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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(9)2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847356

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Right ventricular systolic dysfunction (RVsD) increases acute respiratory distress syndrome mortality in COVID-19 infection (CARDS). The RV longitudinal shortening fraction (RV-LSF) is an angle-independent and automatically calculated speckle-tracking parameter. We explored the association between RV-LSF and 30-day mortality in CARDS patients. METHODS: Moderate-to-severe CARDS patients hospitalized at Amiens University Hospital with transesophageal echocardiography performed within 48 h of intensive care unit admission were included. RVsD was defined by an RV-LSF of <20%. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of RVsD. Using multivariate Cox regression, clinical and echocardiographic risk factors predicting 30-day mortality were evaluated. RESULTS: Between 28 February 2020 and 1 December 2021, 86 patients were included. A total of 43% (n = 37/86) of the patients showed RVsD and 22% (n = 19/86) of the patients died. RV-LSF was observed in 26 (23.1-29.7)% of the no-RVsD function group and 16.5 (13.7-19.4)% (p < 0.001) of the RVsD group. Cardiogenic shock (n = 7/37 vs. 2/49, p = 0.03) and acute cor pulmonale (n = 18/37 vs. 10/49, p = 0.009) were more frequent in the RVsD group. The 30-day mortality was higher in the RVsD group (15/37 vs. 4/49, p = 0.001). In a multivariable Cox model, RV-LSF was an independent mortality factor (HR 4.45, 95%CI (1.43-13.8), p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: in a cohort of moderate-to-severe CARDS patients under mechanical ventilation, RVsD defined by the RV-LSF was associated with higher 30-day mortalities.

2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 710992, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581309

ABSTRACT

Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which targets the pulmonary vasculature is supposed to induce an intrapulmonary right to left shunt with an increased pulmonary blood flow. We report here what may be, to the best of our knowledge, the first videoendoscopic descriptions of an hypervascularization of the bronchial mucosa in two patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Cases Presentation: Two patients, 27- and 37-year-old, were addressed to our Pneumology department for suspicion of COVID-19 pneumonia. Their symptoms (fever, dry cough, and dyspnoea), associated to pulmonary ground glass opacities on thoracic CT, were highly suggestive of a COVID-19 disease despite repeated negative pharyngeal swabs RT-PCR. In both patients, bronchoscopy examination using white light was unremarkable but NBI bronchoscopy revealed a diffuse hypervascularization of the mucosa from the trachea to the sub-segmental bronchi, associated with dilated submucosal vessels. RT-PCR performed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) confirmed the presence of Sars-CoV-2. Conclusions: These two case reports highlight the crucial importance of the vascular component of the viral disease. We suggest that such bronchial hypervascularization with dilated vessels contributes, at least in part, to the intrapulmonary right to left shunt that characterizes the COVID-19 related Acute Vascular Distress Syndrome (AVDS). The presence of diffuse bronchial hypervascularization in the context of COVID-19 pandemic should prompt the search for Sars-CoV-2 in BAL samples.

3.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 168, 2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most documented arrhythmia in COVID-19 pneumonia. Left atrial (LA) strain (LAS) analysis, a marker of LA contractility, have been associated with the development of AF in several clinical situations. We aimed to assess the diagnostic ability of LA strain parameters to predict AF in patients with severe hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia. We conducted a prospective single center study in Amiens University Hospital intensive care unit (ICU) (France). Adult patients with severe or critical COVID-19 pneumonia according to the World Health Organization definition and in sinus rhythm were included. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed within 48 h of ICU admission. LA strain analysis was performed by an automated software. The following LA strain parameters were recorded: LA strain during reservoir phase (LASr), LA strain during conduit phase (LAScd) and LA strain during contraction phase (LASct). The primary endpoint was the occurrence of AF during ICU stay. RESULTS: From March 2020 to February of 2021, 79 patients were included. Sixteen patients (20%) developed AF in ICU. Patients of the AF group were significantly older with a higher SAPS II score than those without AF. LAScd and LASr were significantly more impaired in the AF group compared to the other group (- 8.1 [- 6.3; - 10.9] vs. - 17.2 [- 5.0; - 10.2] %; P < 0.001 and 20.2 [12.3;27.3] % vs. 30.5 [23.8;36.2] %; P = 0.002, respectively), while LASct did not significantly differ between groups (p = 0.31). In a multivariate model, LAScd and SOFA cv were significantly associated with the occurrence of AF. A LAScd cutoff value of - 11% had a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 75% to identify patients with AF. The 30-day cumulative risk of AF was 42 ± 9% with LAScd > - 11% and 8 ± 4% with LAScd ≤ - 11% (log rank test P value < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: For patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, development of AF during ICU stay is common (20%). LAS parameters seem useful in predicting AF within the first 48 h of ICU admission. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04354558.

4.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 400, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526655
6.
Heart Lung ; 50(6): 818-824, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although an RT-PCR test is the "gold standard" tool for diagnosing an infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), chest imaging can be used to support a diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) - albeit with fairly low specificity. However, if the chest imaging findings do not faithfully reflect the patient's clinical course, one can question the rationale for relying on these imaging data in the diagnosis of COVID-19. AIMS: To compare clinical courses with changes over time in chest imaging findings among patients admitted to an ICU for severe COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of all adult patients admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) between March 1, 2020, and April 15, 2020, for a severe COVID-19 lung infection and who had a positive RT-PCR test. Changes in clinical, laboratory and radiological variables were compared, and patients with discordant changes over time (e.g. a clinical improvement with stable or worse radiological findings) were analyzed further. RESULTS: Of the 46 included patients, 5 showed an improvement in their clinical status but not in their chest imaging findings. On admission to the ICU, three of the five were mechanically ventilated and the two others received high-flow oxygen therapy or a non-rebreather mask. Even though the five patients' radiological findings worsened or remained stable, the mean ± standard deviation partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2:FiO2) ratio increased significantly in all cases (from 113.2 ± 59.7 mmHg at admission to 259.8 ± 59.7 mmHg at a follow-up evaluation; p=0.043). INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that in cases of clinical improvement with worsened or stable chest imaging variables, the PaO2:FiO2 ratio might be a good marker of the resolution of COVID-19-specific pulmonary vascular insult.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(14): 3385-3393, 2021 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several reports with clinical, histological and imaging data have observed the involvement of lung vascular function to explain the severe hypoxemia in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. It has been hypothesized that an increased pulmonary blood flow associated with an impairment of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is responsible for an intrapulmonary shunt. COVID-19 may lead to refractory hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2 ratio below 100 mmHg) despite mechanical ventilation and prone positioning. We hypothesized that the use of a pulmonary vasoconstrictor may help decrease the shunt and thus enhance oxygenation. CASE SUMMARY: We report our experience with three patients with refractory hypoxemia treated with almitrine to enhance oxygenation. Low dose almitrine (Vectarion®; Servier, Suresnes, France) was started at an infusion rate of 4 µg × kg/min on a central line. The PaO2/FiO2 ratio and total respiratory system compliance during almitrine infusion were measured. For the three patients, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio time-course showed a dramatic increase whereas total respiratory system compliance was unchanged. The three patients were discharged from the intensive care unit. The intensive care unit length of stay for patient 1, patient 2 and patient 3 was 30 d, 32 d and 31 d, respectively. Weaning from mechanical ventilation was performed 13 d, 18 d and 15 d after almitrine infusion for patient 1, 2 and 3, respectively. We found no deleterious effects on the right ventricular function, which was similar to previous studies on almitrine safety. CONCLUSION: Almitrine may be effective and safe to enhance oxygenation in coronavirus disease 2019 patients. Further controlled studies are required.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246636, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on microcirculatory pattern of COVID-19 critically ill patients are scarce. The objective was to compare sublingual microcirculation parameters of critically ill patients according to the severity of the disease. METHODS: The study is a single-center prospective study with critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted in ICU. Sublingual microcirculation was assessed by IDF microscopy within 48 hours of ICU admission. Microcirculatory flow index (MFI), proportion of perfused vessel (PPV), total vessel density (TVD), De Backer score (DBS), perfused vessel density (PVD) and heterogeneity index (HI) were assessed. Patients were divided in 2 groups (severe and critical) according to the World health organization definition. FINDINGS: From 19th of March to 7th of April 2020, 43 patients were included. Fourteen patients (33%) were in the severe group and twenty-nine patients (67%) in the critical group. Patients in the critical group were all mechanically ventilated. The critical group had significantly higher values of MFI, DBS and PVD in comparison to severe group (respectively, PaCO2: 49 [44-45] vs 36 [33-37] mmHg; p<0,0001, MFI: 2.8 ± 0.2 vs 2.5 ± 0.3; p = 0.001, DBS: 12.7 ± 2.6 vs 10.8 ± 2.0 vessels mm-2; p = 0.033, PVD: 12.5 ± 3.0 vs 10.1 ± 2.4 mm.mm-2; p = 0.020). PPV, HI and TVD were similar between groups Correlation was found between microcirculatory parameters and PaCO2 levels. CONCLUSION: Critical COVID-19 patients under mechanical ventilation seem to have higher red blood cell velocity than severe non-ventilated patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Microcirculation/physiology , Microvessels/physiopathology , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Female , Hemodynamics , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/metabolism , Partial Pressure , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 122, 2021 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 virus which targets the pulmonary vasculature is supposed to induce an intrapulmonary right to left shunt with an increased pulmonary blood flow. Such vascular injury is difficult to observe because it is hidden by the concomitant lung injury. We report here what may be, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of a pure Covid-19 related Acute Vascular Distress Syndrome (AVDS). CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old physician, tested positive for Covid-19, was addressed to the emergency unit for severe dyspnoea and dizziness. Explorations were non informative with only a doubt regarding a sub-segmental pulmonary embolism (no ground-glass lesions or consolidations related to Covid-19 disease). Dyspnoea persisted despite anticoagulation therapy and normal pulmonary function tests. Contrast-enhanced transthoracic echocardiography was performed which revealed a moderate late right-to-left shunt. CONCLUSIONS: This case report highlights the crucial importance of the vascular component of the viral disease. The intrapulmonary shunt induced by Covid-19 which remains unrecognized because generally hidden by the concomitant lung injury, can persist for a long time. Contrast-enhanced transthoracic echocardiography is the most appropriate test to propose in case of persistent dyspnoea in Covid-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Dyspnea/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology
10.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(12): 3594-3603, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033093

