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1.
Asian Journal of Accounting Research ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2152303

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Capital structure is an important corporate financing decision, particularly for companies in emerging economies. This paper attempts to understand whether the pandemic had any significant impact on the capital structure of companies in emerging economies. India being a prominent emerging economy is an ideal candidate for the analysis. Design/methodology/approach: The study utilizes three leverage ratios in an extended market index, BSE500, for the period 2015–2021. The ratios considered are short-term leverage ratio (STLR), long-term leverage ratio (LTLR) and total leverage ratio (TLR). A dummy variable differentiates the pre-epidemic (2015–2019) and pandemic (2020–2021) period. Control variables are used to represent firm characteristics such as growth, tangibility, profit, size and liquidity. Dynamic panel data regression is employed to address endogeneity. Findings: The findings point out that Covid-19 has had a significant, negative effect on LTLR, while the impact on STLR and TLR was insignificant. The findings indicate that companies based in a culturally risk-averse environment, such as India, would reduce the long-term debt to avoid bankruptcy in times of uncertainty. Research limitations/implications: The study covers the impact of the pandemic on Indian companies. Hence, generalization of the findings to global context might not be valid. Practical implications: To maintain economic growth in the post-crisis period, Indian policymakers should ensure accessibility to low-cost capital. The findings provide impetus to deepen the insignificant corporate bond market in India for future economic revival. Originality/value: Developing countries are struggling to revive the economies postpandemic. This is particularly true for Asian economies which are heavily reliant on banks for survival. This research finds evidence to utilize bond market as a source of raising capital for economic revival. © 2022, Nisha Prakash, Aditya Maheshwari and Aparna Hawaldar.

2.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(6):1991-2001, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2084019

ABSTRACT

Context: Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) refers to ocular symptoms which occur as a result of prolonged use of digital devices. Aim(s): The main objective was to understand the effects of continuous online classes due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the ocular health of medical students. Material(s) and Method(s): This quantitative study used data from a survey questionnaire administered to 200 medical students at Tbilisi State Medical University in Georgia. The questions mainly comprised symptoms related to CVS and digital device use patterns. As a part of the research, 200 students between the ages of 18 and 26 were surveyed. Result(s): After the pandemic, 33.8% of students recorded a 3 to 5-hour increase in their screen time while 29.4% reported an increase by 1 to 2 hours. Eye strain and dry eyes as a result of the pandemic saw a significant increase in affected individuals from 69 to 84 and 47 to 60 respectively. Among other non-visual ailments, there was an increase in symptoms like headaches (from 90 to 100 students), backaches (from 50 to 78), and neck pains (from 37 to 75 students). Conclusion(s): It was concluded that the prevalence of symptoms related to Computer Vision Syndrome in medical students had seen a rise resulting from the online classes due to the pandemic. Awareness of CVS and the prevention of symptoms is necessary, especially among students. Copyright © 2022 Ubiquity Press. All rights reserved.

3.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Supplement 2):A203-A204, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064028

ABSTRACT

Aims Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) secondary to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected not only the older children, adolescents and adults but also infants, more so during the second wave of the global pandemic. Thus, this study was done to describe the profile of infants presenting with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) with the aim to alert clinicians regarding the need for its early diagnosis and timely management in this vulnerable age group to prevent the morbidity, mortality and long term complications associated with MIS-C. Methods All sequentially admitted infants hospitalized during a period of 6months from,who fulfilled the WHO/CDC/RPCH criteria for MIS-C were included in the study. The data was recorded in a semi-structured pre-tested self-designed proforma regarding the demographic profile, presenting symptoms, clinical signs, laboratory parameters and treatment received. The data was analysed using appropriate statistical tools. Results A total of 19 infants were studied. Of these, 68.3% (13) had an evidence of recent COVID-19 infection. The median age of presentation was 2 months. The male:female ratio was 1.1:1. The most common presenting symptoms were fever (68.4%), gastrointestinal complaints (63.1%) and edema (36.8%) (figure 1). Other predominant signs were shock (78.9%), myocarditis (52.6%) and neurological complaints (26.3%). Incomplete Kawasaki disease was present in 21% patients. Elevated CRP, ferritin, D-Dimer, NT pro BNP and reduced fibrinogen were markers of severe illness. All subjects received IVIG (100%), 31.5% received a second dose of IVIG and 63.1% received pulse intravenous methylprednisolone. (table 1) A total of 5(26.3%) died as a result of the disease process. Conclusion MIS-C in infants is usually under-diagnosed and under-reported due to the considerable overlap between sepsis and MIS-C especially due to the higher incidence of sepsis in developing countries. The spectrum of this illness can be varied and is different from the overt clinical signs seen in older children and adolescents. Thus, these investigations should be done early in the course for optimal therapy with immunomodulators and favourable outcome.. (Figure Presented).

4.
6th International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems, ICICCS 2022 ; : 1642-1648, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1922674

ABSTRACT

Today's world has been impacted by Covid-19 widely, and is moving towards a digitalized universe rapidly, wherein the future technologies that can play an important role in reviving the world cannot be forgotten. Nowadays, the use of Quick Response (QR) codes play an efficient role in a human's life, and id cards are always carried by a person since they are frequently required in his everyday life. The official documents being issued in the name of the person, or the records of his visit at various official places had to be kept handy for anytime use. So with this arising situation, a solution has been proposed serving two main vital goals: firstly, the person will be able to access all required documents only by scanning a single id card where the documents are being stored in a compressed format and represented in an augmented manner, and secondly, the person can easily maintain his visiting records with the help of a Unique Identity(UID) number provided to the users individually while registering. Thus, this paper attempts to promote the use of id digitalization in this futuristic world of technology. © 2022 IEEE.

5.
Hepatology ; 74(SUPPL 1):335A-336A, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1508754

ABSTRACT

Background: There is a prolonged RT-PCR positivity seen in COVID-19 infected patients up to 2-3 months.It is assumed that this virus is usually non-infective but there are hardly any study on the reactivation of this virus within the respiratory tract. We aim to investigate the presence of viral particles inside Extracellular vesicles (EV) and its role in underlying liver disease patients. Methods: SARS CoV2 nasal and throat swab RT-PCR positive n=64 {n=12(18.7%) chronic liver disease (CLD);n=52 (81.3%) non-liver disease} n=5 RT PCR negative subjects (HC) were studied. SARS CoV2 patients were also followed up for day(d) 7 and 14. Nasal swab [collected in viral transport media (VTM)] and plasma samples were investigated at each time point. Extracellular vesicles were isolated using differential ultracentrifugation. SARS CoV2 RNA was measured using qRT-PCR by Altona Real Star kit. Cellular origin of EV was confirmed using epithelial cells (Epcam+ CK19+ CDh1+), endothelial cells (CD31+CD45-), hepatocytes (ASGPR+) surface markers by Flow cytometry. Results: The COVID19 patients {Mean age 54±23 years;41 males} were having severity between moderate to severe. In patients with cirrhosis, the most common aetiology of liver disease was alcohol (MELD 22±8). In baseline RT-PCR positive patients, SARS-CoV2 RNA inside the EV was present in 53/64 (82%) patients with comparable viral load between VTM and EV (mean 1CT - 0.033±0.005 vs. 1CT- 0.029±0.014, p=ns). On follow-up at day 7, of the 24 patients negative for COVID19, 10 (41%) had persistence of virus in the EV (1CT - 0.028±0.004) and on day 14, 14 of 40 (35%) negative RT-PCR had EVs with SARS CoV2 RNA (1CT - 0.028±0.06). The mean viral load decreased at day7 and day14 in EV from baseline (p=0.008;0.002 respectively). The probability of detecting SARS-CoV2 in EVs in the VTM negative patients was significantly (p=0.001) greater { relative risk ratio 2.25 (95% of CI 1.08 to 4.67;p=0.02, odds ratio 28.1(95% of CI -1.27 to 619.9;p=0.03)}.SARS-CoV2 RNA otherwise undetectable in plasma, was found to be positive in EV in 12.5% of COVID19 positive patients. Interestingly, significantly prolonged and high viral load was found in EV at day 14 in CLD-COVID19 patients compared to COVID19 alone (p=0.002). The high cellular injury was seen in CLDCOVID19 infected patients with significant high levels of EV associated with epithelial cells and hepatocytes than COVID19 alone (p=0.004;0.001). Conclusion: Identification of SARS-CoV2 RNA in EV, in RT-PCR negative patients indicates persistence of infection for and likely recurrence of the infection. It is suggestive of another route of transmission as EV harbour SARS CoV2 RNA. EV associated RNA may determine the ongoing inflammation and clinical course of subjects with undetectable SARS-CoV2 virus and this may also have relevance in management of chronic liver disease patients.

7.
Journal of Hypertension ; 39(SUPPL 1):e203, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1240905

ABSTRACT

Objective: Covid-19 pandemic has challenged the healthcare system globally. Hypertension is one of the risk factors associated with increased mortality and morbidity with Covid-19 infection. Few studies have looked into the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the mental health of healthcare professionals (HCPs). However not much is known about its impact on physical health and blood pressure of HCPs.Objective is to to Study the distribution of blood pressure and impact of Covid 19 on blood pressure of HCPs. Design and method: Prospective cross-sectional survey Methods: The study was conducted among Indian HCPs. A self administered survey asked about the socio demographic data, known risk factors, past history of hypertension, working conditions in lockdown (work from home or working at a healthcare establishment with potential to exposure to Covid-19), work hours and blood pressure measurement for three consecutive days during lockdown. Results: Six Hundred and eighty seven HCPs (52.8% doctors, 25.1% nurses & paramedics, 22.1 allied HCPs), 63.78% males and 36.22% females, mean age 34.8% (SD=11.5 years) participated in the study. 14.4% (98) had known hypertension while 28.8% (198) were found to be hypertensive for the first time (50% Doctors, 26.26% Nurses/Paramedics and 23.74% Allied Healthcare Professionals). 79.3% (n=198) of these had normal blood pressure when checked in the past 12 months. 76.26% (n=198) of these were directly at risk of exposure to Covid-19. The pandemic has seriously impacted the mental and psychological health of HCPs. Our study highlights that Covid 19 pandemic significantly impacts the blood pressure of HCPs with an alarming rise in risk for their health. Conclusions: Health care professionals developed hypertension in significantly higher numbers during COVID-19 pandemic. While working on the frontline with COVID-19, they are already on higher risk of getting infection. COVID-19 has been found to have serious complications with hypertension. Apart from this hypertension itself is known to lead adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Unfortunately, the majority of them are not aware of their elevated blood pressure. HCPs should remain more careful for their own blood pressure while working in pressure of COVID 19.

8.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 28(3): 254-257, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasingly, it has been seen that patients recovering from COVID-19 may face a second battle of coping with its mental health ramifications. These psychological issues can even be experienced by patients who were asymptomatic or had mild to moderate symptoms, potentially impacting their quality of life. METHODOLOGY: This was a prospective observational study to analyse the psychological impact of COVID-19 in recovered patients who presented as prospective convalescent plasma (CP) donors. An interview for the psychological assessment of the prospective donors was carried out. Depression and anxiety in the participants were assessed by HAM-A, and HAM-D scores and Quality of Life were assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF scale. RESULTS: A total of 51 prospective donors were assessed, with a mean age of 34.37 (±9.08) years, with the majority being males (46). No clinically significant depression and anxiety were found on the basis of HAM-D and HAM-A scores. The worst affected quality of life parameter, based on the WHOQOL-BREF scale, was physical quality of life followed by environmental, psychological, and social relationships. Moreover, due to infection, social stigma was experienced by 49.02% of the donors, while 21.97% had anxiety related to convalescent plasma donation as a common livid experience. CONCLUSION: Poor quality of life and social stigma during the recovery phase is prevalent in COVID-19 recovered patients, for which formulation of holistic support strategies are the need of the hour.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Convalescence/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Altruism , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Attitude to Health , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/psychology , India , Interpersonal Relations , Interview, Psychological , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Psychological Tests , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Social Stigma , Survivors/psychology , Young Adult
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