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Vigilancia Sanitaria Em Debate-Sociedade Ciencia & Tecnologia ; 9(3):92-101, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1411591


Introduction: In December 2019, the first group of patients with symptoms of atypical pneumonia was discovered in Wuhan, China. On January 7, 2020, the etiologic agent was identified;it was a new betacoronavirus, genetically similar to SARS-CoV-1, consisting of a simple RNA strand, an enveloped virus of 50-200nm in diameter, which was called SARS-CoV-2. Soon after, the disease was named COVID-19. On January 30, WHO declared a Public Health Emergency of International Importance due to the spread of the coronavirus. Tests for serological detection of IgM and IgG antibodies are those that provide an estimate of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2, highlighting the Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT), simple and accessible with a result within 5-30 minutes, based on sensitization of antigens/antibodies conjugated to colloidal gold capturing specific proteins present in the infected serum, plasma or blood. Objective: This work aims to show the analysis carried out with RDT for COVID-19 diagnosis in compliance with the current legislation from 02.04 to 18.08.2020. Method: In March of 2020, 25 serum/plasma samples were donated, without any identification. These samples were the remaining samples of tests performed on individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection by the RT-PCR technique from health services (National Institute of Infectious Diseases Evandro Chagas - INI and State Institute of the Brain Paulo Niemeyer - IEC) located in the metropolitan region of the state of Rio de Janeiro. The samples obtained in order to become a serological panel were stored at -20 degrees C until the moment of use. Simultaneously, a panel of samples with confirmed reactivity for IgM and IgG antibodies from COVID-19 was being made, throughout the pandemic and the samples used were evaluated against three Rapid Tests, of different antigenic compositions or different brands;two ELISA tests for IgM and IgG;two chemiluminescence tests and when applicable, a molecular test. In order to assess the specificity of the products sent, surplus donation plasma samples were selected, known to be negative for HIV, HTLV, hepatitis b and c, chagas and syphilis, collected between 2013 and 2014, in the southern regions of the country, period in which SARS-CoV-2 was nonexistent in the world. In addition to True Positive (VP) and True Negative (VN) samples, interfering serum or plasma samples with reactivity for HIV, HCV, HTLV, HBsAg, chagas disease, syphilis and dengue were also included in the evaluation. Results: Out of 178 TR lots, 74.1%, 132 lots were from China and 25.9%, 46 TR lots were from Brazil;Germany;South Korea;Canada;USA;Singapore;Ireland and Switzerland. The analytical result showed that 57.0%, 101 TR lots obtained a Satisfactory result and 43%, 77 lots had Unsatisfactory results, when compared to the Sensitivity and Specificity values declared by the manufacturer, in the Instructions for Use. Conclusions: The results obtained show the need for constant monitoring of TRs for COVID-19 with the primary purpose of guaranteeing the quality of products sold in the country, one of the National Health Surveillance System pillars of action.