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1.
Computer Aided Drug Design (CADD) : from Ligand-Based Methods to Structure-based Approaches ; : 17-55, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1897984

ABSTRACT

The drug discovery paradigm has been very time-consuming, challenging, and expensive;however, the disease conditions originating from bacteria, virus, protozoa, fungus and other microorganisms are steadily shooting up. For instance, COVID-19 is the latest viral infection that affects millions of people and the world’s economy very severely. Therefore, the quest for discovery of novel and potent drug compounds against deadly pathogens is crucial at the moment. Despite a lot of drawbacks in drug discovery and development and its pertaining technology, the advancement must be taken into account so the time duration and cost would be minimized. In this chapter, basic principles in drug design and discovery have been discussed together with advances in drug development.

2.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 23(3): 521-539, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611457

ABSTRACT

Semaglutide, a glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is available as monotherapy in both subcutaneous as well as oral dosage form (first approved oral GLP-1 receptor agonist). It has been approved as a second line treatment option for better glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes and currently under scrutiny for anti-obesity purpose. Semaglutide has been proved to be safe in adults and elderly patients with renal or hepatic disorders demanding no dose modification. Cardiovascular (CV) outcome trials established that it can reduce various CV risk factors in patients with established CV disorders. Semaglutide is well tolerated with no risk of hypoglycaemia in monotherapy but suffers from gastrointestinal adverse effects. A large population affected with COVID-19 infection were diabetic; therefore use of semaglutide in diabetes as well as CV patients would be very much supportive in maintaining health care system during this pandemic situation. Hence, this peptidic drug can be truly considered as a quintessential of GLP-1 agonists for management of type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/agonists , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/therapeutic use , Glucagon-Like Peptides , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 628144, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133930

ABSTRACT

Drug repurposing is also termed as drug repositioning or therapeutic switching. This method is applied to identify the novel therapeutic agents from the existing FDA approved clinically used drug molecules. It is considered as an efficient approach to develop drug candidates with new pharmacological activities or therapeutic properties. As the drug discovery is a costly, time-consuming, laborious, and highly risk process, the novel approach of drug repositioning is employed to increases the success rate of drug development. This strategy is more advantageous over traditional drug discovery process in terms of reducing duration of drug development, low-cost, highly efficient and minimum risk of failure. In addition to this, World health organization declared Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as pandemic globally on February 11, 2020. Currently, there is an urgent need to develop suitable therapeutic agents for the prevention of the outbreak of COVID-19. So, various investigations were carried out to design novel drug molecules by utilizing different approaches of drug repurposing to identify drug substances for treatment of COVID-19, which can act as significant inhibitors against viral proteins. It has been reported that COVID-19 can infect human respiratory system by entering into the alveoli of lung via respiratory tract. So, the infection occurs due to specific interaction or binding of spike protein with angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor. Hence, drug repurposing strategy is utilized to identify suitable drugs by virtual screening of drug libraries. This approach helps to determine the binding interaction of drug candidates with target protein of coronavirus by using computational tools such as molecular similarity and homology modeling etc. For predicting the drug-receptor interactions and binding affinity, molecular docking study and binding free energy calculations are also performed. The methodologies involved in drug repurposing can be categorized into three groups such as drug-oriented, target-oriented and disease or therapy-oriented depending on the information available related to quality and quantity of the physico-chemical, biological, pharmacological, toxicological and pharmacokinetic property of drug molecules. This review focuses on drug repurposing strategy applied for existing drugs including Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Ribavirin, Baraticinib, Tocilizumab, Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, Prulifloxacin, Carfilzomib, Bictegravir, Nelfinavir, Tegobuvir and Glucocorticoids etc to determine their effectiveness toward the treatment of COVID-19.

4.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 40(8): 3609-3625, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939480

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has created a healthcare crisis across the world and has put human life under life-threatening circumstances. The recent discovery of the crystallized structure of the main protease (Mpro) from SARS-CoV-2 has provided an opportunity for utilizing computational tools as an effective method for drug discovery. Targeting viral replication has remained an effective strategy for drug development. Mpro of SARS-COV-2 is the key protein in viral replication as it is involved in the processing of polyproteins to various structural and nonstructural proteins. Thus, Mpro represents a key target for the inhibition of viral replication specifically for SARS-CoV-2. We have used a virtual screening strategy by targeting Mpro against a library of commercially available compounds to identify potential inhibitors. After initial identification of hits by molecular docking-based virtual screening further MM/GBSA, predictive ADME analysis, and molecular dynamics simulation were performed. The virtual screening resulted in the identification of twenty-five top scoring structurally diverse hits that have free energy of binding (ΔG) values in the range of -26-06 (for compound AO-854/10413043) to -59.81 Kcal/mol (for compound 329/06315047). Moreover, the top-scoring hits have favorable AMDE properties as calculated using in silico algorithms. Additionally, the molecular dynamics simulation revealed the stable nature of protein-ligand interaction and provided information about the amino acid residues involved in binding. Overall, this study led to the identification of potential SARS-CoV-2 Mpro hit compounds with favorable pharmacokinetic properties. We believe that the outcome of this study can help to develop novel Mpro inhibitors to tackle this pandemic.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
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