Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 12 de 12
Filter
1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310708

ABSTRACT

Background: Zinc impairs replication of RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-1, and may be effective against SARS-CoV-2. However, to achieve adequate intracellular zinc levels, administration with an ionophore, which increases intracellular zinc levels, may be necessary. We evaluated the impact of zinc with an ionophore (Zn+ionophore) on COVID-19 in-hospital mortality rates. Methods: : A multicenter cohort study was conducted of 3,473 adult hospitalized patients with reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) positive SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to four New York City hospitals between March 10 through May 20, 2020. Exclusion criteria were: death or discharge within 24h, comfort-care status, clinical trial enrollment, treatment with an IL-6 inhibitor or remdesivir. Patients who received Zn+ionophore were compared to patients who did not using multivariable time-dependent cox proportional hazards models for time to in-hospital death adjusting for confounders including age, sex, race, BMI, diabetes, week of admission, hospital location, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, intubation, acute renal failure, neurological events, treatment with corticosteroids, azithromycin or lopinavir/ritonavir and the propensity score of receiving Zn+ionophore. A sensitivity analysis was performed using a propensity score-matched cohort of patients who did or did not receive Zn+ionophore matched by age, sex and ventilator status. Results: : Among 3,473 patients (median age 64, 1947 [56%] male, 522 [15%] ventilated, 545[16%] died), 1,006 (29%) received Zn+ionophore. Zn+ionophore was associated with a 24% reduced risk of in-hospital mortality (12% of those who received Zn+ionophore died versus 17% who did not;adjusted Hazard Ratio [aHR] 0.76, 95% CI 0.60-0.96, P=0.023). More patients who received Zn+ionophore were discharged home (72% Zn+ionophore vs 67% no Zn+ionophore, P=0.003) Neither Zn nor the ionophore alone were associated with decreased mortality rates. Propensity score-matched sensitivity analysis (N=1356) validated these results (Zn+ionophore aHR for mortality 0.63, 95%CI 0.44-0.91, P=0.015). There were no significant interactions for Zn+ionophore with other COVID-19 specific medications. Conclusions: : Zinc with an ionophore was associated with increased rates of discharge home and a 24% reduced risk of in-hospital mortality among COVID-19 patients, while neither zinc alone nor the ionophore alone reduced mortality. Further randomized trials are warranted.

2.
Chest ; 161(1): 140-151, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401306

ABSTRACT

Considering the COVID-19 pandemic where concomitant occurrence of ARDS and severe acute brain injury (sABI) has increasingly coemerged, we synthesize existing data regarding the simultaneous management of both conditions. Our aim is to provide readers with fundamental principles and concepts for the management of sABI and ARDS, and highlight challenges and conflicts encountered while managing concurrent disease. Up to 40% of patients with sABI can develop ARDS. Although there are trials and guidelines to support the mainstays of treatment for ARDS and sABI independently, guidance on concomitant management is limited. Treatment strategies aimed at managing severe ARDS may at times conflict with the management of sABI. In this narrative review, we discuss the physiological basis and risks involved during simultaneous management of ARDS and sABI, summarize evidence for treatment decisions, and demonstrate these principles using hypothetical case scenarios. Use of invasive or noninvasive monitoring to assess brain and lung physiology may facilitate goal-directed treatment strategies with the potential to improve outcome. Understanding the pathophysiology and key treatment concepts for comanagement of these conditions is critical to optimizing care in this high-acuity patient population.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries/complications , Brain Injuries/therapy , Disease Management , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e2112131, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222587

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic continues to affect millions of people globally, with increasing reports of neurological manifestations but limited data on their incidence and associations with outcome. Objective: To determine the neurological phenotypes, incidence, and outcomes among adults hospitalized with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included patients with clinically diagnosed or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 at 28 centers, representing 13 countries and 4 continents. The study was performed by the Global Consortium Study of Neurologic Dysfunction in COVID-19 (GCS-NeuroCOVID) from March 1 to September 30, 2020, and the European Academy of Neurology (EAN) Neuro-COVID Registry (ENERGY) from March to October 2020. Three cohorts were included: (1) the GCS-NeuroCOVID all COVID-19 cohort (n = 3055), which included consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with and without neurological manifestations; (2) the GCS-NeuroCOVID COVID-19 neurological cohort (n = 475), which comprised consecutive patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who had confirmed neurological manifestations; and (3) the ENERGY cohort (n = 214), which included patients with COVID-19 who received formal neurological consultation. Exposures: Clinically diagnosed or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Neurological phenotypes were classified as self-reported symptoms or neurological signs and/or syndromes assessed by clinical evaluation. Composite incidence was reported for groups with at least 1 neurological manifestation. The main outcome measure was in-hospital mortality. Results: Of the 3055 patients in the all COVID-19 cohort, 1742 (57%) were men, and the mean age was 59.9 years (95% CI, 59.3-60.6 years). Of the 475 patients in the COVID-19 neurological cohort, 262 (55%) were men, and the mean age was 62.6 years (95% CI, 61.1-64.1 years). Of the 214 patients in the ENERGY cohort, 133 (62%) were men, and the mean age was 67 years (95% CI, 52-78 years). A total of 3083 of 3743 patients (82%) across cohorts had any neurological manifestation (self-reported neurological symptoms and/or clinically captured neurological sign and/or syndrome). The most common self-reported symptoms included headache (1385 of 3732 patients [37%]) and anosmia or ageusia (977 of 3700 patients [26%]). The most prevalent neurological signs and/or syndromes were acute encephalopathy (1845 of 3740 patients [49%]), coma (649 of 3737 patients [17%]), and stroke (222 of 3737 patients [6%]), while meningitis and/or encephalitis were rare (19 of 3741 patients [0.5%]). Presence of clinically captured neurologic signs and/or syndromes was associated with increased risk of in-hospital death (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.99; 95% CI, 4.33-8.28) after adjusting for study site, age, sex, race, and ethnicity. Presence of preexisting neurological disorders (aOR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.80-2.75) was associated with increased risk of developing neurological signs and/or syndromes with COVID-19. Conclusions and Relevance: In this multicohort study, neurological manifestations were prevalent among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and were associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Preexisting neurological disorders were associated with increased risk of developing neurological signs and/or syndromes in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Nervous System Diseases/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Odds Ratio , Prevalence
4.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 648662, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148282

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to prevail as a catastrophic wave infecting over 111 million people globally, claiming 2. 4 million lives to date. Aged individuals are particularly vulnerable to this disease due to their fraility, immune dysfunction, and higher rates of medical comorbidities, among other causes. Apart from the primary respiratory illness, this virus is known to cause multi-organ dysfunction including renal, cardiac, and neurologic injuries, particularly in the critically-ill cohorts. Elderly patients 65 years of age or older are known to have more severe systemic disease and higher rates of neurologic complications. Morbidity and mortality is very high in the elderly population with 6-930 times higher likelihood of death compared to younger cohorts, with the highest risk in elderly patients ≥85 years and especially those with medical comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and underlying respiratory illness. Commonly reported neurologic dysfunctions of COVID-19 include headache, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Elderly patients may manifest atypical presentations like fall or postural instability. Other important neurologic dysfunctions in the elderly include cerebrovascular diseases, cognitive impairment, and neuropsychiatric illnesses. Elderly patients with preexisting neurologic diseases are susceptibility to severe COVID-19 infection and higher rates of mortality. Treatment of neurologic dysfunction of COVID-19 is based on existing practice standards of specific neurologic condition in conjunction with systemic treatment of the viral illness. The physical, emotional, psychologic, and financial implications of COVID-19 pandemic have been severe. Long-term data are still needed to understand the lasting effects of this devastating pandemic.

6.
Neurology ; 96(4): e575-e586, 2021 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048797

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and associated mortality of well-defined neurologic diagnoses among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we prospectively followed hospitalized severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive patients and recorded new neurologic disorders and hospital outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, multicenter, observational study of consecutive hospitalized adults in the New York City metropolitan area with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The prevalence of new neurologic disorders (as diagnosed by a neurologist) was recorded and in-hospital mortality and discharge disposition were compared between patients with COVID-19 with and without neurologic disorders. RESULTS: Of 4,491 patients with COVID-19 hospitalized during the study timeframe, 606 (13.5%) developed a new neurologic disorder in a median of 2 days from COVID-19 symptom onset. The most common diagnoses were toxic/metabolic encephalopathy (6.8%), seizure (1.6%), stroke (1.9%), and hypoxic/ischemic injury (1.4%). No patient had meningitis/encephalitis or myelopathy/myelitis referable to SARS-CoV-2 infection and 18/18 CSF specimens were reverse transcriptase PCR negative for SARS-CoV-2. Patients with neurologic disorders were more often older, male, white, hypertensive, diabetic, intubated, and had higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores (all p < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, SOFA scores, intubation, history, medical complications, medications, and comfort care status, patients with COVID-19 with neurologic disorders had increased risk of in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.62, p < 0.001) and decreased likelihood of discharge home (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.63-0.85, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Neurologic disorders were detected in 13.5% of patients with COVID-19 and were associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality and decreased likelihood of discharge home. Many observed neurologic disorders may be sequelae of severe systemic illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/mortality , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , New York City/epidemiology , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Sex Factors , Spinal Cord Diseases/epidemiology , Spinal Cord Diseases/etiology , Young Adult
7.
Res Sq ; 2020 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-903183

ABSTRACT

Background: Zinc impairs replication of RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-1, and may be effective against SARS-CoV-2. However, to achieve adequate intracellular zinc levels, administration with an ionophore, which increases intracellular zinc levels, may be necessary. We evaluated the impact of zinc with an ionophore (Zn+ionophore) on COVID-19 in-hospital mortality rates. Methods: A multicenter cohort study was conducted of 3,473 adult hospitalized patients with reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) positive SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to four New York City hospitals between March 10 through May 20, 2020. Exclusion criteria were: death or discharge within 24h, comfort-care status, clinical trial enrollment, treatment with an IL-6 inhibitor or remdesivir. Patients who received Zn+ionophore were compared to patients who did not using multivariable time-dependent cox proportional hazards models for time to in-hospital death adjusting for confounders including age, sex, race, BMI, diabetes, week of admission, hospital location, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, intubation, acute renal failure, neurological events, treatment with corticosteroids, azithromycin or lopinavir/ritonavir and the propensity score of receiving Zn+ionophore. A sensitivity analysis was performed using a propensity score-matched cohort of patients who did or did not receive Zn+ionophore matched by age, sex and ventilator status. Results: Among 3,473 patients (median age 64, 1947 [56%] male, 522 [15%] ventilated, 545[16%] died), 1,006 (29%) received Zn+ionophore. Zn+ionophore was associated with a 24% reduced risk of in-hospital mortality (12% of those who received Zn+ionophore died versus 17% who did not; adjusted Hazard Ratio [aHR] 0.76, 95% CI 0.60-0.96, P=0.023). More patients who received Zn+ionophore were discharged home (72% Zn+ionophore vs 67% no Zn+ionophore, P=0.003) Neither Zn nor the ionophore alone were associated with decreased mortality rates. Propensity score-matched sensitivity analysis (N=1356) validated these results (Zn+ionophore aHR for mortality 0.63, 95%CI 0.44-0.91, P=0.015). There were no significant interactions for Zn+ionophore with other COVID-19 specific medications. Conclusions: Zinc with an ionophore was associated with increased rates of discharge home and a 24% reduced risk of in-hospital mortality among COVID-19 patients, while neither zinc alone nor the ionophore alone reduced mortality. Further randomized trials are warranted.

8.
Neurocrit Care ; 33(3): 793-828, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778078

ABSTRACT

Since its original report in January 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has rapidly become one of the deadliest global pandemics. Early reports indicate possible neurological manifestations associated with COVID-19, with symptoms ranging from mild to severe, highly variable prevalence rates, and uncertainty regarding causal or coincidental occurrence of symptoms. As neurological involvement of any systemic disease is frequently associated with adverse effects on morbidity and mortality, obtaining accurate and consistent global data on the extent to which COVID-19 may impact the nervous system is urgently needed. To address this need, investigators from the Neurocritical Care Society launched the Global Consortium Study of Neurological Dysfunction in COVID-19 (GCS-NeuroCOVID). The GCS-NeuroCOVID consortium rapidly implemented a Tier 1, pragmatic study to establish phenotypes and prevalence of neurological manifestations of COVID-19. A key component of this global collaboration is development and application of common data elements (CDEs) and definitions to facilitate rigorous and systematic data collection across resource settings. Integration of these elements is critical to reduce heterogeneity of data and allow for future high-quality meta-analyses. The GCS-NeuroCOVID consortium specifically designed these elements to be feasible for clinician investigators during a global pandemic when healthcare systems are likely overwhelmed and resources for research may be limited. Elements include pediatric components and translated versions to facilitate collaboration and data capture in Latin America, one of the epicenters of this global outbreak. In this manuscript, we share the specific data elements, definitions, and rationale for the adult and pediatric CDEs for Tier 1 of the GCS-NeuroCOVID consortium, as well as the translated versions adapted for use in Latin America. Global efforts are underway to further harmonize CDEs with other large consortia studying neurological and general aspects of COVID-19 infections. Ultimately, the GCS-NeuroCOVID consortium network provides a critical infrastructure to systematically capture data in current and future unanticipated disasters and disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Common Data Elements , Forms as Topic , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Data Collection , Documentation , Humans , Internationality , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(10): 105179, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-664143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Approach to acute cerebrovascular disease management has evolved in the past few months to accommodate the rising needs of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. In this study, we investigated the changes in practices and policies related to stroke care through an online survey. METHODS: A 12 question, cross-sectional survey targeting practitioners involved in acute stroke care in the US was distributed electronically through national society surveys, social media and personal communication. RESULTS: Respondants from 39 states completed 206 surveys with the majority (82.5%) from comprehensive stroke centers. Approximately half stated some change in transport practices with 14 (7%) reporting significant reduction in transfers. Common strategies to limit healthcare provider exposure included using personal protective equipment (PPE) for all patients (127; 63.5%) as well as limiting the number of practitioners in the room (129; 64.5%). Most respondents (81%) noted an overall decrease in stroke volume. Many (34%) felt that the outcome or care of acute stroke patients had been impacted by COVID-19. This was associated with a change in hospital transport guidelines (OR 1.325, P = 0.047, 95% CI: 1.004-1.748), change in eligibility criteria for IV-tPA or mechanical thrombectomy (MT) (OR 3.146, P = 0.052, 95% CI: 0.988-10.017), and modified admission practices for post IV-tPA or MT patients (OR 2.141, P = 0.023, 95% CI: 1.110-4.132). CONCLUSION: Our study highlights a change in practices and polices related to acute stroke management in response to COVID-19 which are variable among institutions. There is also a reported reduction in stroke volume across hospitals. Amongst these changes, updates in hospital transport guidelines and practices related to IV-tPA and MT may affect the perceived care and outcome of acute stroke patients.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/trends , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Infection Control/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Stroke/therapy , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Clinical Decision-Making , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eligibility Determination/trends , Health Care Surveys , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics , Patient Admission/trends , Patient Transfer/trends , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Policy Making , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/virology , Telemedicine/trends , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
12.
Neurocrit Care ; 33(1): 25-34, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343169

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the COVID-19 pandemic developed, reports of neurological dysfunctions spanning the central and peripheral nervous systems have emerged. The spectrum of acute neurological dysfunctions may implicate direct viral invasion, para-infectious complications, neurological manifestations of systemic diseases, or co-incident neurological dysfunction in the context of high SARS-CoV-2 prevalence. A rapid and pragmatic approach to understanding the prevalence, phenotypes, pathophysiology and prognostic implications of COVID-19 neurological syndromes is urgently needed. METHODS: The Global Consortium to Study Neurological dysfunction in COVID-19 (GCS-NeuroCOVID), endorsed by the Neurocritical Care Society (NCS), was rapidly established to address this need in a tiered approach. Tier-1 consists of focused, pragmatic, low-cost, observational common data element (CDE) collection, which can be launched immediately at many sites in the first phase of this pandemic and is designed for expedited ethical board review with waiver-of-consent. Tier 2 consists of prospective functional and cognitive outcomes assessments with more detailed clinical, laboratory and radiographic data collection that would require informed consent. Tier 3 overlays Tiers 1 and 2 with experimental molecular, electrophysiology, pathology and imaging studies with longitudinal outcomes assessment and would require centers with specific resources. A multicenter pediatrics core has developed and launched a parallel study focusing on patients ages <18 years. Study sites are eligible for participation if they provide clinical care to COVID-19 patients and are able to conduct patient-oriented research under approval of an internal or global ethics committee. Hospitalized pediatric and adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 and with acute neurological signs or symptoms are eligible to participate. The primary study outcome is the overall prevalence of neurological complications among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, which will be calculated by pooled estimates of each neurological finding divided by the average census of COVID-19 positive patients over the study period. Secondary outcomes include: in-hospital, 30 and 90-day morality, discharge modified Rankin score, ventilator-free survival, ventilator days, discharge disposition, and hospital length of stay. RESULTS: In a one-month period (3/27/20-4/27/20) the GCS-NeuroCOVID consortium was able to recruit 71 adult study sites, representing 17 countries and 5 continents and 34 pediatrics study sites. CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the first large-scale global research collaboratives urgently assembled to evaluate acute neurological events in the context of a pandemic. The innovative and pragmatic tiered study approach has allowed for rapid recruitment and activation of numerous sites across the world-an approach essential to capture real-time critical neurological data to inform treatment strategies in this pandemic crisis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pragmatic Clinical Trials as Topic , Prevalence , Research Design , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL