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Bioorg Chem ; 116: 105272, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370451


Hypertension has been recognized as one of the most frequent comorbidities and risk factors for the seriousness and adverse consequences in COVID-19 patients. 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H) ones have attracted researchers to be synthesized via Beginilli reaction and evaluate their antihypertensive activities as bioisosteres of nifedipine a well-known calcium channel blocker. In this study, we report synthesis of some bioisosteres of pyrimidines as novel CCBs with potential ACE2 inhibitory effect as antihypertensive agents with protective effect against COVID-19 infection by suppression of ACE2 binding to SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD. All compounds were evaluated for their antihypertensive and calcium channel blocking activities using nifedipine as a reference standard. Furthermore, they were screened for their ACE2 inhibition potential in addition to their anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. Most of the tested compounds exhibited significant antihypertensive activity, where compounds 7a, 8a and 9a exhibited the highest activity compared to nifedipine. Moreover, compounds 4a,b, 5a,b, 7a,b, 8a,c and 9a showed promising ACE2:SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD inhibitory effect. Finally, compounds 5a, 7b and 9a exerted a promising anti-inflammatory effect by inhibition of CRP and IL-6 production. Ultimately, compound 9a may be a promising antihypertensive candidate with anti-inflammatory and potential efficacy against COVID-19 via ACE2 receptor inhibition.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/chemical synthesis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/chemistry , Antihypertensive Agents/chemical synthesis , Antihypertensive Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Calcium Channel Blockers/chemical synthesis , Calcium Channel Blockers/chemistry , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
Mol Immunol ; 137: 221-227, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313337


Natural Killer (NK) cells are considered the first line of defense against viral infections and tumors. Several factors affect NK cytotoxic activity rendering it dysfunctional and thereby impeding the ability to scavenge abnormal cells as a part of immune escaping mechanisms induced by different types of cancers. NK cells play a crucial role augmenting the activity of various types of anticancer mAb since dysfunctional NK cells are the main reason for the low response to these therapies. To this light, we examined the phenotypic characters of the circulating NK cells isolated from HCC patients compared to healthy controls. Then, dysfunctional NK cells, from HCC patients, were reactivated with cytokines cocktail and their cytotoxic activity with the anti-EGFR mAb "cetuximab" was investigated. This showed a downregulation of patients NK cells activating receptors (NKP30, NKP46, NKG2D and CD16) as well as CD56 and up-regulation of NKG2A inhibitory receptor. We also reported an increase in aberrant CD56- NK cells subset in peripheral blood of HCC patients compared to healthy controls. Thus, confirming the dysfunctionality of peripheral NK cells isolated from HCC patients. Cytokines re-activation of those NK cells lead to upregulation of NK activating receptors and downregulation of inhibitory receptor. Moreover, the percentage of aberrant CD56- NK cells subset was reduced. Here, we proved that advanced HCC patients have an increased percentage of more immature and noncytotoxic NK cell subsets in their peripheral blood, which might account for the low cytotoxicity noticed in those patients. A significant improvement in the cytotoxicity against HCC was noticed upon using reactivated NK cells combined with cetuximab. Therefore, this study highlights the potential recruitment of NK immune cells along with cetuximab to enhance cytotoxicity against HCC.

Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity/immunology , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Cetuximab/therapeutic use , Cytokines/pharmacology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , CD56 Antigen/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C/metabolism