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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 837258, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952364

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The objective of the present study was to provide a detailed histopathological description of fatal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19), and compare the lesions in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and non-ICU patients. Methods: In this prospective study we included adult patients who died in hospital after presenting with confirmed COVID-19. Multiorgan biopsies were performed. Data generated with light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and RT-PCR assays were reviewed. Results: 20 patients were enrolled in the study and the main pulmonary finding was alveolar damage, which was focal in 11 patients and diffuse in 8 patients. Chronic fibrotic and inflammatory lesions were observed in 18 cases, with acute inflammatory lesions in 12 cases. Diffuse lesions, collapsed alveoli and dystrophic pneumocytes were more frequent in the ICU group (62.5%, vs. 25%; 63%, vs. 55%; 87.5%, vs. 54%). Acute lesions (82%, vs. 37.5%; p = 0.07) with neutrophilic alveolitis (63.6% vs. 0%, respectively; p = 0.01) were observed more frequently in the non-ICU group. Viral RNA was detected in 12 lung biopsies (60%) up to 56 days after disease upset. TEM detected viral particles in the lung and kidney biopsy samples up to 27 days after disease upset. Furthermore, abundant networks of double-membrane vesicles (DMVs, a hallmark of viral replication) were observed in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Conclusion: Lung injury was different in ICU and non-ICU patients. Extrapulmonary damage consisting in kidney and myocardial injury were more frequent in ICU patients. Our TEM experiments provided the first description of SARS-CoV-2-induced DMVs in kidney biopsy samples-a sign of intense viral replication in this organ.

2.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824570

ABSTRACT

Purpose The objective of the present study was to provide a detailed histopathological description of fatal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19), and compare the lesions in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and non-ICU patients. Methods In this prospective study we included adult patients who died in hospital after presenting with confirmed COVID-19. Multiorgan biopsies were performed. Data generated with light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and RT-PCR assays were reviewed. Results 20 patients were enrolled in the study and the main pulmonary finding was alveolar damage, which was focal in 11 patients and diffuse in 8 patients. Chronic fibrotic and inflammatory lesions were observed in 18 cases, with acute inflammatory lesions in 12 cases. Diffuse lesions, collapsed alveoli and dystrophic pneumocytes were more frequent in the ICU group (62.5%, vs. 25%;63%, vs. 55%;87.5%, vs. 54%). Acute lesions (82%, vs. 37.5%;p = 0.07) with neutrophilic alveolitis (63.6% vs. 0%, respectively;p = 0.01) were observed more frequently in the non-ICU group. Viral RNA was detected in 12 lung biopsies (60%) up to 56 days after disease upset. TEM detected viral particles in the lung and kidney biopsy samples up to 27 days after disease upset. Furthermore, abundant networks of double-membrane vesicles (DMVs, a hallmark of viral replication) were observed in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Conclusion Lung injury was different in ICU and non-ICU patients. Extrapulmonary damage consisting in kidney and myocardial injury were more frequent in ICU patients. Our TEM experiments provided the first description of SARS-CoV-2-induced DMVs in kidney biopsy samples—a sign of intense viral replication in this organ.

3.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e057368, 2022 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807412

