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1.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 2: 100038, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461650

ABSTRACT

Background: We studied lab-confirmed COVID-19 infection (LCCI) testing, incidence, and severity. Methods: We included all Manitoba residents and limited our severity analysis to LCCI patients. We calculated testing, incidence and vaccination rates between March 8, 2020 and June 1, 2021. We estimated the association between patient characteristics and testing (rate ratio [RR]; Poisson regression), including the reason for testing (screening, symptomatic, contact/outbreak asymptomatic), incidence (hazard ratio [HR]; Cox regression), and severity (prevalence ratio [PR], Cox regression). Findings: The overall testing rate during the second/third wave was 570/1,000 person-years, with an LCCI rate of 50/1,000 person-years. The secondary attack rate during the second/third wave was 16%. Across regions, young children (<10) had the lowest positivity for symptomatic testing, the highest positivity for asymptomatic testing, and the highest risk of LCCI as asymptomatic contact. People in the lowest income quintile had the highest risk of LCCI, 1.3-6x the hazard of those in the highest income quintile. Long-term care (LTC) residents were particularly affected in the second wave with HRs>10 for asymptomatic residents. Interpretation: Although the severity of LCCI in children was low, they have a high risk of asymptomatic positivity. The groups most vulnerable to LCCI, who should remain a focus of public health, were residents of Manitoba's North, LTC facilities, and low-income neighbourhoods. Funding: Canada Research Chair Program.

2.
BMJ ; 374: n1943, 2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367424

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effectiveness of mRNA covid-19 vaccines against symptomatic infection and severe outcomes (hospital admission or death). DESIGN: Test negative design study. SETTING: Ontario, Canada between 14 December 2020 and 19 April 2021. PARTICIPANTS: 324 033 community dwelling people aged ≥16 years who had symptoms of covid-19 and were tested for SARS-CoV-2. INTERVENTIONS: BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and hospital admissions and deaths associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Multivariable logistic regression was adjusted for personal and clinical characteristics associated with SARS-CoV-2 and vaccine receipt to estimate vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic infection and severe outcomes. RESULTS: Of 324 033 people with symptoms, 53 270 (16.4%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 21 272 (6.6%) received at least one dose of vaccine. Among participants who tested positive, 2479 (4.7%) were admitted to hospital or died. Vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic infection observed ≥14 days after one dose was 60% (95% confidence interval 57% to 64%), increasing from 48% (41% to 54%) at 14-20 days after one dose to 71% (63% to 78%) at 35-41 days. Vaccine effectiveness observed ≥7 days after two doses was 91% (89% to 93%). Vaccine effectiveness against hospital admission or death observed ≥14 days after one dose was 70% (60% to 77%), increasing from 62% (44% to 75%) at 14-20 days to 91% (73% to 97%) at ≥35 days, whereas vaccine effectiveness observed ≥7 days after two doses was 98% (88% to 100%). For adults aged ≥70 years, vaccine effectiveness estimates were observed to be lower for intervals shortly after one dose but were comparable to those for younger people for all intervals after 28 days. After two doses, high vaccine effectiveness was observed against variants with the E484K mutation. CONCLUSIONS: Two doses of mRNA covid-19 vaccines were observed to be highly effective against symptomatic infection and severe outcomes. Vaccine effectiveness of one dose was observed to be lower, particularly for older adults shortly after the first dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
3.
Eurosurveillance ; 25(19):16, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-833282

ABSTRACT

Introduction It is unclear whether high-dose influenza vaccine (HD) is more effective at reducing mortality among seniors. Aim This study aimed to evaluate the relative vaccine effectiveness (rVE) of HD. Methods We linked electronic medical record databases in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and Medicare administrative files to examine the rVE of HD vs standard-dose influenza vaccines (SD) in preventing influenza/pneumonia-associated and cardiorespiratory mortality among VHA-enrolled veterans 65 years or older during the 2012/13, 2013/14 and 2014/15 influenza seasons. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was performed on matched recipients of HD vs SD, based on vaccination time, location, age, sex, ethnicity and VHA priority level. Results Among 569,552 person-seasons of observation, 207,574 (36%) were HD recipients and 361,978 (64%) were SD recipients, predominantly male (99%) and white (82%). Pooling findings from all three seasons, the adjusted rVE estimate of HD vs SD during the high influenza periods was 42% (95% confidence interval (CI): 24–59) against influenza/pneumonia-associated mortality and 27% (95% CI: 23–32) against cardiorespiratory mortality. Residual confounding was evident in both early and late influenza periods despite matching and multivariable adjustment. Excluding individuals with high 1-year predicted mortality at baseline reduced the residual confounding and yielded rVE of 36% (95% CI: 10–62) and 25% (95% CI: 12–38) against influenza/pneumonia-associated and cardiorespiratory mortality, respectively. These were confirmed by results from two-stage residual inclusion estimations. Discussion The HD was associated with a lower risk of influenza/pneumonia-associated and cardiorespiratory death in men during the high influenza period.

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