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Int J Pharm ; 603: 120701, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225261


In this work, we have developed and tested a dry powder form of niclosamide made by thin-film freezing (TFF) and administered it by inhalation to rats and hamsters to gather data about its toxicology and pharmacokinetics. Niclosamide, a poorly water-soluble drug, is an interesting drug candidate because it was approved over 60 years ago for use as an anthelmintic medication, but recent studies demonstrated its potential as a broad-spectrum antiviral with pharmacological effect against SARS-CoV-2 infection. TFF was used to develop a niclosamide inhalation powder composition that exhibited acceptable aerosol performance with a fine particle fraction (FPF) of 86.0% and a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 1.11 µm and 2.84, respectively. This formulation not only proved to be safe after an acute three-day, multi-dose tolerability and exposure study in rats as evidenced by histopathology analysis, and also was able to achieve lung concentrations above the required IC90 levels for at least 24 h after a single administration in a Syrian hamster model. To conclude, we successfully developed a niclosamide dry powder inhalation that overcomes niclosamide's limitation of poor oral bioavailability by targeting the drug directly to the primary site of infection, the lungs.

COVID-19 , Niclosamide , Administration, Inhalation , Aerosols , Animals , Cricetinae , Dry Powder Inhalers , Freezing , Humans , Particle Size , Powders , Rats , SARS-CoV-2
Int J Pharm X ; 3: 100073, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103975


Remdesivir dry powder for inhalation was previously developed using thin film freezing (TFF). A single-dose 24-h pharmacokinetic study in hamsters demonstrated that pulmonary delivery of TFF remdesivir can achieve plasma remdesivir and GS-441524 levels higher than the reported EC50s of both remdesivir and GS-441524 (in human epithelial cells) over 20 h. The half-life of GS-4412524 following dry powder insufflation was about 7 h, suggesting the dosing regimen would be twice-daily administration. Although the remdesivir-Captisol® (80/20 w/w) formulation showed faster and greater absorption of remdesivir and GS-4412524 in the lung, remdesivir-leucine (80/20 w/w) exhibited a greater Cmax with shorter Tmax and lower AUC of GS-441524, indicating lower total drug exposure is required to achieve a high effective concentration against SAR-CoV-2. In conclusion, remdesivir dry powder for inhalation would be a promising alternative dosage form for the treatment of COVID-19 disease.