.2 (0.5–2.9)0.94 (0.7–2)0.85CAPD, n. (%)6 (33.3)2 (33.3)4 (44.4)0.6Immunosuppressive therapy6 (33.3)1 (16.7)5 (55.5)0.13Etiology of ESRD0.59 Hypertensive nephropathy6 (33.3)4 (44.4)2 (22.2) Diabetic nephropathy3 (16.7)2 (22.2)1 (11.1) IgA nephropathy2 (11.1)1 (11.1)1 (11.1) Lupus nephritis2 (11.1)0 (0)2 (22.2) Others5 (27.8)2 (22.2)3 (33.3)Comorbidities  Diabetes6 (33.3)3 (33.3)3 (33.3)1  CVD7 (38.9)4 (44.4)3 (33.3)1 Obesity5 (27.8)2 (22.2)3 (33.3)1  Cancer3 (16.7)2 (22.2)1 (11.1)1Symptoms  Cough10 (55.6)7 (77.7)3 (33.3)0.15  Fever17(94.4)9 (100)8 (88.8)1  Dyspnea6 (33.3)3 (33.3)3 (33.3)1Asymptomatic, n. (%)1 (5.6)0 (0)1 (11.1)1Viral shedding, day26 (14.5–33.5)26 (15–35)27.5 (11.5–33)0.51Switch to HD2 (11.1)1 (11.1)1 (11.1)1Hospitalization, n. (%)7 (38.9)3 (33.3)4 (44.4)1Death, n. (%)2 (11.1)2 (22.2)0 (0)0.47 CONCLUSION This study reports the monocentric experience of a large PD center during the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 was symptomatic in the majority of patients and led to hospitalization of about 40% of the patients. The rate of symptoms, viral shedding and hospital admission was similar between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients. Two unvaccin ted patients died for the severe consequence of COVID-19.

3.
G Ital Nefrol ; 39(2)2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801193

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Some hemodialysis patients are reluctant to undergo COVID-19 vaccination for the fear of developing adverse events (AEs). The aim of this study was to verify the safety of the mRNA-1273 vaccine in hemodialysis patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of in-center hemodialysis patients who underwent mRNA-1273 vaccine from March 1st to April 30th, 2021. All AEs occurring after the first and the second doses were collected and classified as local or systemic. Results: Overall, 126 patients on chronic maintenance dialysis without a prior COVID-19 diagnosis were vaccinated with two doses of mRNA-1273 vaccine. Mean age was 68 (IQR, 54,7-76) years and 53.6% of patients were aged ≥65 years. During the observational period of 68 (IQR, 66-70) days, AEs occurred in 57.9% and 61.9% of patients after the first dose and second dose, respectively. The most common AEs were: injection-site pain (61.9%), erythema (4.8%), itching (4.8%), swelling (16.7%), axillary swelling/tenderness (2.4%), fever (17.5%) headache (7.9%), fatigue (23.8%), myalgia (17.5%), arthralgia (12.7%), dyspnoea (2.4%), nausea/vomiting (7.1%), diarrhoea (5.6%), shivers (4%) and vertigo (1.6%). The rates of local AEs were similar after the first and second doses (P=0.8), whereas systemic AEs occurred more frequently after the second dose (P=0.001). Fever (P=0.03), fatigue (P=0.02) and nausea/vomiting (P=0.03) were significantly more frequent after the second dose of the vaccine. There were no age-related differences in the rate of AEs. Overall, vaccine-related AEs in hemodialysis patients seem to be lower than in the general population. Conclusion: The RNA-1273 vaccine was associated with the development of transient AEs after the first and second doses in patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis. They were mostly local, whereas systemic AEs were more prevalent after the second dose. Overall, all AEs lasted for a few days, without any apparent sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , Nausea , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomiting
4.
Clin Kidney J ; 15(4): 615-617, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740836

ABSTRACT

Insufficient vaccine coverage and dominance of the more transmissible severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants are the leading causes of the continued spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide. To curb the surge in infections, COVID-19 vaccination has been advocated as a priority measure, especially for frail populations and people at high risk of exposure. Patients on in-centre maintenance haemodialysis (HD) embody both conditions. They are at high risk of severe COVID-19 consequences due to their advanced age and weakened immune system and carry an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission within shared dialysis rooms and public vehicles. Vaccination of the entire HD population is therefore the most effective strategy to protect patients from the dire consequences of COVID-19. Unfortunately, a minority of patients still express COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. The management of this group of patients, who have the full right to HD treatment, poses demanding problems from a patient safety perspective. The placement of unvaccinated patients within the dialysis room and the protection of all vaccinated patients are some of the most urgent problems the nephrologist faces during the COVID-19 pandemic. In light of these COVID-19-driven changes, an ethical reflection on the management of unvaccinated patients appears crucial to act responsibly and contribute to the health promotion of dialysis patients.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292825

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Some hemodialysis patients are reluctant to COVID-19 for the development of adverse events (AEs). The aim of this study was to verify the safety of mRNA-1273 vaccine in hemodialysis patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of in-center hemodialysis patients who underwent mRNA-1273 vaccine from March 1st to April 30th, 2021. All AEs occurring after the first and the second doses were collected and classified as local or systemic. Results Overall, 126 patients on chronic maintenance dialysis were vaccinated with two doses of mRNA-1273 vaccine. Mean age was 68 (IQR, 54,7-76) years and 53.6% of patients were aged ≥ 65 years. During the observational period of 68 (IQR, 66-70) days, AEs occurred in 57.9% and 61.9% of patients after the first dose and second dose, respectively. The most common AEs were: injection-site pain (61.9%), erythema (4.8%), itching (4.8%), swelling (16.7%), axillary swelling/tenderness (2.4%), fever (17.5%) headache (7.9%), fatigue (23.8%), myalgia (17.5%), arthralgia (12.7%), dyspnoea (2.4%);nausea/ vomiting (7.1%), diarrhoea (5.6%), shivers (4%) and vertigo (1.6%). The rates of local AEs were similar after the first and second doses (P=0.8), whereas systemic AEs occurred more frequently after the second dose (P=0.001). Fever (P=0.03), fatigue (P=0.02) and nausea/vomiting (P=0.03) were significantly more frequent after the second dose of vaccine. There were no age-related differences in the rate of AEs. Overall, vaccine-related AEs in hemodialysis patients seem lower than in the general population. Conclusion RNA-1273 vaccine is associated with the development of transient AEs after the first (57.9%) and second dose (61.9%) in patients on chronic maintenance dialysis. Systemic AEs were more common after the second dose. Overall, all AEs lasted for a few days, without any apparent sequelae.

6.
Clin Kidney J ; 14(3): 1036, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526154

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ckj/sfaa084.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ckj/sfaa084.].

7.
J Nephrol ; 34(5): 1387-1403, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing in-centre haemodialysis (HD) are particularly exposed to the dire consequences of COVID-19. The present systematic scoping review aims to identify the extent, range, and nature of articles related to COVID-19 and maintenance HD: it reports specifically the prevalence of the COVID-19 pandemic in the HD population, implementation of strategies for the prevention, mitigation and containment of the COVID-19 pandemic in HD centres, demographic and clinical characteristics, and outcomes of the pediatric and adult HD patients. METHODS: A multi-step systematic search of the literature in Pubmed, Scopus, Ovid Medline, Embase and Web of Science, published between December 1, 2019, and January 30, 2021 was performed. Two authors separately screened the titles and abstracts of the documents and ruled out irrelevant articles. A report of the papers that met inclusion criteria was performed; then, a descriptive analysis of the characteristics of the included articles and a narrative synthesis of the results were performed. RESULTS: The review process ended with the inclusion of 145 articles. Most of them were based on single-centre experiences, which spontaneously developed best practices. Most studies were conducted in high-income countries (69.7%) and a part of them (9.6%) were not in English. Prevalence of COVID-19 among dialysis patients accounted for 0%-37.6%. Preventive measures were reported in 54% of the included articles, with particular emphasis on education, triage, hygiene, and containment measures. Patients experienced a heterogeneous spectrum of symptoms that led 35%-88.2% of them to hospital admission. Median and mean hospital length of stay ranged from 8 to 28.5 and 16.2 to 22 days, respectively. Admission to intensive care units varied widely across studies (from 2.6% to 70.5%) and was associated with high mortality (42.8%-100%). Overall, prognosis was poor in 0%-47% of the hospitalized patients. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic scoping review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the impact of COVID-19 on the frail world of HD patients. Furthermore, it may help to implement the existing strategies of COVID-19 prevention and provide a list of unmet needs (safe transport, testing, shelter). Finally, it may be a stimulus for performing systematic reviews and meta-analyses which will form the basis for evidence-based guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Child , Frail Elderly , Humans , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Hemodial Int ; 25(4): E53-E56, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299140

ABSTRACT

The immunological mechanisms that modulate immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection remain elusive. Little is known on the magnitude and the durability of antibody response against COVID-19. There is consensus that patients with immune dysfunction, such as dialysis patients, may be unable to mount a robust and durable humoral immunity after infections. Recent studies showed that dialysis patients seroconverted after COVID-19, but data on the durability of the immune response are missing. We reported the data of a durable anti-spike protein seroconversion after natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in three patients on hemodialysis with a mean age of 67.2 ± 13.8 years. A mean antibody titer of 212.6 ± 174.9 UA/ml (Liaison®, DiaSorin) was found after one year (range, 366-374 days) from the diagnosis of COVID-19. In conclusion, this case series provided evidence that patients receiving hemodialysis who recovered from severe COVID-19 were able to mount a long-lasting immune response against SARS-CoV-2. Although the protective capacity of this long-term immunity remains to be determined, these patients did not report signs of reinfection after recovery from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Kidney Res Clin Pract ; 40(2): 231-240, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of within-day sCr variation serum creatinine variation is unknown in the setting of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We evaluated the prognostic significance of 24-hour serum creatinine variation in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A monocentric retrospective analysis was conducted in COVID-19 patients not admitted to the intensive care unit. Three groups were subdivided based on 24 hours serum creatinine variation from admission. In the stable kidney function group, 24-hour serum creatinine variation ranged from +0.05 to -0.05 mg/dL; in the decreased kidney function group, 24-hour serum creatinine variation was >0.05 mg/dL; in the improved kidney function group, 24-hour serum creatinine variation was <-0.05 mg/dL. RESULTS: The study population included 224 patients with a median age of 66.5 years and a predominance of males (72.3%). Within 24 hours of admission, renal function remained stable in 37.1% of the subjects, whereas it displayed improved and deteriorated patterns in 45.5% and 17.4%, respectively. Patients with decreased kidney function were older and had more severe COVID-19 symptoms than patients with stable or improved kidney function. About half of patients with decreased kidney function developed an episode of acute kidney injury (AKI) during hospitalization. Decreased kidney function was significantly associated with AKI during hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR], 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-10.8; p < 0.001) and was an independent risk factor for 30-day in-hospital mortality (HR, 5.5; 95% CI, 1.1-28; p = 0.037). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients with decreased kidney function within 24 hours of admission were at high risk of AKI and 30-day in-hospital mortality.

11.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 25(11): 1203-1214, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289778

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a severe complication of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). This study aims to evaluate incidence, risk factors and case-fatality rate of AKI in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We reviewed the health medical records of 307 consecutive patients with COVID-19 hospitalized at the University Hospital of Modena, Italy. RESULTS: AKI was diagnosed in 69 out of 307 (22.4%) COVID-19 patients. Stages 1, 2, or 3 AKI accounted for 57.9%, 24.6% and 17.3%, respectively. AKI patients had a mean age of 74.7 ± 9.9 years. These patients showed higher serum levels of the main markers of inflammation and higher rate of severe pneumonia than non-AKI patients. Kidney injury was associated with a higher rate of urinary abnormalities including proteinuria (0.44 ± 0.85 vs 0.18 ± 0.29 mg/mg; P = < 0.0001) and microscopic hematuria (P = 0.032) compared to non-AKI patients. Hemodialysis was performed in 7.2% of the subjects and 33.3% of the survivors did not recover kidney function after AKI. Risk factors for kidney injury were age, male sex, CKD and higher non-renal SOFA score. Patients with AKI had a mortality rate of 56.5%. Adjusted Cox regression analysis revealed that COVID-19-associated AKI was independently associated with in-hospital death (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.82; CI 95%, 1.36-17.08) compared to non-AKI patients. CONCLUSION: AKI was a common and harmful consequence of COVID-19. It manifested with urinary abnormalities (proteinuria, microscopic hematuria) and conferred an increased risk for death. Given the well-known short-term sequelae of AKI, prevention of kidney injury is imperative in this vulnerable cohort of patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hematuria/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proteinuria/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
12.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 54(2): 405-410, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265550

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acid-base derangement has been poorly described in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Considering the high prevalence of pneumonia and kidneys injury in COVID-19, frequent acid-base alterations are expected in patients admitted with SARS-Cov-2 infection. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of acid-base disorders in symptomatic patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19. METHODS: The retrospective study enrolled COVID-19 patients hospitalized at the University Hospital of Modena from 4 March to 20 June 2020. Baseline arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis was collected in 211 patients. In subjects with multiple ABG analysis, we selected only the first measurement. A pH of less than 7.37 was categorized as acidemia and a pH of more than 7.43 was categorized as alkalemia. RESULTS: ABG analyses revealed a low arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PO2, 70.2 ± 25.1 mmHg), oxygen saturation (SO2, 92%) and a mild reduction of PO2/FiO2 ratio (231 ± 129). Acid-base alterations were found in 79.7% of the patient. Metabolic alkalosis (33.6%) was the main alteration followed by respiratory alkalosis (30.3%), combined alkalosis (9.4%), respiratory acidosis (3.3%), metabolic acidosis (2.8%) and other compensated acid-base disturbances (3.6%). All six patients with metabolic acidosis died at the end of the follow-up. CONCLUSION: Variations of pH occurred in the majority (79.7%) of patients admitted with COVID-19. The patients experienced all the type of acid-base disorders, notably metabolic and respiratory alkalosis were the most common alterations in this group of patients.


Subject(s)
Acid-Base Imbalance/epidemiology , Acid-Base Imbalance/virology , COVID-19/complications , Acid-Base Imbalance/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
13.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 25(4): 401-409, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1008116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19 experience multiple clinical conditions that may cause electrolyte imbalances. Hypokalemia is a concerning electrolyte disorder closely associated with severe complications. This study aimed to estimate prevalence, risk factors and outcome of hypokalemia in a cohort of patients with confirmed COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 290 non-ICU admitted patients with COVID-19 at the tertiary teaching hospital of Modena, Italy, from February 16 to April 14, 2020. RESULTS: Hypokalemia was detected in 119 out of 290 patients (41%) during hospitalization. Mean serum potassium was 3.1 ± 0.1 meq/L. The majority of patients (90.7%) patients experienced only a mild decrease in serum potassium level (3-3.4 mEq/L). Hypokalemia was associated with hypocalcemia, which was detected in 50% of subjects. Urine potassium-to-creatinine ratio, measured in a small number of patients (n = 45; 36.1%), revealed an increase of urinary potassium excretion in most cases (95.5%). Risk factors for hypokalemia were female sex (odds ratio (OR) 2.44; 95% CI 1.36-4.37; P 0.003) and diuretic therapy (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.08-3.48; P 0.027). Hypokalemia, adjusted for sex, age and SOFA score, was not associated with ICU transfer (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.228-1.212; P = 0.131), in-hospital mortality (OR, 0.47; 95% CI 0.170-1.324; P = 0.154) and composite outcome of ICU transfer or in-hospital mortality (OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.222-1.047; P = 0.065) in our cohort of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Hypokalemia was a frequent disorder in subjects with COVID-19. Female sex and diuretic therapy were identified as risk factors for low serum potassium levels. Hypokalemia was unrelated to ICU transfer and death in this cohort of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypokalemia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diuretics/adverse effects , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypokalemia/drug therapy , Hypokalemia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Potassium/blood , Potassium/urine , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(10)2020 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841363

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, a 74-year-old man affected by end-stage renal disease and on peritoneal dialysis was referred to an emergency room in Modena, Northern Italy, due to fever and respiratory symptoms. After ruling out COVID-19 infection, a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation was confirmed and he was thus transferred to the nephrology division. Physical examination and blood tests revealed a positive fluid balance and insufficient correction of the uraemic syndrome, although peritoneal dialysis prescription was maximised. After discussion with the patient and his family, the staff decided to start hybrid dialysis, consisting of once-weekly in-hospital haemodialysis and home peritoneal dialysis for the remaining days. He was discharged at the end of the antibiotic course, after an internal jugular vein central venous catheter placement and the first haemodialysis session. This strategy allowed improvement of depuration parameters and avoidance of frequent access to the hospital, which is crucial in limiting exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in an endemic setting.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Pandemics , Peritoneal Dialysis/methods , Pneumonia, Viral , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Renal Dialysis/methods , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , Combined Modality Therapy/trends , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diagnosis, Differential , Hemodialysis Units, Hospital , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/physiopathology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Organizational Innovation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Flare Up
16.
Hemodial Int ; 24(4): E50-E54, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693343

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) is a novel respiratory infection highly associated with severe complications in elderly subjects affected by cardiovascular disease. Patients on maintenance dialysis are exceptionally vulnerable because most of them are old and have multiple comorbidities. We report the complex clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a patient on maintenance dialysis who presented with fever and lung edema. After 41 days from the primary infection, the clinically recovered patient experienced symptomatic reactivation of SARS-COV-2 infection documented by positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result on nasal/oropharyngeal swab along with immunoglobulin M seroconversion. The recurrence of PCR positivity forced us to perform hemodialysis in a separate isolation room for a prolonged period of time. Close monitoring of previously infected patients and restructuring of dialysis facilities are necessary to avoid new outbreaks of this concerning disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Humans , Male , Polymerase Chain Reaction
17.
Clin Kidney J ; 13(3): 265-268, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662416

