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1.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 24(11): 1143-1144, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575140

ABSTRACT

How to cite this article: Nair PR, Maitra S, Ray BR, Anand RK, Baidya DK, Subramaniam R. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet-to-lymphocyte Ratio as Predictors of the Early Requirement of Mechanical Ventilation in COVID-19 Patients. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(11):1143-1144.

2.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(6): 102324, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Vitamin C has been used as an anti-oxidant in various diseases including viral illnesses like coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) investigating the role of vitamin C supplementation in COVID-19 was carried out. RESULTS: Total 6 RCTs including n = 572 patients were included. Vitamin C treatment didn't reduce mortality (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.27; I2 = 0%; P = 0.27), ICU length of stay [SMD 0.29, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.63; I2 = 0%; P = 0.09), hospital length of stay (SMD -0.23, 95% CI -1.04 to 0.58; I2 = 92%; P = 0.57) and need for invasive mechanical ventilation (Risk Ratio 0.93, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.44; I2 = 0%; P = 0.76). Further sub-group analysis based on severity of illness (severe vs. non-severe), route of administration (IV vs. oral) and dose (high vs. low) failed to show any observable benefits. CONCLUSION: No significant benefit noted with vitamin C administration in COVID-19. Well-designed RCTs with standardized control group needed on this aspect.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Length of Stay , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
3.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540738

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with cirrhosis and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) have high in-hospital mortality. The information on outcome of cirrhosis patients in post-hospitalization period are limited. AIMS: We aimed to study the outcome of cirrhosis patients with COVID-19 after hospital discharge. METHODS: The records of the cirrhosis patients discharged after COVID-19 were reviewed. Their data were compared with a similar number of cirrhosis patients without COVID-19 after propensity score matching for age, sex, etiology of cirrhosis, and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. RESULTS: Cirrhosis patients with (n=92) or without (n=92) COVID-19 were included in 1:1 ratio. The mortality among COVID-19 (22; 23.9%) and non-COVID-19 (19; 20.7%) were comparable (HR 1.224; 95% CI 0.663-2.263, P=0.520), over a similar duration of follow-up [186 (86-271) vs 183 (103-274)]. Among COVID-19 patients, 45; 48.9% developed a new acute decompensation-increased ascites (40; 43.5%), hepatic encephalopathy (20; 21.7%), or variceal bleeding (8; 8.7%) whereas 25 (27.2%) patients needed re-hospitalization. A proportion of participants continued to have either fatigue/weakness (24/80; 30.0%), sleep disturbances (11/80; 13.7%), or joint pains (16/80; 20.0%). The most common causes of death in patients of both groups were end-stage liver disease: 16 (72.7%) vs 9 (47.4%), followed by multiorgan dysfunction: 4 (18.2%) vs 6 (31.6%), GI bleeding: 2 (9.1%) vs. 4 (21.0%), P=0.484. A lower albumin level, higher international normalized ratio, bilirubin, Child-Turcotte-Pugh, and MELD scores at discharge predicted mortality in the COVID-19 group. CONCLUSION: Short-term outcomes of patients with cirrhosis who survive the initial insult of COVID-19 are not different from patients without COVID-19, and survival is determined by the severity of liver disease at discharge.

4.
Diabetes & metabolic syndrome ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1490032

ABSTRACT

Background and aims Vitamin C has been used as an anti-oxidant in various diseases including viral illnesses like coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Methods Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) investigating the role of vitamin C supplementation in COVID-19 was carried out. Results Total 6 RCTs including n = 572 patients were included. Vitamin C treatment didn't reduce mortality (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.27;I2 = 0%;P = 0.27), ICU length of stay [SMD 0.29, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.63;I2 = 0%;P = 0.09), hospital length of stay (SMD -0.23, 95% CI -1.04 to 0.58;I2 = 92%;P = 0.57) and need for invasive mechanical ventilation (Risk Ratio 0.93, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.44;I2 = 0%;P = 0.76). Further sub-group analysis based on severity of illness (severe vs. non-severe), route of administration (IV vs. oral) and dose (high vs. low) failed to show any observable benefits. Conclusion No significant benefit noted with vitamin C administration in COVID-19. Well-designed RCTs with standardized control group needed on this aspect.

5.
Respir Care ; 66(12): 1824-1830, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Efficacy of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) over noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia is not known. We aimed to assess the incidence of invasive mechanical ventilation in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 treated with either HFNC or NIV. METHODS: This was a single-center randomized controlled trial performed in the COVID-19 ICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. One hundred and nine subjects with severe COVID-19 pneumonia presenting with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure were recruited and allocated to either HFNC (n = 55) or NIV (n = 54) arm. Primary outcome was intubation by 48 h. Secondary outcomes were improvement in oxygenation by 48 h, intubation rate at day 7, and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics and [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] ratio were similar in both the groups. Intubation rate at 48 h was similar between the groups (33% NIV vs 20% HFNC, relative risk 0.6, 95% CI 0.31-1.15, P = .12). Intubation rate at day 7 was lower in the HFNC (27.27%) compared to the NIV group (46.29%) (relative risk 0.59, 95% CI 0.35-0.99, P = .045), and this difference remained significant after adjustment for the incidence of chronic kidney disease and the arterial pH (adjusted OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.17-0.93, P = .03). Hospital mortality was similar between HFNC (29.1%) and NIV (46.2%) group (relative risk 0.6, 95% CI 0.38-1.04, P = .06). CONCLUSIONS: We were not able to demonstrate a statistically significant improvement of oxygenation parameters nor of the intubation rate at 48 h between NIV and HFNC. These findings should be further tested in a larger randomized controlled trial. The study was registered at the Clinical Trials Registry of India (www.ctri.nic.in; reference number: CTRI/2020/07/026835) on July 27, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pneumonia , Respiratory Insufficiency , Cannula , Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(8): 920-922, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436216

ABSTRACT

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is considered an aerosol-generating procedure. The aim of this study was to identify the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among healthcare providers (HCPs) involved in CPR in coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients. An online and offline anonymous survey with a preformed questionnaire was conducted among the HCPs involved in the care of COVID-19 patients. HCPs who developed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-positive confirmed COVID-19 and/or symptomatic influenza-like illness (ILI) within 14 days of their involvement in CPR of a confirmed COVID-19 patient were identified. Activities performed during CPR, the cumulative number of CPR performed, any breach in personal protective equipment (PPE), type of the mask used, use of any pharmacological prophylaxis, and any psychological impact among HCPs were also identified. A total of 393 HCPs participated in the survey; out of them, 197 HCPs participated in CPR at least once (CPR group) and the rest 196 did not (control group). Ten in the control group and five in the CPR group developed confirmed COVID-19 within the next 2 weeks; however, only one of these five had a breach in PPE during CPR. To conclude, participation in CPR does not increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCPs caring for the COVID-19 patients. Ethics approval and consent to participate: The study was approved by the ethics committee of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, vide letter number: IEC-676/03.07.2020, dated July 4, 2020. How to cite this article: Soni L, Maitra S, Ray BR, Anand RK, Subramaniam R, Baidya DK. Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Infection among Healthcare Providers Involved in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in COVID-19 Patients. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(8):920-922.

8.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(8): 920-922, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355117

ABSTRACT

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is considered an aerosol-generating procedure. The aim of this study was to identify the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among healthcare providers (HCPs) involved in CPR in coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients. An online and offline anonymous survey with a preformed questionnaire was conducted among the HCPs involved in the care of COVID-19 patients. HCPs who developed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-positive confirmed COVID-19 and/or symptomatic influenza-like illness (ILI) within 14 days of their involvement in CPR of a confirmed COVID-19 patient were identified. Activities performed during CPR, the cumulative number of CPR performed, any breach in personal protective equipment (PPE), type of the mask used, use of any pharmacological prophylaxis, and any psychological impact among HCPs were also identified. A total of 393 HCPs participated in the survey; out of them, 197 HCPs participated in CPR at least once (CPR group) and the rest 196 did not (control group). Ten in the control group and five in the CPR group developed confirmed COVID-19 within the next 2 weeks; however, only one of these five had a breach in PPE during CPR. To conclude, participation in CPR does not increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCPs caring for the COVID-19 patients. Ethics approval and consent to participate: The study was approved by the ethics committee of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, vide letter number: IEC-676/03.07.2020, dated July 4, 2020. How to cite this article: Soni L, Maitra S, Ray BR, Anand RK, Subramaniam R, Baidya DK. Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Infection among Healthcare Providers Involved in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in COVID-19 Patients. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(8):920-922.

9.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(4): 102189, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284044

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vitamin-D is an immune-modulator which might be linked to disease severity by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Meta-analysis of RCTs and quasi-experimental studies, evaluating the role of vitamin-D supplementation in COVID patients was done. RESULTS: Total 5 studies (3 RCTs and 2 Quasi-experimental) including n = 467 patients were included. Vitamin D didn't reduce mortality (RR 0.55, 95%CI 0.22 to 1.39, p = 0.21), ICU admission rates (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.01-4.26, p = 0.3) and need for invasive ventilation (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.01-7.89, p = 0.42). CONCLUSION: No significant difference with vitamin-D supplementation on major health related outcomes in COVID-19. Well-designed RCTs are required addressing this topic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Nutrition Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Prognosis
10.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(3): 349-350, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154695

ABSTRACT

How to cite this article: Anand RK, Baidya DK, Maitra S, Ray BR. A Proposal for Dedicated "Prone Team" and "Prone Bundle of Care" in COVID-19 ICU. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(3):349-350.

11.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(1): 85-87, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073665

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a type of pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 pneumonia has characteristic radiological features. Recent evidence indicates usefulness of chest X-ray and lung ultrasound (LUS) in detecting COVID-19 pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective observational study, chest X-ray and LUS features of 50 adults with COVID-19 pneumonia at the time of presentation were described. RESULTS: Chest X-ray findings were present in 96% of patients, whereas all patients have ultrasound finding. Proportion (95% CI) of patients having bilateral opacities in chest X-ray was 96% (86.5-98.9%), ground glass opacity 74% (60.5-84.1%), and consolidation 50% (36.7-63.4%). In LUS, shred sign and thickened pleura was present in all patients recruited in this study. Air bronchogram was present in at least one area in 80% of all patients and B-lines score of more than 2 was present in at least one lung area in 84% patients. Number of lung areas with "shred sign" were higher in hypoxemic (p = 0.005) and tachypneic (p = 0.006) patients and pleura line abnormalities were present in more lung areas in hypoxemic patients (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: According to our study, LUS is a useful tool not only in diagnosing, but it also correlates with requirement of respiratory support in COVID-19 patients. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Behera S, Maitra S, Anand RK, Baidya DK, Subramaniam R, Kayina CA, et al. Thoracic Radiological Characteristics of COVID-19 Patients at the Time of Presentation: A Cross-sectional Study. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(1):85-87.

12.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol ; 36(3): 413-414, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006862
13.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 24(11): 1141-1142, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976431

ABSTRACT

How to cite this article: Kayina CA, Maitra S, Anand RK, Ray BR, Baidya DK, Subramaniam R. SARS-CoV-2 Infection Presenting with Hyperglycemia and Ketosis: A Case Series of Three Diabetic Patients. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(11):1141-1142.

14.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol ; 36(3): 412-413, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916476
15.
Surg J (N Y) ; 6(3): e167-e170, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-857450

ABSTRACT

Introduction The ongoing coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted health services throughout the world. It has brought in several new challenges to deal with surgical emergencies. Herein, we report two suspected cases of COVID-19 that were operated during this "lockdown" period and highlight the protocols we followed and lessons we learned from this situation. Result Two patients from "red zones" for COVID-19 pandemic presented with acute abdomen, one a 64-year male, who presented with perforation peritonitis and another, a 57-year male with acute intestinal obstruction due to sigmoid volvulus. They also had associated COVID-19 symptoms. COVID-19 test could not be done at the time of their presentation to the hospital. Patients underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy assuming them to be positive for the infection. Surgical team was donned with full coverall personal protective equipment. Sudden and uncontrolled egression intraperitoneal free gas was avoided, Echelon flex 60 staplers were used to resect the volvulus without allowing the gas from the volvulus to escape; mesocolon was divided using vascular reload of the stapler, no electrosurgical devices were used to avoid the aerosolization of viral particles. Colostomy was done in both the patients. Both the patients turned out to be negative for COVID-19 subsequently and discharged from hospital in stable condition. Conclusion Surgeons need to adapt to safely execute emergency surgical procedures during this period of COVID-19 pandemic. Preparedness is of paramount importance. Full precautionary measures should be taken when dealing with any suspected case.

16.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol ; 36(Suppl 1): S155-S157, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-831535
17.
Indian J Med Res ; 152(1 & 2): 100-104, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-722662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: In this study we describe the epidemiological data, comorbidities, clinical symptoms, severity of illness and early outcome of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. METHODS: In this preliminary analysis of a prospective observational study, all adult patients admitted to the screening intensive care unit (ICU) of the institute who fulfilled the WHO case definition of COVID-19 and confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 infection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were included. Demographics, clinical data and 24 h outcome were assessed. RESULTS: The preliminary analysis of 235 patients revealed that the mean age was 50.7±15.1 yr and 68.1 per cent were male. Fever (68.1%), cough (59.6%) and shortness of breath (71.9%) were the most common presenting symptoms. Hypertension (28.1%) and diabetes mellitus (23.3%) were the most common associated comorbid illnesses. Patients with mild, moderate, severe and critical illness were 18.3, 32.3, 31.1 and 18.3 per cent, respectively, at the time of ICU admission. The proportions (95% confidence interval) of patients requiring any form of oxygen therapy, oxygen therapy by high-flow nasal cannula and invasive mechanical ventilation were 77, 21.7 and 25.5 per cent, respectively, within 24 h of hospital admission. The 24 h ICU mortality was 8.5 per cent, and non-survivors had higher respiratory rate (P <0.01, n=198) and lower baseline oxyhaemoglobin saturation (P <0.001, n=198) at presentation and higher baseline serum lactate (P <0.01, n=122), total leucocyte count (P <0.001, n=186), absolute neutrophil count (P <0.001, n=132), prothrombin time (P <0.05, n=54) and INR (P <0.05, n=54) compared to survivors. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of the patients presented with severe and critical disease and required high-flow nasal oxygen or invasive mechanical ventilation at admission. Severity of the presenting respiratory illness, haematological parameters and lactate rather than age or presence of comorbidity predicted early death within 24 h.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Tertiary Healthcare , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , India/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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