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1.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1970382

ABSTRACT

Background A motley postacute symptomatology may develop after COVID-19, irrespective of the acute disease severity, age, and comorbidities. Frail individuals have reduced physiological reserves and manifested a worse COVID-19 course, during the acute setting. However, it is still unknown, whether frailty may subtend some long COVID-19 manifestations. We explored the prevalence of long COVID-19 disturbs in COVID-19 survivals. Methods This was an observational study. Patients aged 65 years or older were followed-up 1, 3, and 6 months after hospitalization for COVID-19 pneumonia. Results A total of 382 patients were enrolled. Frail patients were more malnourished (median Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form score 8 vs. 9, p = 0.001), at higher risk of sarcopenia [median Strength, Assistance with walking, Rising from a chair, Climbing stairs, and Falls (SARC-F) score 3 vs. 1.5, p = 0.003], and manifested a worse physical performance [median Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score 10 vs. 11, p = 0.0007] than robust individuals, after hospital discharge following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia. Frailty was significantly associated with: (i) confusion, as a presenting symptom of COVID-19 [odds ratio (OR) 77.84, 95% CI 4.23–1432.49, p = 0.003];(ii) malnutrition (MNA-SF: adjusted B –5.63, 95% CI –8.39 to –2.87, p < 0.001), risk of sarcopenia (SARC-F: adjusted B 9.11, 95% CI 3.10–15.13, p = 0.003), impaired muscle performance (SPPB: B –3.47, 95% CI –6.33 to –0.61, p = 0.02), complaints in mobility (adjusted OR 1674200.27, 95% CI 4.52–619924741831.25, p = 0.03), in self-care (adjusted OR 553305.56, 95% CI 376.37–813413358.35, p < 0.001), and in performing usual activities of daily living (OR 71.57, 95% CI 2.87–1782.53, p = 0.009) at 1-month follow-up;(iii) dyspnea [modified Medical Research Council (mMRC): B 4.83, 95% CI 1.32–8.33, p = 0.007] and risk of sarcopenia (SARC-F: B 7.12, 95% CI 2.17–12.07, p = 0.005) at 3-month follow-up;and (iv) difficulties in self-care (OR 2746.89, 95% CI 6.44–1172310.83, p = 0.01) at the 6-month follow-up. In a subgroup of patients (78 individuals), the prevalence of frailty increased at the 1-month follow-up compared to baseline (p = 0.009). Conclusion The precocious identification of frail COVID-19 survivors, who manifest more motor and respiratory complaints during the follow-up, could improve the long-term management of these COVID-19 sequelae.

2.
Front Nutr ; 9: 846901, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809460

ABSTRACT

Background: Persistent symptoms including dyspnea and functional impairment are common in COVID-19 survivors. Poor muscle quality (myosteatosis) associates with poor short-term outcomes in COVID-19 patients. The aim of this observational study was to assess the relationship between myosteatosis diagnosed during acute COVID-19 and patient-reported outcomes at 6 months after discharge. Methods: Myosteatosis was diagnosed based on CT-derived skeletal muscle radiation attenuation (SM-RA) measured during hospitalization in 97 COVID-19 survivors who had available anthropometric and clinical data upon admission and at the 6-month follow-up after discharge. Dyspnea in daily activities was assessed using the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale for dyspnea. Health-related quality of life was measured using the European quality of life questionnaire three-level version (EQ-5D-3L). Results: Characteristics of patients with (lowest sex- and age-specific tertile of SM-RA) or without myosteatosis during acute COVID-19 were similar. At 6 months, patients with myosteatosis had greater rates of obesity (48.4 vs. 27.7%, p = 0.046), abdominal obesity (80.0 vs. 47.6%, p = 0.003), dyspnea (32.3 vs. 12.5%, p = 0.021) and mobility problems (32.3 vs. 12.5%, p = 0.004). Myosteatosis diagnosed during acute COVID-19 was the only significant predictor of persistent dyspnea (OR 3.19 [95% C.I. 1.04; 9.87], p = 0.043) and mobility problems (OR 3.70 [95% C.I. 1.25; 10.95], p = 0.018) at 6 months at logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, and BMI. Conclusion: Myosteatosis diagnosed during acute COVID-19 significantly predicts persistent dyspnea and mobility problems at 6 months after hospital discharge independent of age, sex, and body mass. Clinical Trial Registration: [www.ClinicalTrials.gov], identifier [NCT04318366].

3.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1733109

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the prevalence of respiratory sequelae of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors at 6 months after hospital discharge and develop a model to identify at-risk patients. Patients and Methods In this prospective cohort study, hospitalized, non-critical COVID-19 patients evaluated at 6-month follow-up between 26 August, 2020 and 16 December, 2020 were included. Primary outcome was respiratory dysfunction at 6 months, defined as at least one among tachypnea at rest, percent predicted 6-min walking distance at 6-min walking test (6MWT) ≤ 70%, pre-post 6MWT difference in Borg score ≥ 1 or a difference between pre- and post-6MWT oxygen saturation ≥ 5%. A nomogram-based multivariable logistic regression model was built to predict primary outcome. Validation relied on 2000-resample bootstrap. The model was compared to one based uniquely on degree of hypoxemia at admission. Results Overall, 316 patients were included, of whom 118 (37.3%) showed respiratory dysfunction at 6 months. The nomogram relied on sex, obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, degree of hypoxemia at admission, and non-invasive ventilation. It was 73.0% (95% confidence interval 67.3–78.4%) accurate in predicting primary outcome and exhibited minimal departure from ideal prediction. Compared to the model including only hypoxemia at admission, the nomogram showed higher accuracy (73.0 vs 59.1%, P < 0.001) and greater net-benefit in decision curve analyses. When the model included also respiratory data at 1 month, it yielded better accuracy (78.2 vs. 73.2%) and more favorable net-benefit than the original model. Conclusion The newly developed nomograms accurately identify patients at risk of persistent respiratory dysfunction and may help inform clinical priorities.

4.
Intern Med J ; 51(11): 1810-1815, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 long-term sequelae are ill-defined since only a few studies have explored the long-term consequences of this disease so far. AIMS: To evaluate the 6-month respiratory outcome and exercise capacity of COVID-19 acute respiratory failure (ARF) patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during the first wave of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective observational study included COVID-19 patients with ARF. Interventions included CPAP during hospitalisation and 6-month follow up. Frailty assessment was carried out through frailty index (FI), pO2 /FiO2 during hospitalisation and at follow up, respiratory parameters, 6-min walking test (6MWT) and the modified British Medical Research Council (mMRC) and Borg scale at follow up. RESULTS: More than half of the patients had no dyspnoea according to the mMRC scale. Lower in-hospital pO2 /FiO2 correlated with higher Borg scale levels after 6MWT (ρ 0.27; P 0.04) at the follow-up visit. FI was positively correlated with length of hospitalisation (ρ 0.3; P 0.03) and negatively with the 6MWT distance walked (ρ -0.36; P 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Robust and frail patients with COVID-19 ARF treated with CPAP outside the intensive care unit setting had good respiratory parameters and exercise capacity at 6-month follow up, although more severe patients had slightly poorer respiratory performance compared with patients with higher PaO2 /FiO2 and lower FI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Exercise Tolerance , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Panminerva Med ; 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may leave behind an altered health status early after recovery. We evaluated the clinical status of COVID-19 survivors at three months after hospital discharge. METHODS: In this prospective observational cohort study, hospitalized patients aged ≥18 years, evaluated at one (M1) and three (M3) months post-discharge were enrolled. 251 patients (71.3% males, median [IQR] age 61.8 [53.5-70.7] years) were included. Median (IQR) time from discharge to M3 was 89 (79.5-101) days. Primary outcome was residual respiratory dysfunction (RRD), defined by tachypnea, moderate to very severe dyspnea, or peripheral oxygen saturation ≤95% on room air at M3. RESULTS: RRD was found in 30.4% of patients, with no significant difference compared with M1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and length of stay were independent predictors of RRD at multivariable logistic regression (odds ratio, OR, [95% confidence interval, CI] 4.13 [1.17-16.88], p 0.033; OR [95% CI] 1.02 [1.00-1.04], p 0.047, respectively). Obesity and C-reactive protein levels upon admission were additional predictors at regression tree analysis. Impaired quality of life (QoL) was reported by 53.2% of patients. Anxiety and insomnia were each present in 25.5% of patients, and PTSD in 22.4%. No difference was found between M1 and M3 in QoL, anxiety or PTSD. Insomnia decreased at M3. Current major psychiatric disorder as well as anxiety, insomnia and PSTD at M1 independently predicted PTSD at M3. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical damage may persist at three months after discharge in COVID-19 survivors. Post-recovery follow-up is an essential component of patient management.

6.
Brain Behav Immun ; 94: 138-147, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103720

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 outbreak is associated with mental health implications during viral infection and at short-term follow-up. Data on psychiatric and cognitive sequelae at medium-term follow-up are still lacking. During an ongoing prospective cohort study, the psychopathological and cognitive status of 226 COVID-19 pneumonia survivors (149 male, mean age 58) were prospectively evaluated one and three months after hospital discharge. Psychiatric clinical interview, self-report questionnaires, and neuropsychological profiling of verbal memory, working memory, psychomotor coordination, executive functions, attention and information processing, and verbal fluency were performed. Three months after discharge from the hospital, 35.8% still self-rated symptoms in the clinical range in at least one psychopathological dimension. We observed persistent depressive symptomatology, while PTSD, anxiety, and insomnia decreased during follow-up. Sex, previous psychiatric history, and the presence of depression at one month affected the depressive symptomatology at three months. Regardless of clinical physical severity, 78% of the sample showed poor performances in at least one cognitive domain, with executive functions and psychomotor coordination being impaired in 50% and 57% of the sample. Baseline systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), which reflects the immune response and systemic inflammation based on peripheral lymphocyte, neutrophil, and platelet counts, predicted self-rated depressive symptomatology and cognitive impairment at three-months follow-up; and changes of SII predicted changes of depression during follow-up. Neurocognitive impairments associated with severity of depressive psychopathology, and processing speed, verbal memory and fluency, and psychomotor coordination were predicted by baseline SII. We hypothesize that COVID-19 could result in prolonged systemic inflammation that predisposes patients to persistent depression and associated neurocognitive dysfunction. The linkage between inflammation, depression, and neurocognition in patients with COVID-19 should be investigated in long-term longitudinal studies, to better personalize treatment options for COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition Disorders , Mental Disorders , Biomarkers , Child, Preschool , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Neuropsychological Tests , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
7.
Giornale italiano di nefrologia : organo ufficiale della Societa italiana di nefrologia ; 37(2), 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-47727

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 is a disease caused by a new coronavirus presenting a variability of flu-like symptoms including fever, cough, myalgia and fatigue;in severe cases, patients develop pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis and septic shock, that can result in their death. This infection, which was declared a global epidemic by the World Health Organization, is particularly dangerous for dialysis patients, as they are frail and more vulnerable to infections due to the overlap of multiple pathologies. In patients with full-blown symptoms, there is a renal impairment of various degrees in 100% of the subjects observed. However, as Covid-19 is an emerging disease, more work is needed to improve prevention, diagnosis and treatment strategies. It is essential to avoid nosocomial spread;in order to control and reduce the rate of infections it is necessary to strengthen the management of medical and nursing personnel through the early diagnosis, isolation and treatment of patients undergoing dialysis treatment. We cover here a series of recommendations for the treatment of dialysis patients who are negative to the virus, and of those who are suspected or confirmed positive.

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