ABSTRACT

In the current setting of global containment, peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home haemodialysis are the best modalities of renal replacement therapy (RRT) to reduce the rate of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Considering the shorter and easier training programme of PD compared to home haemodialysis, PD appears a practical solution for patients with end-stage renal disease to reduce the risk of hospital-acquired infection. PD offers the advantage of minimizing the risk of viral transmission through interpersonal contact that commonly occurs during the haemodialysis session and while travelling from home to the haemodialysis facility using public transport services. To overcome barriers to health care access due to the containment measures for this emerging disease, telemedicine is a useful and reliable tool for delivering health care without exposing patients to the risk of contact. However, novel issues including handling of potentially infected dialysate, caregivers' infectious risk and adequacy of PD in critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome remain to be clarified. In conclusion, PD should be preferred to the other modalities of RRT during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak because it can be a solution to cope with the increased number of infected patients worldwide.

18.
Clin Kidney J ; 13(3): 334-339, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-659072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dialysis patients are considered at high risk for COVID-19 and the infection can easily spread in dialysis units. METHODS: We conducted an observational single-centre cohort study to describe clinical characteristics, treatments and outcomes of dialysis patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We tested patients who presented symptoms or had contact with a confirmed case. We enrolled 15 patients positive for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: We tested 37 of 306 dialysis patients. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were older (mean age 75.96 ± 11.09 years) and all had comorbidities. At presentation, most had interstitial infiltrates on chest X-ray, three-quarters had leucopenia and none had respiratory insufficiency. During follow-up, there was an increase in serum C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. Eighty percent of patients received supplemental oxygen; none received non-invasive ventilation, one was intubated. Most patients (80%) were treated with oral hydroxychloroquine for a median time of 6.5 days [interquartile range (IQR) 5-14.5] and 40% received azithromycin; two patients received a short course of antivirals and one received a single dose of tocilizumab. Only two patients did not require hospitalization. Of the nine survivors, eight still tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 a median of 19 days (IQR 9.25-23) after diagnosis. Six patients died (case fatality rate 40%) a median of 5.5 days (IQR 1.75-9.75) after diagnosis. The main reported cause of death was respiratory failure related to COVID-19 (five patients). CONCLUSIONS: We report a single-centre experience of SARS-CoV-2 infection in dialysis patients. The disease showed a high case fatality rate and most patients required hospitalization. Survivors show prolonged viral shedding.

19.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20131169

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 may experience multiple conditions (e.g., fever, hyperventilation, anorexia, gastroenteritis, acid-base disorder) that may cause electrolyte imbalances. Hypokalemia is a concerning electrolyte disorder that may increase the susceptibility to various kinds of arrhythmia. This study aimed to estimate prevalence, risk factors and outcome of hypokalemia in a cohort of non-critically ill patients. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 290 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection at the tertiary teaching hospital of Modena, Italy. Hypokalemia (<3.5 mEq/L) was detected in 119 patients (41%). The decrease of serum potassium level was of mild entity (3-3.4 mEq/L) and occurred in association with hypocalcemia (P=0.001) and lower level of serum magnesium (P=0.028) compared to normokaliemic patients. Urine K: creatinine ratio, measured in a small subset of patients (n=45; 36.1%), showed an increase of urinary potassium excretion in the majority of the cases (95.5%). Causes of kaliuria were diuretic therapy (53.4%) and corticosteroids (23.3%). In the remaining patients, urinary potassium loss was associated with normal serum magnesium, low sodium excretion (FENa< 1%) and metabolic alkalosis. Risk factors for hypokalemia were female gender (P=0.002; HR 0.41, 95%CI 0.23-0.73) and diuretic therapy (P=0.027; HR 1.94, 95%CI 1.08-3.48). Hypokalemia, adjusted for sex, age and SOFA score, resulted not associated with ICU admission (P=0.131, 95% CI 0.228-1.212) and in-hospital mortality (P=0.474; 95% CI 0,170-1,324) in our cohort of patients. Hypokalemia is a frequent disorder in COVID-19 patients and urinary potassium loss may be the main cause of hypokalemia. The disorder was mild in the majority of the patients and was unrelated to poor outcomes. Nevertheless, hypokalemic patients required potassium supplements to dampen the risk of arrhythmias.

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