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J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(10): 1375-1385, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522100


Background: Nearly half of U.S. women experienced new or worsening health-related socioeconomic risks (HRSRs) (food, housing, utilities and transportation difficulties, and interpersonal violence) early in the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to examine racial/ethnic disparities in pandemic-related changes in HRSRs among women. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey (04/2020) of 3200 women. Pre- and early pandemic HRSRs were described by race/ethnicity. Weighted, multivariable logistic regression models generated odds of incident and worsening HRSRs by race/ethnicity. Results: The majority of Black, East or Southeast (E/SE) Asian, and Hispanic women reported ≥1 prepandemic HRSR (51%-56% vs. 38% of White women, p < 0.001). By April 2020, 68% of Black, E/SE Asian, and Hispanic women and 55% of White women had ≥1 HRSR (p < 0.001). For most HRSRs, the odds of an incident or worsening condition were similar across racial/ethnic groups, except Black, E/SE Asian and Hispanic women had 2-3.6 times the odds of incident transportation difficulties compared with White women. E/SE Asian women also had higher odds of worsening transportation difficulties compared with White women (adjusted odds ratios = 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1-5.6). In the early pandemic, 1/19 Hispanic, 1/28 E/SE Asian, 1/36 Black and 1/100 White women had all 5 HRSRs (extreme health-related socioeconomic vulnerability). Conclusions: Prepandemic racial/ethnic disparities in HRSRs persisted and prevalence rates increased for all groups early in the pandemic. Disparities in transportation difficulties widened. White women were much less likely than others to experience extreme health-related socioeconomic vulnerability. An equitable COVID-19 response requires attention to persistent and widening racial/ethnic disparities in HRSRs among women.

COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(9): 3323-3330.e3, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281442


BACKGROUND: Food insecurity dramatically increased because of the COVID-19 pandemic; however, little is known about pandemic-related food insecurity in households with dietary restrictions. OBJECTIVE: To examine pre-pandemic rates of and pandemic-related change in food insecurity among households with and without dietary restrictions. METHODS: A cross-sectional, panel-based survey of 3200 U.S. women was conducted in April 2020. Pre-pandemic food insecurity and early pandemic-related change in food insecurity were assessed using the adapted Hunger Vital Sign. Weighted, multivariate logistic regression was used to model the odds of pre-pandemic food insecurity and the odds of incident or worsening pandemic-related food insecurity among households with and without dietary restrictions. In models predicting pandemic-related outcomes, interaction effects between race/ethnicity and dietary restrictions were examined. RESULTS: Before the COVID-19 pandemic, households with self-reported food allergy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-1.9), celiac disease (aOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.4-3.5), or both (aOR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2-3.6) were significantly more likely to be food insecure than households without restrictions. Households with dietary restrictions were also significantly more likely to experience incident or worsening food insecurity during the early pandemic (food allergy: aOR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.3-2.1) (celiac disease: aOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5-3.5) (both: aOR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.2-3.4). Race/ethnicity was not a significant moderator of the relationship between dietary restrictions and pandemic-related food insecurity. CONCLUSION: Households with dietary restrictions were more likely to experience both pre-pandemic and pandemic-related incident or worsening food insecurity than households without restrictions. Clinical care for patients with dietary restrictions requires attention to food insecurity.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(4): 502-513, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169611


Background: During a pandemic, women may be especially vulnerable to secondary health problems driven by its social and economic effects. We examined the relationship between changes in health-related socioeconomic risks (HRSRs) and mental health. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 3,200 women aged 18-90 years was conducted in April 2020 using a quota-based sample from a national panel (88% cooperation rate). Patterns of change in HRSRs (food insecurity, housing instability, interpersonal violence, and difficulties with utilities and transportation) were described. Weighted, multivariate logistic regression was used to model the odds of depression, anxiety, and traumatic stress symptoms among those with and without incident or worsening HRSRs. Results: More than 40% of women had one or more prepandemic HRSRs. In the early pandemic phase, 49% of all women, including 29% with no prepandemic HRSRs, had experienced incident or worsening HRSRs. By April 2020, the rates of depression and anxiety were twice that of prepandemic benchmarks (29%); 17% of women had symptoms of traumatic stress. The odds of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms were two to three times higher among women who reported at least one incident or worsening HRSR; this finding was similar for women with and without prepandemic HRSRs. Conclusions: Increased health-related socioeconomic vulnerability among U.S. women early in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was prevalent and associated with alarmingly high rates of mental health problems. Pandemic-related mental health needs are likely to be much greater than currently available resources, especially for vulnerable women.

COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult