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1.
Euro Surveill ; 26(45)2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630353

ABSTRACT

We report a rapid increase in enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infections, with 139 cases reported from eight European countries between 31 July and 14 October 2021. This upsurge is in line with the seasonality of EV-D68 and was presumably stimulated by the widespread reopening after COVID-19 lockdown. Most cases were identified in September, but more are to be expected in the coming months. Reinforcement of clinical awareness, diagnostic capacities and surveillance of EV-D68 is urgently needed in Europe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus D, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Enterovirus , Myelitis , Respiratory Tract Infections , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks , Enterovirus D, Human/genetics , Enterovirus Infections/diagnosis , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Myelitis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 100(4): 115382, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385399

ABSTRACT

Sensitivity and specificity of serological assays are key parameters for the accurate estimation of SARS-CoV-2 sero-prevalence. The aim of this study was to compare 8 readily available IgG antibody tests using a panel of well-defined serum samples of prepandemic and pandemic origin. A cross-reaction panel included samples of patients with recent infection with either of the endemic Coronaviruses 229E, NL63, HKU1, or OC43. Additionally, samples with high antibody levels against influenza virus, adenovirus, and during acute EBV infection were included. Previous infection with endemic coronaviruses caused a significant amount of cross-reactivity in two of the assays. In contrast, the confidence intervals for the assays of Abbott, DiaSorin, Euroimmun and Roche encompassed the value of 98% for samples with a previous endemic HCoV infection. For all assays, sensitivities were between 91.3% and 98.8%. Assay performance was independent of the usage of either nucleocapsid or spike proteins.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Viral Proteins , Young Adult
4.
Anal Chem ; 93(4): 2627-2634, 2021 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065766

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 virus outbreak was declared as a world pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). The only measures for controlling the outbreak are testing and isolation of infected cases. Molecular real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays are very sensitive but require highly equipped laboratories and well-trained personnel. In this study, a rapid point-of-need detection method was developed to detect the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), envelope protein (E), and nucleocapsid protein (N) genes of SARS-CoV-2 based on the reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay. RdRP, E, and N RT-RPA assays required approximately 15 min to amplify 2, 15, and 15 RNA molecules of molecular standard/reaction, respectively. RdRP and E RT-RPA assays detected SARS-CoV-1 and 2 genomic RNA, whereas the N RT-RPA assay identified only SARS-CoV-2 RNA. All established assays did not cross-react with nucleic acids of other respiratory pathogens. The RT-RPA assay's clinical sensitivity and specificity in comparison to real-time RT-PCR (n = 36) were 94 and 100% for RdRP; 65 and 77% for E; and 83 and 94% for the N RT-RPA assay. The assays were deployed to the field, where the RdRP RT-RPA assays confirmed to produce the most accurate results in three different laboratories in Africa (n = 89). The RPA assays were run in a mobile suitcase laboratory to facilitate the deployment at point of need. The assays can contribute to speed up the control measures as well as assist in the detection of COVID-19 cases in low-resource settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Recombinases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Nat Biotechnol ; 38(8): 970-979, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023942

ABSTRACT

To investigate the immune response and mechanisms associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we performed single-cell RNA sequencing on nasopharyngeal and bronchial samples from 19 clinically well-characterized patients with moderate or critical disease and from five healthy controls. We identified airway epithelial cell types and states vulnerable to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In patients with COVID-19, epithelial cells showed an average three-fold increase in expression of the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2, which correlated with interferon signals by immune cells. Compared to moderate cases, critical cases exhibited stronger interactions between epithelial and immune cells, as indicated by ligand-receptor expression profiles, and activated immune cells, including inflammatory macrophages expressing CCL2, CCL3, CCL20, CXCL1, CXCL3, CXCL10, IL8, IL1B and TNF. The transcriptional differences in critical cases compared to moderate cases likely contribute to clinical observations of heightened inflammatory tissue damage, lung injury and respiratory failure. Our data suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of the CCR1 and/or CCR5 pathways might suppress immune hyperactivation in critical COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiratory System/pathology , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19 , Cell Communication , Cell Differentiation , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , Immune System/pathology , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory System/immunology , Respiratory System/virology , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 755(Pt 1): 142881, 2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-857157

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic co-occurred with pollen season in Europe 2020 and recent studies suggest a potential link between both. Air samples collected at our measuring station in Leipzig and purified pollen were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 typical signals or for virus-induced cytopathic effects, to test if the virus could bind to bioaerosols and if so, whether these complexes are infectious. The results show that neither our air samples nor purified pollen were infectious or could act as carrier for virus particles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Particulate Matter , Europe , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Pollen/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
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