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Eur J Neurol ; 29(6): 1685-1696, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759178


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neurological sequelae from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may persist after recovery from acute infection. Here, the aim was to describe the natural history of neurological manifestations over 1 year after COVID-19. METHODS: A prospective, multicentre, longitudinal cohort study in COVID-19 survivors was performed. At a 3-month and 1-year follow-up, patients were assessed for neurological impairments by a neurological examination and a standardized test battery including the assessment of hyposmia (16-item Sniffin' Sticks test), cognitive deficits (Montreal Cognitive Assessment < 26) and mental health (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist 5). RESULTS: Eighty-one patients were evaluated 1 year after COVID-19, out of which 76 (94%) patients completed a 3-month and 1-year follow-up. Patients were 54 (47-64) years old and 59% were male. New and persistent neurological disorders were found in 15% (3 months) and 12% (10/81; 1 year). Symptoms at 1-year follow-up were reported by 48/81 (59%) patients, including fatigue (38%), concentration difficulties (25%), forgetfulness (25%), sleep disturbances (22%), myalgia (17%), limb weakness (17%), headache (16%), impaired sensation (16%) and hyposmia (15%). Neurological examination revealed findings in 52/81 (64%) patients without improvement over time (3 months, 61%, p = 0.230) including objective hyposmia (Sniffin' Sticks test <13; 51%). Cognitive deficits were apparent in 18%, whereas signs of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorders were found in 6%, 29% and 10% respectively 1 year after infection. These mental and cognitive disorders had not improved after the 3-month follow-up (all p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that a significant patient number still suffer from neurological sequelae including neuropsychiatric symptoms 1 year after COVID-19 calling for interdisciplinary management of these patients.

COVID-19 , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3348-3359, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607398


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To assess neurological manifestations and health-related quality of life (QoL) 3 months after COVID-19. METHODS: In this prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study we systematically evaluated neurological signs and diseases by detailed neurological examination and a predefined test battery assessing smelling disorders (16-item Sniffin Sticks test), cognitive deficits (Montreal Cognitive Assessment), QoL (36-item Short Form), and mental health (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-5) 3 months after disease onset. RESULTS: Of 135 consecutive COVID-19 patients, 31 (23%) required intensive care unit (ICU) care (severe), 72 (53%) were admitted to the regular ward (moderate), and 32 (24%) underwent outpatient care (mild) during acute disease. At the 3-month follow-up, 20 patients (15%) presented with one or more neurological syndromes that were not evident before COVID-19. These included polyneuro/myopathy (n = 17, 13%) with one patient presenting with Guillain-Barré syndrome, mild encephalopathy (n = 2, 2%), parkinsonism (n = 1, 1%), orthostatic hypotension (n = 1, 1%), and ischemic stroke (n = 1, 1%). Objective testing revealed hyposmia/anosmia in 57/127 (45%) patients at the 3-month follow-up. Self-reported hyposmia/anosmia was lower (17%) at 3 months, however, improved when compared to the acute disease phase (44%; p < 0.001). At follow-up, cognitive deficits were apparent in 23%, and QoL was impaired in 31%. Assessment of mental health revealed symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorders in 11%, 25%, and 11%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite recovery from the acute infection, neurological symptoms were prevalent at the 3-month follow-up. Above all, smelling disorders were persistent in a large proportion of patients.

COVID-19 , Stroke , Cohort Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
Qual Life Res ; 31(5): 1401-1414, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439744


PURPOSE: To assess patient characteristics associated with health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) and its mental and physical subcategories 3 months after diagnosis with COVID-19. METHODS: In this prospective multicentre cohort study, HR-QoL was assessed in 90 patients using the SF-36 questionnaire (36-item Short Form Health Survey), which consists of 8 health domains that can be divided into a mental and physical health component. Mental health symptoms including anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorders were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-5 (PCL-5) 3 months after COVID-19. Using descriptive statistics and multivariable regression analysis, we identified factors associated with impaired HR-QoL 3 months after COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: Patients were 55 years of age (IQR, 49-63; 39% women) and were classified as severe (23%), moderate (57%), or mild (20%) according to acute disease severity. HR-QoL was impaired in 28/90 patients (31%). Younger age [per year, adjOR (95%CI) 0.94 (0.88-1.00), p = 0.049], longer hospitalization [per day, adjOR (95%CI) 1.07 (1.01-1.13), p = 0.015], impaired sleep [adjOR (95%CI) 5.54 (1.2-25.61), p = 0.028], and anxiety [adjOR (95%CI) 15.67 (3.03-80.99), p = 0.001) were independently associated with impaired HR-QoL. Twenty-nine percent (n = 26) scored below the normal range on the mental health component of the SF-36 and independent associations emerged for anxiety, depression, and self-reported numbness. Impairments in the physical health component of the SF-36 were reported by 12 (13%) patients and linked to hypogeusia and fatigue. CONCLUSION: Every third patient reported a reduction in HR-QoL 3 months after COVID-19 diagnosis and impairments were more prominent in mental than physical well-being.

COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life/psychology