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare two-dimensional-speckle tracking echocardiographic parameters (2D-STE) and classic echocardiographic parameters of right ventricular (RV) systolic function in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) complicated or not by acute cor pulmonale (ACP). DESIGN: Prospective, between March 1, 2020 and April 15, 2020. SETTING: Intensive care unit of Amiens University Hospital (France). PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients with moderate-to-severe CARDS under mechanical ventilation for fewer than 24 hours. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Tricuspid annular displacement (TAD) parameters (TAD-septal, TAD-lateral, and RV longitudinal shortening fraction [RV-LSF]), RV global longitudinal strain (RV-GLS), and RV free wall longitudinal strain (RVFWLS) were measured using transesophageal echocardiography with a dedicated software and compared with classic RV systolic parameters (RV-FAC, S' wave, and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion [TAPSE]). RV systolic dysfunction was defined as RV-FAC <35%. Twenty-nine consecutive patients with moderate-to-severe CARDS were included. ACP was diagnosed in 12 patients (41%). 2D-STE parameters were markedly altered in the ACP group, and no significant difference was found between patients with and without ACP for classic RV parameters (RV-FAC, S' wave, and TAPSE). In the ACP group, RV-LSF (17% [14%-22%]) had the best correlation with RV-FAC (r = 0.79, p < 0.001 v r = 0.27, p = 0.39 for RVGLS and r = 0.28, p = 0.39 for RVFWLS). A RV-LSF cut-off value of 17% had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 86% to identify RV systolic dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Classic RV function parameters were not altered by ACP in patients with CARDS, contrary to 2D-STE parameters. RV-LSF seems to be a valuable parameter to detect early RV systolic dysfunction in CARDS patients with ACP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Heart Disease , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Adult , Humans , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Heart Disease/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Heart Disease/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Function, Right
19.
JACC Case Rep ; 2(9): 1311-1314, 2020 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599457

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19)-related severe acute respiratory distress syndrome can lead to acute cor pulmonale. We report a case of acute cor pulmonale secondary to severe COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome diagnosed with transesophageal echocardiography. Almitrine infusion allowed rapid enhancement of right ventricular function as well as improvement in oxygenation. (Level of Difficulty: Intermediate.).

20.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 7(5): 426-434, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596784

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To describe the characteristics of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 (including their long-term at-home medication use), and compare them with regard to the course of the disease. To assess the association between renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASIs) and disease progression and critical outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: All consecutive hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in a university hospital in Amiens (France) were included in this study. The primary composite endpoint was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) or death before ICU admission. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with the composite endpoint. Between 28 February 2020 and 30 March 2020, a total of 499 local patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Of these, 231 were not hospitalized {males 33%; median [interquartile range (IQR)] age: 44 (32-54)}, and 268 were hospitalized [males 58%; median (IQR) age: 73 (61-84)]. A total of 116 patients met the primary endpoint: 47 died before ICU admission, and 69 were admitted to the ICU. Patients meeting the primary endpoint were more likely than patients not meeting the primary endpoint to have coronary heart disease and to have been taking RASIs; however, the two subsets of patients did not differ with regard to median age. After adjustment for other associated variables, the risk of meeting the composite endpoint was 1.73 times higher (odds ratio 1.73, 95% confidence interval 1.02-2.93) in patients treated at baseline with a RASI than in patients not treated with this drug class. This association was confirmed when the analysis was restricted to patients treated with antihypertensive agents. CONCLUSIONS: We highlighted a potential safety signal for RASIs, the long-term use of which was independently associated with a higher risk of severe COVID-19 and a poor outcome. Due to the widespread use of this important drug class, formal proof based on clinical trials is needed to better understand the association between RASIs and complications of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Intensive Care Units , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
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