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Prognosis of patients with COVID-19 depends on the severity of the pulmonary affection. The most severe cases may progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is associated with a risk of long-term repercussions on respiratory function and neuromuscular outcomes. The functional repercussions of severe forms of COVID-19 may have a major impact on quality of life, and impair the ability to return to work or exercise. Social inequalities in healthcare may influence prognosis, with socially vulnerable individuals more likely to develop severe forms of disease. We describe here the protocol for a prospective, multicentre study that aims to investigate the influence of social vulnerability on functional recovery in patients who were hospitalised in intensive care for ARDS caused by COVID-19. This study will also include an embedded qualitative study that aims to describe facilitators and barriers to compliance with rehabilitation, describe patients' health practices and identify social representations of health, disease and care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The "Functional Recovery From Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Due to COVID-19: Influence of Socio-Economic Status" (RECOVIDS) study is a mixed-methods, observational, multicentre cohort study performed during the routine follow-up of post-intensive care unit (ICU) functional recovery after ARDS. All patients admitted to a participating ICU for PCR-proven SARS-CoV-2 infection and who underwent chest CT scan at the initial phase AND who received respiratory support (mechanical or not) or high-flow nasal oxygen, AND had ARDS diagnosed by the Berlin criteria will be eligible. The primary outcome is the presence of lung sequelae at 6 months after ICU discharge, defined either by alterations on pulmonary function tests, oxygen desaturation during a standardised 6 min walk test or fibrosis-like pulmonary findings on chest CT. Patients will be considered to be socially disadvantaged if they have an "Evaluation de la Précarité et des Inégalités de santé dans les Centres d'Examen de Santé" (EPICES) score ≥30.17 at inclusion. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol and the informed consent form were approved by an independent ethics committee (Comité de Protection des Personnes Sud Méditerranée II) on 10 July 2020 (2020-A02014-35). All patients will provide informed consent before participation. Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international congresses. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04556513.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Humans , Oxygen , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Class , Treatment Outcome
5.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 12, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608868

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the context of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the response to lung recruitment maneuvers (LRMs) varies considerably from one patient to another and so is difficult to predict. The aim of the study was to determine whether or not the recruitment-to-inflation (R/I) ratio could differentiate between patients according to the change in lung mechanics during the LRM. METHODS: We evaluated the changes in gas exchange and respiratory mechanics induced by a stepwise LRM at a constant driving pressure of 15 cmH2O during pressure-controlled ventilation. We assessed lung recruitability by measuring the R/I ratio. Patients were dichotomized with regard to the median R/I ratio. RESULTS: We included 30 patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS and a median [interquartile range] R/I ratio of 0.62 [0.42-0.83]. After the LRM, patients with high recruitability (R/I ratio ≥ 0.62) presented an improvement in the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, due to significant increase in respiratory system compliance (33 [27-42] vs. 42 [35-60] mL/cmH2O; p < 0.001). In low recruitability patients (R/I < 0.62), the increase in PaO2/FiO2 ratio was associated with a significant decrease in pulse pressure as a surrogate of cardiac output (70 [55-85] vs. 50 [51-67] mmHg; p = 0.01) but not with a significant change in respiratory system compliance (33 [24-47] vs. 35 [25-47] mL/cmH2O; p = 0.74). CONCLUSION: After the LRM, patients with high recruitability presented a significant increase in respiratory system compliance (indicating a gain in ventilated area), while those with low recruitability presented a decrease in pulse pressure suggesting a drop in cardiac output and therefore in intrapulmonary shunt.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296420

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The objective of the present study was to provide a detailed histopathological description of fatal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19), and compare the lesions in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and non-ICU patients.<br><br>Methods: In this prospective study we included adult patients who died in hospital after presenting with probable or confirmed COVID-19. Multiorgan biopsies were performed. Data generated with light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and RT-PCR assays were reviewed.Results20 patients were enrolled in the study and the main pulmonary finding was alveolar damage, which was focal in 11 patients and diffuse in 8 patients. Chronic fibrotic and inflammatory lesions were observed in 18 cases, with acute inflammatory lesions in 12 cases. Diffuse lesions, collapsed alveoli and dystrophic pneumocytes were more frequent in the ICU group (62.5%, vs. 25%;63%, vs. 55%;87.5%, vs. 54%). Acute lesions (82%, vs. 37.5%;p=0.07) with neutrophilic alveolitis (63.6% vs. 0%, respectively;p=0.01) were observed more frequently in the non-ICU group. Viral RNA was detected in 12 lung biopsies (60%) up to 56 days after disease upset. TEM detected viral particles in the lung and kidney biopsy samples up to 27 days after disease upset. Furthermore, abundant networks of double-membrane vesicles (DMVs, a hallmark of viral replication) were observed in proximal tubular epithelial cells.<br><br>Conclusion: Lung injury was different in ICU and non-ICU patients. Extrapulmonary damage was also involved. Our TEM experiments provided the first description of SARS-CoV-2-induced DMVs in kidney biopsy samples – a sign of intense viral replication in this organ.<br><br>Funding Information: This research did not receive any specific funding from agencies or organizations in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.<br><br>Declaration of Interests: The authors report no disclosures of relevance to the manuscript.<br><br>Ethics Approval Statement: The study was approved by the French Ministry of Health. Informed consent was obtained from all patient families.

7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2892-2898, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551452

ABSTRACT

We performed an observational study to investigate intensive care unit incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of coronavirus disease-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). We found 10%-15% CAPA incidence among 823 patients in 2 cohorts. Several factors were independently associated with CAPA in 1 cohort and mortality rates were 43%-52%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2892-2898, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406813

ABSTRACT

We performed an observational study to investigate intensive care unit incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of coronavirus disease-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). We found 10%-15% CAPA incidence among 823 patients in 2 cohorts. Several factors were independently associated with CAPA in 1 cohort and mortality rates were 43%-52%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e045041, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259009

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: International guidelines include early nutritional support (≤48 hour after admission), 20-25 kcal/kg/day, and 1.2-2 g/kg/day protein at the acute phase of critical illness. Recent data challenge the appropriateness of providing standard amounts of calories and protein during acute critical illness. Restricting calorie and protein intakes seemed beneficial, suggesting a role for metabolic pathways such as autophagy, a potential key mechanism in safeguarding cellular integrity, notably in the muscle, during critical illness. However, the optimal calorie and protein supply at the acute phase of severe critical illness remains unknown. NUTRIREA-3 will be the first trial to compare standard calorie and protein feeding complying with guidelines to low-calorie low-protein feeding. We hypothesised that nutritional support with calorie and protein restriction during acute critical illness decreased day 90 mortality and/or dependency on intensive care unit (ICU) management in mechanically ventilated patients receiving vasoactive amine therapy for shock, compared with standard calorie and protein targets. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: NUTRIREA-3 is a randomised, controlled, multicentre, open-label trial comparing two parallel groups of patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and vasoactive amine therapy for shock and given early nutritional support according to one of two strategies: early calorie-protein restriction (6 kcal/kg/day-0.2-0.4 g/kg/day) or standard calorie-protein targets (25 kcal/kg/day, 1.0-1.3 g/kg/day) at the acute phase defined as the first 7 days in the ICU. We will include 3044 patients in 61 French ICUs. Two primary end-points will be evaluated: day 90 mortality and time to ICU discharge readiness. The trial will be considered positive if significant between-group differences are found for one or both alternative primary endpoints. Secondary outcomes include hospital-acquired infections and nutritional, clinical and functional outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The NUTRIREA-3 study has been approved by the appropriate ethics committee. Patients are included after informed consent. Results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03573739.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Protein-Restricted , Adult , Critical Illness , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Crit Care ; 64: 141-143, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193376

ABSTRACT

Airway closure is a physiological phenomenon in which the distal airways are obstructed when the airway pressure drops below the airway opening pressure. We assessed this phenomenon in 27 patients with coronavirus disease 2019-related acute respiratory distress syndrome. Twelve (44%) patients had an airway opening pressure above 5 cmH2O. The median airway opening pressure was 8 cmH2O (interquartile range, 7-10), with a maximum value of 17 cmH2O. Three patients had a baseline positive end-expiratory pressure lower than the airway opening pressure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Airway Obstruction/prevention & control , Critical Care , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Mechanics
11.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 37(3): e3388, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135090

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly progressing pandemic, with four million confirmed cases and 280 000 deaths at the time of writing. Some studies have suggested that diabetes is associated with a greater risk of developing severe forms of COVID-19. The primary objective of the present study was to compare the clinical features and outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with vs without diabetes. METHODS: All consecutive adult patients admitted to Amiens University Hospital (Amiens, France) with confirmed COVID-19 up until April 21st, 2020, were included. The composite primary endpoint comprised admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and death. Both components were also analysed separately in a logistic regression analysis and a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: A total of 433 patients (median age: 72; 238 (55%) men; diabetes: 115 (26.6%)) were included. Most of the deaths occurred in non-ICU units and among older adults. Multivariate analyses showed that diabetes was associated neither with the primary endpoint (odds ratio (OR): 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-1.90) nor with mortality (hazard ratio: 0.73; 95%CI: 0.40-1.34) but was associated with ICU admission (OR: 2.06; 95%CI 1.09-3.92, P = .027) and a longer length of hospital stay. Age was negatively associated with ICU admission and positively associated with death. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes was prevalent in a quarter of the patients hospitalized with COVID-19; it was associated with a greater risk of ICU admission but not with a significant elevation in mortality. Further investigation of the relationship between COVID-19 severity and diabetes is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
13.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(3): 700-705, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: A growing body of data suggests that obesity influences coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Our study's primary objective was to assess the association between body mass index (BMI) categories and critical forms of COVID-19. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data on consecutive adult patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 at Amiens University Hospital (Amiens, France) were extracted retrospectively. The association between BMI categories and the composite primary endpoint (admission to the intensive care unit or death) was probed in a logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: In total, 433 patients were included, and BMI data were available for 329: 20 were underweight (6.1%), 95 have a normal weight (28.9%), 90 were overweight (27.4%), and 124 were obese (37.7%). The BMI category was associated with the primary endpoint in the fully adjusted model; the odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for overweight and obesity were respectively 1.58 [0.77-3.24] and 2.58 [1.28-5.31]. The ORs [95% CI] for ICU admission were similar for overweight (3.16 [1.29-8.06]) and obesity (3.05 [1.25-7.82]) in the fully adjusted model. The unadjusted ORs for death were similar in all BMI categories while obesity only was associated with higher risk after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that overweight (and not only obesity) is associated with ICU admission, but overweight is not associated with death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obesity/complications , Overweight/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , France , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Retrospective Studies
15.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 7(5): 426-434, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596784

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To describe the characteristics of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 (including their long-term at-home medication use), and compare them with regard to the course of the disease. To assess the association between renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASIs) and disease progression and critical outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: All consecutive hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in a university hospital in Amiens (France) were included in this study. The primary composite endpoint was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) or death before ICU admission. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with the composite endpoint. Between 28 February 2020 and 30 March 2020, a total of 499 local patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Of these, 231 were not hospitalized {males 33%; median [interquartile range (IQR)] age: 44 (32-54)}, and 268 were hospitalized [males 58%; median (IQR) age: 73 (61-84)]. A total of 116 patients met the primary endpoint: 47 died before ICU admission, and 69 were admitted to the ICU. Patients meeting the primary endpoint were more likely than patients not meeting the primary endpoint to have coronary heart disease and to have been taking RASIs; however, the two subsets of patients did not differ with regard to median age. After adjustment for other associated variables, the risk of meeting the composite endpoint was 1.73 times higher (odds ratio 1.73, 95% confidence interval 1.02-2.93) in patients treated at baseline with a RASI than in patients not treated with this drug class. This association was confirmed when the analysis was restricted to patients treated with antihypertensive agents. CONCLUSIONS: We highlighted a potential safety signal for RASIs, the long-term use of which was independently associated with a higher risk of severe COVID-19 and a poor outcome. Due to the widespread use of this important drug class, formal proof based on clinical trials is needed to better understand the association between RASIs and complications of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Intensive Care Units , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
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