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Ir J Med Sci ; 2022 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000095


INTRODUCTION: MRHT is the regional trauma service for the Midlands, providing 24/7 orthopaedic cover. 'Out of hours' surgery is reserved for those occasions where waiting for the next operating list during normal working hours would result in an unacceptable outcome for the patient. AIMS: To identify how many 'out-of-hours' surgeries were performed and what proportion of the total workload was made up by these cases. Secondly, to identify the impact of COVID-19 on our workload as an acute trauma service. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of all operations performed in the emergency orthopaedic theatre between January 2017 and October 2020. Included were all emergency orthopaedic procedures performed after 6 p.m. and before 8 a.m. We compared this to the total number of trauma surgeries performed in the same time period to calculate the percentage of our total operations. RESULTS: There were a total of 7615 orthopaedic trauma operations performed in the 193 weeks. 164 of these were 'out-of-hours'. This represents 2.2% of the total operations performed and is equal to 0.84 cases per week. 55 of the 164 (33.5%) were performed in children under the age of 18. 62 were performed between 6 and 8 p.m., 61 between 8 and 10 p. m., 31 between 10 p.m. and midnight, and the remaining 10 were performed between midnight and 3 a.m. CONCLUSION: Surgery out of hours has been associated with increased complications, and so decisions to perform emergency surgery should not be made lightly. However, sometimes they are unfortunately necessary and are some of the most important operations we can perform as orthopaedic surgeons.

Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e630-e644, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886372


BACKGROUND: We studied humoral responses after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination across varying causes of immunodeficiency. METHODS: Prospective study of fully vaccinated immunocompromised adults (solid organ transplant [SOT], hematologic malignancy, solid cancers, autoimmune conditions, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) versus nonimmunocompromised healthcare workers (HCWs). The primary outcome was the proportion with a reactive test (seropositive) for immunoglobulin G to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptor-binding domain. Secondary outcomes were comparisons of antibody levels and their correlation with pseudovirus neutralization titers. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with seropositivity. RESULTS: A total of 1271 participants enrolled: 1099 immunocompromised and 172 HCW. Compared with HCW (92.4% seropositive), seropositivity was lower among participants with SOT (30.7%), hematological malignancies (50.0%), autoimmune conditions (79.1%), solid tumors (78.7%), and HIV (79.8%) (P < .01). Factors associated with poor seropositivity included age, greater immunosuppression, time since vaccination, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, and vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer) or adenovirus vector vaccines versus messenger RNA (mRNA)-1273 (Moderna). mRNA-1273 was associated with higher antibody levels than BNT162b2 or adenovirus vector vaccines after adjusting for time since vaccination, age, and underlying condition. Antibody levels were strongly correlated with pseudovirus neutralization titers (Spearman r = 0.89, P < .0001), but in seropositive participants with intermediate antibody levels, neutralization titers were significantly lower in immunocompromised individuals versus HCW. CONCLUSIONS: Antibody responses to COVID-19 vaccines were lowest among SOT and anti-CD20 monoclonal recipients, and recipients of vaccines other than mRNA-1273. Among those with intermediate antibody levels, pseudovirus neutralization titers were lower in immunocompromised patients than HCWs. Additional SARS-CoV-2 preventive approaches are needed for immunocompromised persons, which may need to be tailored to the cause of immunodeficiency.

COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination