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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760617

ABSTRACT

Headache is a very common condition that can have a significant impact on work. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of headaches and their impact on a sample of 1076 workers from 18 small companies operating in different sectors. The workers who volunteered to participate were asked to fill in the Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6) and answer questions designed to assess stressful and traumatic factors potentially associated with headaches. The volunteers subsequently underwent a medical examination and tests for diagnosing metabolic syndrome. Out of the 1044 workers who completed the questionnaire (participation rate = 97%), 509 (48.8%) reported suffering from headaches. In a multivariate logistic regression model, female gender, recent bereavement, intrusive leadership, and sleep problems were significantly associated with headaches. In univariate logistic regression models, headache intensity was associated with an increased risk of anxiety (OR 1.10; CI95% 1.09; 1.12) and depression (OR 1.09; CI95% 1.08; 1.11). Headache impact was also associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome (OR 1.02; CI95% 1.00, 1.04), obesity (OR 1.02, CI95% 1.01; 1.03), and reduced HDL cholesterol (OR 1.03; CI95% 1.01; 1.04). The impact of headache calls for intervention in the workplace not only to promote a prompt diagnosis of the different forms of headaches but also to improve work organization, leadership style, and the quality of sleep.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316131

ABSTRACT

Telecommuting is a flexible form of work that has progressively spread over the last 40 years and which has been strongly encouraged by the measures to limit the Covid19 pandemic. There is still limited evi-dence on the effects it has on workers' health. In this survey we invited 905 workers of companies that made a limited use of telework to fill out a questionnaire to evaluate: Intrusive leadership of managers (IL), the request for work outside traditional hours (OFF-TAJD), workaholism (BWAS), effort / reward imbalance (ERI), happiness and common mental issues (CMIs), anxiety and depression, assessed by the Goldberg scale (GADS). The interaction between these variables has been studied by structural equation modeling (SEM). Intrusive leadership and working after hours were significantly associated with occu-pational stress. Workaholism is a relevant moderator of this interaction: intrusive leadership significantly increased the stress of workaholic workers. Intrusive leadership and overtime work were associated with reduced happiness, anxiety and depression. These results indicate the need to guarantee the right to disconnect, to limit the effect of the OFF-TAJD. In addition to this, companies should implement policies to prevent intrusive leadership and workaholism.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316130

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has severely tested the mental health of frontline health care workers. A repeated cross-sectional study can provide information on how their mental health evolved during the various phases of the pandemic. The intensivists of a COVID-19 hub hospital in Rome were investigated with a baseline survey during the first wave of the pandemic in April 2020 and were contacted again in December 2020, during the second wave. 152 of the 205 eligible workers responded to an online questionnaire designed to measure procedural justice, occupational stress (effort/reward imbalance), sleep quality, anxiety, depression, burnout, job satisfaction, happiness, and turnover intention. Workers reported a further increase in workload and compassion fatigue, which had already risen during the first wave, and a marked reduction in the time devoted to meditation and mental activities. A low level of confidence in the adequacy of safety procedures and the need to work in isolation, together with an increased workload and lack of time for meditation were the most significant predictors of occupational stress in a stepwise linear regression model. Occupational stress was, in turn, a significant predictor of insomnia, anxiety, low job satisfaction, burnout, and intention to leave the hospital. The number of workers manifesting symptoms of depression increased significantly to exceed 60%. Action to prevent occupational risks and enhance individual resilience cannot be postponed.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316129

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has severely tested the physical and mental health of health care workers (HCWs). The various stages of the epidemic have posed different problems;consequently, only a prospective study can effectively describe the changes in the workers’health. This repeated cross-sectional study is based on a one-year investigation (spring 2020 to spring 2021) of intensive care physicians in one of the two COVID-19 hub hospitals in Central Italy. Changes in their work activity due to the pandemic were studied anonymously together with their perception of organizational justice, occupational stress, sleep quality, anxiety, depression, burnout, job satisfaction, happiness, and intention to quit. In May-June 2021, one year after the baseline, doctors reported an increased workload, isolation at work and in social life, lack of time for physical activity and meditation and compassion fatigue. Stress was inversely associated with the perception of justice in safety procedures and directly correlated with work isolation. Occupational stress was significantly associated with anxiety, depression, burnout, dissatisfaction, and intention to quit. Procedural justice was significantly associated with happiness. Doctors believed vaccinations would help control the problem;however, this positive attitude had not yet resulted in improved mental health. Doctors reported high levels of distress (73%), sleep problems (28%), anxiety (25%), depression (64%). Interventions to correct the situation are urgently needed.

5.
Ind Health ; 60(1): 75-78, 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677635

ABSTRACT

We aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on anaesthesiology residents in a COVID-19 hub hospital in Latium and ascertain their level of perceived justice and work-related stress. Residents and specialist anaesthesiologists were recruited during April-May 2020. Informational and procedural justice were measured with the Organizational Justice questionnaire; work-related stress was measured with the Effort Reward Imbalance questionnaire. Interns perceived a significantly lower level of informational justice than specialists. Organizational justice protected from occupational stress (OR=0.860, CI95% 0.786-0.940). Our findings suggest that it would be useful to improve knowledge of safety measures in trainees, increasing their confidence in work organization and reducing stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anesthetists , Humans , Organizational Culture , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Justice , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(3): 400-408.e4, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650182

ABSTRACT

Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections in fully vaccinated individuals are considered a consequence of waning immunity. Serum antibodies represent the most measurable outcome of vaccine-induced B cell memory. When antibodies decline, memory B cells are expected to persist and perform their function, preventing clinical disease. We investigated whether BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine induces durable and functional B cell memory in vivo against SARS-CoV-2 3, 6, and 9 months after the second dose in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs). While we observed physiological decline of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, memory B cells persist and increase until 9 months after immunization. HCWs with breakthrough infections had no signs of waning immunity. In 3-4 days, memory B cells responded to SARS-CoV-2 infection by producing high levels of specific antibodies in the serum and anti-Spike IgA in the saliva. Antibodies to the viral nucleoprotein were produced with the slow kinetics typical of the response to a novel antigen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
8.
SSRN; 2021.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-292059

ABSTRACT

Background: Breakthrough infections in fully vaccinated HCWs are considered a marker of waning immunity. Serum antibodies represent the most visible and measurable outcome of vaccine-induced B-cell memory. When antibodies decline, memory B cells are expected to persist and perform their function, thus preventing clinical disease. We investigated whether BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine induces durable and in vivo functional B-cell memory against SARS-CoV-2 3, 6 and 9 months after the second dose. Methods: We assessed the duration of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immunity by measuring specific antibodies and memory B cells 3, 6 and 9 months after vaccination. In fully vaccinated HCWs with breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections, we evaluated the humoral and mucosal response of vaccine-induced memory B cells. Findings: Whereas specific serum antibodies decline, anti-Spike memory B cells continue to increase until 9 months after the last vaccine dose. HCWs with breakthrough infections had no signs of waning immunity on the day of the first positive swab. In 3-4 days, memory B cells responded to SARS-CoV-2 infection by producing high levels of specific antibodies in the serum. In the saliva, anti-Spike IgA also rapidly increased in response to the infection. Antibodies to the viral nucleoprotein were produced with the slow kinetics typical of the response to a novel antigen. Interpretation: SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies physiologically decline months after vaccination. By contrast, memory B cells persist and increase over time. Parenteral administered vaccines do not generate mucosal immunity and serum antibodies reach mucosal sites in small amounts by transudation. In HCWs with SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections, memory B cells react by rapidly differentiating into antibody-producing cells and generating IgA for protection of mucosal sites.

9.
Ind Health ; 60(1): 75-78, 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463428

ABSTRACT

We aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on anaesthesiology residents in a COVID-19 hub hospital in Latium and ascertain their level of perceived justice and work-related stress. Residents and specialist anaesthesiologists were recruited during April-May 2020. Informational and procedural justice were measured with the Organizational Justice questionnaire; work-related stress was measured with the Effort Reward Imbalance questionnaire. Interns perceived a significantly lower level of informational justice than specialists. Organizational justice protected from occupational stress (OR=0.860, CI95% 0.786-0.940). Our findings suggest that it would be useful to improve knowledge of safety measures in trainees, increasing their confidence in work organization and reducing stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anesthetists , Humans , Organizational Culture , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Justice , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438527

ABSTRACT

Specific memory B cells and antibodies are a reliable read-out of vaccine efficacy. We analysed these biomarkers after one and two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine. The second dose significantly increases the level of highly specific memory B cells and antibodies. Two months after the second dose, specific antibody levels decline, but highly specific memory B cells continue to increase, thus predicting a sustained protection from COVID-19. We show that although mucosal IgA is not induced by the vaccination, memory B cells migrate in response to inflammation and secrete IgA at mucosal sites. We show that the first vaccine dose may lead to an insufficient number of highly specific memory B cells and low concentration of serum antibodies, thus leaving vaccinees without the immune robustness needed to ensure viral elimination and herd immunity. We also clarify that the reduction of serum antibodies does not diminish the force and duration of the immune protection induced by vaccination. The vaccine does not induce sterilizing immunity. Infection after vaccination may be caused by the lack of local preventive immunity because of the absence of mucosal IgA.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cryopreservation , Female , Health Personnel , Healthy Volunteers , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Lactation , Male , Middle Aged , Mucous Membrane/immunology , Patient Safety , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430871

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has severely tested the physical and mental health of health care workers (HCWs). The various stages of the epidemic have posed different problems; consequently, only a prospective study can effectively describe the changes in the workers' health. This repeated cross-sectional study is based on a one-year investigation (spring 2020 to spring 2021) of intensive care physicians in one of the two COVID-19 hub hospitals in Central Italy and aims to study the evolution of the mental health status of intensivists during the pandemic. Changes in their work activity due to the pandemic were studied anonymously together with their perception of organisational justice, occupational stress, sleep quality, anxiety, depression, burnout, job satisfaction, happiness, and intention to quit. In May-June 2021, one year after the baseline, doctors reported an increased workload, isolation at work and in their social life, a lack of time for physical activity and meditation, and compassion fatigue. Stress was inversely associated with the perception of justice in safety procedures and directly correlated with work isolation. Occupational stress was significantly associated with anxiety, depression, burnout, dissatisfaction, and their intention to quit. Procedural justice was significantly associated with happiness. Doctors believed vaccinations would help control the problem; however, this positive attitude had not yet resulted in improved mental health. Doctors reported high levels of distress (73%), sleep problems (28%), anxiety (25%), and depression (64%). Interventions to correct the situation are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Mental Health , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 15: 666468, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354876

ABSTRACT

A case of recurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with neurovestibular symptoms was reported. In March 2020, a physician working in an Italian pediatric hospital had flu-like symptoms with anosmia and dysgeusia, and following a reverse transcription PCR (RT/PCR) test with a nasopharyngeal swab tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. After home quarantine, 21 days from the beginning of the symptoms, the patient tested negative in two subsequent swabs and was declared healed and readmitted to work. Serological testing showed a low level of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody title and absence of immunoglobulin M (IgM). However, 2 weeks later, before resuming work, the patient complained of acute vestibular syndrome, and the RT/PCR test with mucosal swab turned positive. On the basis of the literature examined and reviewed for recurrence cases and vestibular symptoms during COVID-19, to our knowledge this case is the first case of recurrence with vestibular impairment as a neurological symptom, and we defined it as probably a viral reactivation. The PCR retest positivity cannot differentiate re-infectivity, relapse, and dead-viral RNA detection. Serological antibody testing and viral genome sequencing could be always performed in recurrence cases.

14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 690534, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348488

ABSTRACT

High quality medical assistance and preventive strategies, including pursuing a healthy lifestyle, result in a progressively growing percentage of older people. The population and workforce is aging in all countries of the world. It is widely recognized that older individuals show an increased susceptibility to infections and a reduced response to vaccination suggesting that the aged immune system is less able to react and consequently protect the organism. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is dramatically showing us that the organism reacts to novel pathogens in an age-dependent manner. The decline of the immune system observed in aging remains unclear. We aimed to understand the role of B cells. We analyzed peripheral blood from children (4-18 years); young people (23-60 years) and elderly people (65-91 years) by flow cytometry. We also measured antibody secretion by ELISA following a T-independent stimulation. Here we show that the elderly have a significant reduction of CD27dull memory B cells, a population that bridges innate and adaptive immune functions. In older people, memory B cells are mostly high specialized antigen-selected CD27bright. Moreover, after in vitro stimulation with CpG, B cells from older individuals produced significantly fewer IgM and IgA antibodies compared to younger individuals. Aging is a complex process characterized by a functional decline in multiple physiological systems. The immune system of older people is well equipped to react to often encountered antigens but has a low ability to respond to new pathogens.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Immunologic Memory , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302336

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has severely tested the mental health of frontline health care workers. A repeated cross-sectional study can provide information on how their mental health evolved during the various phases of the pandemic. The intensivists of a COVID-19 hub hospital in Rome were investigated with a baseline survey during the first wave of the pandemic in April 2020, and they were contacted again in December 2020, during the second wave. Of the 205 eligible workers, 152 responded to an online questionnaire designed to measure procedural justice, occupational stress (effort/reward imbalance), sleep quality, anxiety, depression, burnout, job satisfaction, happiness, and turnover intention. Workers reported a further increase in workload and compassion fatigue, which had already risen during the first wave, and a marked reduction in the time devoted to meditation and mental activities. A low level of confidence in the adequacy of safety procedures and the need to work in isolation, together with an increased workload and lack of time for meditation, were the most significant predictors of occupational stress in a stepwise linear regression model. Occupational stress was, in turn, a significant predictor of insomnia, anxiety, low job satisfaction, burnout, and intention to leave the hospital. The number of workers manifesting symptoms of depression increased significantly to exceed 60%. Action to prevent occupational risks and enhance individual resilience cannot be postponed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Rome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Journal of Health Research ; 35(4):359-363, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1266254

ABSTRACT

PurposeThis paper describes how Italy addressed the first Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) wave and analyzes the possible causes of the current second wave.Design/methodology/approachDescriptive analysis of critical points and differences in the containment strategies between the first and the second waves in Italy.FindingsItaly's strict lockdown has been credited with getting the initial major outbreak under control. Furthermore, the way Italy handled the first wave was considered a lesson for other countries. On the contrary, a decentralized and highly bureaucratic political system with low coordination and political conflicts between government, regions and stakeholders led to a relaxation of individual health behaviors, poor and conflicting communication to the general public, poor management of the public transport and the reopening of schools and companies after the summer, that in turn generated the second wave, which is showing signs of becoming worse than the first.Originality/valueThis is a commentary piece.

17.
Lancet ; 397(10284): 1542, 2021 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199141
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194652

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is putting a severe strain on all healthcare systems. Several occupational risk factors are challenging healthcare workers (HCWs) who are at high risk of mental health outcomes, including Burnout Syndrome (BOS). BOS is a psychological syndrome characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment. An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses concerning BOS and coronavirus (SARS/MERS/SARS-CoV-2) outbreaks was carried out on PubMed Central/Medline, Cochrane Library, PROSPERO, and Epistemonikos databases. Data relating to COVID-19 is insufficient, but in previous SARS and MERS outbreaks about one-third of HCWs manifested BOS. This prevalence rate is similar to the figure recorded in some categories of HCWs exposed to chronic occupational stress and poor work organization during non-epidemic periods. Inadequate organization and worsening working conditions during an epidemic appear to be the most likely causes of BOS. Preventive care and workplace health promotion programs could be useful for protecting healthcare workers during pandemics, as well as during regular health activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Burnout, Psychological , Disease Outbreaks , Health Personnel , Humans , Systematic Reviews as Topic
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(21)2020 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918194

ABSTRACT

Anesthetist-intensivists who treat patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) are exposed to significant biological and psychosocial risks. Our study investigated the occupational and health conditions of anesthesiologists in a COVID-19 hub hospital in Latium, Italy. Ninety out of a total of 155 eligible workers (59%; male 48%) participated in the cross-sectional survey. Occupational stress was assessed with the Effort Reward Imbalance (ERI) questionnaire, organizational justice with the Colquitt Scale, insomnia with the Sleep Condition Indicator (SCI), and mental health with the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale (GADS). A considerable percentage of workers (71.1%) reported high work-related stress, with an imbalance between high effort and low rewards. The level of perceived organizational justice was modest. Physical activity and meditation-the behaviors most commonly adopted to increase resilience-decreased. Workers also reported insomnia (36.7%), anxiety (27.8%), and depression (51.1%). The effort made for work was significantly correlated with the presence of depressive symptoms (r = 0.396). Anesthetists need to be in good health in order to ensure optimal care for COVID-19 patients. Their state of health can be improved by providing an increase in individual resources with interventions for better work organization.


Subject(s)
Anesthetists , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Mental Health , Occupational Stress , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Anesthetists/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Organizational Culture , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Justice
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