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Nat Commun ; 13(1): 383, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636827


A single center open label phase 2 randomised control trial (Clinical Trial Registry of India No. CTRI/2020/05/025209) was done to assess clinical and immunological benefits of passive immunization using convalescent plasma therapy. At the Infectious Diseases and Beleghata General Hospital in Kolkata, India, 80 patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 disease and fulfilling the inclusion criteria (aged more than 18 years, with either mild ARDS having PaO2/FiO2 200-300 or moderate ARDS having PaO2/FiO2 100-200, not on mechanical ventilation) were recruited and randomized into either standard of care (SOC) arm (N = 40) or the convalescent plasma therapy (CPT) arm (N = 40). Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality by day 30 of enrolment and immunological correlates of response to therapy if any, for which plasma abundance of a large panel of cytokines was quantitated before and after intervention to assess the effect of CPT on the systemic hyper-inflammation encountered in these patients. The secondary outcomes were recovery from ARDS and time taken to negative viral RNA PCR as well as to report any adverse reaction to plasma therapy. Transfused convalescent plasma was characterized in terms of its neutralizing antibody content as well as proteome. The trial was completed and it was found that primary outcome of all-cause mortality was not significantly different among severe COVID-19 patients with ARDS randomized to two treatment arms (Mantel-Haenszel Hazard Ratio 0.6731, 95% confidence interval 0.3010-1.505, with a P value of 0.3424 on Mantel-Cox Log-rank test). No adverse effect was reported with CPT. In severe COVID-19 patients with mild or moderate ARDS no significant clinical benefit was registered in this clinical trial with convalescent plasma therapy in terms of prespecified outcomes.

COVID-19/therapy , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Blood Donors , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Hospitals, General , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization, Passive , India , Inflammation , Male , Phylogeny , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
J Infect Dis ; 224(4): 565-574, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358458


BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has led to significant morbidity and mortality. While most suffer from mild symptoms, some patients progress to severe disease with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and associated systemic hyperinflammation. METHODS: First, to characterize key cytokines and their dynamics in this hyperinflammatory condition, we assessed abundance and correlative expression of a panel of 48 cytokines in patients progressing to ARDS as compared to patients with mild disease. Then, in an ongoing randomized controlled trial of convalescent plasma therapy (CPT), we analyzed rapid effects of CPT on the systemic cytokine dynamics as a correlate for the level of hypoxia experienced by the patients. RESULTS: We identified an anti-inflammatory role of CPT independent of its neutralizing antibody content. CONCLUSIONS: Neutralizing antibodies, as well as reductions in circulating interleukin-6 and interferon-γ-inducible protein 10, contributed to marked rapid reductions in hypoxia in response to CPT. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY OF INDIA: CTRI/2020/05/025209.

COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 278(8): 2875-2881, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002090


PURPOSE: The ongoing coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic is spreading at an alarming rate across the globe. Sudden onset loss of smell and/or taste has been increasingly reported as a symptom of COVID-19. However, prevalence of these symptoms, and its severity varies widely between studies, with little data on its duration and recovery rate. Since this significantly impacts the quality of life of patients, there is a need for a study to provide insight into the loss of smell or taste in terms of its correlation with other upper respiratory tract symptoms, natural history and resolution rates. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 718 mild to moderately symptomatic adult patients (≥ 18 years), admitted consecutively to Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS), Odisha, India between June 25 and July 24, 2020, who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal and throat swabs. Prevalence, severity, duration and factors associated with altered smell or taste sensation, and their follow-up were recorded. RESULTS: Of the 718 patients included in the study at baseline [563 (78%) men; median age 34 years], 101 (14%) patients experienced either altered smell or taste, with 52 (7%) experiencing both altered smell and taste. Seventy-seven (10.7%) patients had altered smell and 76 patients had altered taste (10.5%). Of these, 71 (92%) and 73 (96%) regained their sense of smell and taste, respectively, by 14 days after their swab tested positive. Presence of fever (OR = 5.4, 95% CI = 2.7-10.6, p < 0.001), cough (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.2-4.2, p = 0.009) and nasal obstruction (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.4-6.7, p = 0.006) were independently associated with increased likelihood of experiencing both altered taste and smell in multivariable models. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of altered smell and taste in Indians was much lower compared to Europeans and similar to East Asians. Majority regained these senses by 2 weeks. Identification of these symptoms can help in early detection of the disease in suspected individuals.

COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology