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Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction ; 16(3):228-243, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1979784


Introduction. Currently, endothelial dysfunction caused by inflammation and immunothrombosisis considered as one of the crucial mechanisms in developing the SARS-CoV-2 virus-mediated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A mass endothelial damage followed by release of untypical large quantity of von Willebrand factor (vWF) multimers and subsequent consumption of metalloproteinase ADAMTS-13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13) is described during severe COVID-19. The activation of innate immune cells including neutrophils results in formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) release that, in turn, contributes to spread of inflammation and microvascular thrombosis. Aim: to evaluate a pathogenetic role and predictive significance for serum markers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and hemostatis activation such as vWF, ADAMTS-13 and MPO for in-hospital mortality in severe COVID-19 patients requiring mechanical lung ventilation. Materials and Methods. There was performed a single-center observational study with 129 severe COVID-19 patients on mechanical lung ventilation at the intensive care unit, by assessing serum in all subjects vWF, ADAMTS-13 as well as in 79 patients MPO level along with other potential predictors for in-hospital mortality. Results. A multivariate analysis revealed that increased serum level for vWF antigen (vWF:Ag) and MPO antigen (MPO:Ag) were significantly and independently related to high mortality probability: vWF:Ag (IU/ml) - adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.360;95 % confidence interval (95 % Cl) = 1.562-7,228 (р = 0,0019);MPO:Ag (ng/ml) - adjusted OR = 1.062;95 % = 1.024-1.101 (p = 0.0011). Such data allowed to obtained a simplified mortality score for categorizing patients as those having a higher or lower score compared with the median score level: a high score was associated with lower cumulative survival rate (p < 0.0001), with 50 % of the cases linked to lethal outcome on day 13 post-hospital admission. Conclusion. Severe COVID-19 patients requiring mechanical lung ventilation were found to have elevated level of serum MPO activity and vWF correlating with poor survival.

Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction ; 15(5):499-514, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1551949


The rate of thrombosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) has been increasing in COVID-19 patients. Key features related to such condition include minimal or no risk of bleeding, moderate thrombocytopenia, high plasma fibrinogen as well as increased complement components level in the areas of thrombotic microangiopathy. The clinical picture is not typical for classic DIC. This review systematizes the pathogenetic mechanisms of hypercoagulation in sepsis and its extreme forms in patients with COVID-19. The latter consist of the thrombosis-related immune mechanisms, the complement activation, the macrophage activation syndrome, the formation of antiphospholipid antibodies, the hyperferritinemia, and the dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin system. Taking into consideration the pathogenetic mechanisms, the biomarkers had been identified related to the prognosis of the disease development. Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease and other risk factors, including obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and aging pose the peak risk of dying from COVID-19. We also summarize new data on platelet and endothelial dysfunction, immunothrombosis, and, as a result, thrombotic storm as essential components of COVID-19 severe features. © 2021 Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction. All rights reserved.

Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction ; 15(4):335-350, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1449369


Numerous studies have proven a close relationship between inflammatory diseases and the state of hypercoagulability. In fact, thromboembolic complications represent one of the main causes of disability and mortality in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, cancer and obstetric complications. Despite this, the processes of hemostasis and immune responses have long been considered separately;currently, work is underway to identify the molecular basis for a relationship between such systems. It has been identified that various pro-inflammatory stimuli are capable of triggering a coagulation cascade, which in turn modulates inflammatory responses. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are the networks of histones of extracellular DNA generated by neutrophils in response to inflammatory stimuli. The hemostasis is activated against infection in order to minimize the spread of infection and, if possible, inactivate the infectious agent. Another molecular network is based on fibrin. Over the last 10 years, there has been accumulated a whole body of evidence that NETs and fibrin are able to form a united network within a thrombus, stabilizing each other. Similarities and molecular cross-reactions are also present in the processes of fibrinolysis and lysis of NETs. Both NETs and von Willebrand factor (vWF) are involved in thrombosis as well as inflammation. During the development of these conditions, a series of events occurs in the microvascular network, including endothelial activation, NETs formation, vWF secretion, adhesion, aggregation, and activation of blood cells. The activity of vWF multimers is regulated by the specific metalloproteinase ADAMTS-13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13). Studies have shown that interactions between NETs and vWF can lead to arterial and venous thrombosis and inflammation. In addition, the contents released from activated neutrophils or NETs result in decreased ADAMTS-13 activity, which can occur in both thrombotic microangiopathies and acute ischemic stroke. Recently, NETs have been envisioned as a cause of endothelial damage and immunothrombosis in COVID-19. In addition, vWF and ADAMTS-13 levels predict COVID-19 mortality. In this review, we summarize the biological characteristics and interactions of NETs, vWF, and ADAMTS-13, the effect of NETs on hemostasis regulation and discuss their role in thrombotic conditions, sepsis, COVID-19, and obstetric complications.

Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction ; 15(3):295-312, 2021.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1344586


Our knowledge regarding chemical structure and properties of heparin and its derivatives, including biological properties in blood plasma, on the cell surface and while interacting with receptors, has been progressively growing. New insights are followed by the expansion of therapeutic opportunities and indications for the use of heparins. There are prerequisites for the creation of new generation drugs with modified properties that reduce a bleeding risk while applied for a non-anticoagulant goal. The non-anticoagulant heparin properties allow to consider it as a candidate for pathogenetic treatment of patients with COVID-19. This review focuses on the anticoagulant and non-anticoagulant heparin properties as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms.

Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction ; 14(2):132-147, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-842276


The pandemic of a novel coronavirus infection COVID-19 has become a real challenge to the mankind and medical community and has raised a number of medical and social issues. Based on the currently available information on COVID-19 clinical cases, it follows that COVID-19 patients in critical condition exhibit a clinical picture of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), septic shock with developing multiple organ failure, which justifies use of anticoagulant therapy in COVID-19 patients. In addition to isolating virus RNA from biological material and polymerase chain reaction diagnostics, use of simple and easily accessible laboratory blood markers is necessary for management of COVID-19 patients. If the activation of coagulation processes is sufficient enough, consumption of platelets and blood clotting factors can be diagnosed by laboratory methods as prolongation of routine blood clotting tests and increasing thrombocytopenia. Hyperfibrinogenemia, increased D-dimer level, prolonged prothrombin time, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, leukocytopenia, increased concentration of interleukin-6 and ferritin are observed in most COVID-19 patients. The degree of increase in these changes correlates with severity of the inflammatory process and serves as a prognostically unfavorable sign. Here we discuss value of laboratory monitoring playing an essential role in such pathological crisis that contributes to patient screening, diagnosis as well as further monitoring, treatment and rehabilitation.

Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction ; 14(2):159-162, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-841227


Dear editors of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction Journal! Due to the particular urgency of the problem of managing patients with a new coronavirus infection (COVID-19), we are sending a letter outlining our position on this issue.