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J Patient Rep Outcomes ; 7(1): 22, 2023 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274134


OBJECTIVES: The EuroQol Group has developed an extended version of the EQ-5D-Y-3L with five response levels for each of its five dimensions (EQ-5D-Y-5L). The psychometric performance has been reported in several studies for the EQ-5D-Y-3L but not for the EQ-5D-Y-5L. This study aimed to psychometrically evaluate the EQ-5D-Y-3L and EQ-5D-Y-5L Chichewa (Malawi) versions. METHODS: The EQ-5D-Y-3L, EQ-5D-Y-5L and PedsQL™ 4.0 Chichewa versions were administered to children and adolescents aged 8-17 years in Blantyre, Malawi. Both of the EQ-5D-Y versions were evaluated for missing data, floor/ceiling effects, and validity (convergent, discriminant, known-group and empirical). RESULTS: A total of 289 participants (95 healthy, and 194 chronic and acute) self-completed the questionnaires. There was little problem with missing data (< 5%) except in children aged 8-12 years particularly for the EQ-5D-Y-5L. Ceiling effects was generally reduced in moving from the EQ-5D-Y-3L to the EQ-5D-Y-5L. For both EQ-5D-Y-3L and EQ-5D-Y-5L, convergent validity tested with PedsQL™ 4.0 was found to be satisfactory (correlation ≥ 0.4) at scale level but mixed at dimension /sub-scale level. There was evidence of discriminant validity (p > 0.05) with respect to gender and age, but not for school grade (p < 0.05). For empirical validity, the EQ-5D-Y-5L was 31-91% less efficient than the EQ-5D-Y-3L at detecting differences in health status using external measures. CONCLUSIONS: Both versions of the EQ-5D-Y-3L and EQ-5D-Y-5L had issues with missing data in younger children. Convergent validity, discriminant validity with respect to gender and age, and known-group validity of either measures were also met for use among children and adolescents in this population, although with some limitations (discriminant validity by grade and empirical validity). The EQ-5D-Y-3L seems particularly suited for use in younger children (8-12 years) and the EQ-5D-Y-5L in adolescents (13-17 years). However, further psychometric testing is required for test re-test reliability and responsiveness that could not be carried out in this study due to COVID-19 restrictions.

COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Humans , Adolescent , Child , Psychometrics/methods , Malawi , Reproducibility of Results , Health Status
Health Econ Policy Law ; 18(2): 204-217, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221734


Health misinformation, most visibly following the COVID-19 infodemic, is an urgent threat that hinders the success of public health policies. It likely contributed, and will continue to contribute, to avoidable deaths. Policymakers around the world are being pushed to tackle this problem. Legislative acts have been rolled out or announced in many countries and at the European Union level. The goal of this paper is not to review particular legislative initiatives, or to assess the impact and efficacy of measures implemented by digital intermediaries, but to reflect on the high constitutional and ethical stakes involved in tackling health misinformation through speech regulation. Our findings suggest that solutions focused on regulating speech are likely to encounter significant constraints, as policymakers grasp with the limitations imposed by freedom of expression and ethical considerations. Solutions focused on empowering individuals - such as media literacy initiatives, fact-checking or credibility labels - are one way to avoid such hurdles.

COVID-19 , Humans , European Union , Public Policy , Communication , Freedom
EClinicalMedicine ; 39: 101085, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363995


BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has challenged health service provision worldwide. This work evaluates safe surgical pathways and standard operating procedures implemented in the high volume, global city of London during the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also assess the safety of minimally invasive surgery(MIS) for anatomical lung resection. METHODS: This multicentre cohort study was conducted across all London thoracic surgical units, covering a catchment area of approximately 14.8 Million. A Pan-London Collaborative was created for data sharing and dissemination of protocols. All patients undergoing anatomical lung resection 1st March-1st June 2020 were included. Primary outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 infection, access to minimally invasive surgery, post-operative complication, length of intensive care and hospital stay (LOS), and death during follow up. FINDINGS: 352 patients underwent anatomical lung resection with a median age of 69 (IQR: 35-86) years. Self-isolation and pre-operative screening were implemented following the UK national lockdown. Pre-operative SARS-CoV-2 swabs were performed in 63.1% and CT imaging in 54.8%. 61.7% of cases were performed minimally invasively (MIS), compared to 59.9% pre pandemic. Median LOS was 6 days with a 30-day survival of 98.3% (comparable to a median LOS of 6 days and 30-day survival of 98.4% pre-pandemic). Significant complications developed in 7.3% of patients (Clavien-Dindo Grade 3-4) and 12 there were re-admissions(3.4%). Seven patients(2.0%) were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection, two of whom died (28.5%). INTERPRETATION: SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly increases morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing elective anatomical pulmonary resection. However, surgery can be safely undertaken via open and MIS approaches at the peak of a viral pandemic if precautionary measures are implemented. High volume surgery should continue during further viral peaks to minimise health service burden and potential harm to cancer patients. FUNDING: This work did not receive funding.