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Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):10, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880370

ABSTRACT

Background: Botswana has a high prevalence of women living with HIV (WLHIV) and experienced a severe nationwide COVID-19 epidemic in 2021. We evaluated adverse birth outcomes among women routinely tested for COVID-19 by HIV status, during a period when few women had access to COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: The Tsepamo Study performs birth outcomes surveillance at government hospitals throughout Botswana. We analyzed data from 13 Tsepamo sites that performed routine COVID-19 screening at delivery with rapid antigen or PCR testing between Sept 1, 2020 and Sept 30, 2021 (start dates differed by site). This analysis includes singleton deliveries with known HIV status and a COVID-19 screening test between 14 days prior and 3 days after delivery. Outcomes included maternal death, preterm delivery (PTD), very preterm delivery (VPTD), small for gestational age (SGA), very small for gestational age (VSGA), stillbirth, and neonatal death. Differences in outcomes by COVID-19 and HIV status were assessed using log binomial regression adjusted for maternal age. Results: A total of 17,627 deliveries occurred at the included sites during COVID-19 screening, and 11,149 (63.3%) were screened for COVID-19;among 10,090 (99.7%) with a known HIV status, 530 (5.3%) COVID-19 tests were positive, including 141/2129 (6.6%) among WLHIV and 389/7961 (4.9%) among women without HIV (aRR 1.32, 95% CI 1.09, 1.60). Maternal deaths were reported in 19 (3.8%) women with COVID-19 and 11 (0.12%) women without COVID-19 (aRR 30.5, 95% CI 14.6, 63.7), and did not differ by HIV status. Adverse birth outcomes (any) were more common among infants born to women with COVID-19 (34.3% vs. 26.3%;aRR 1.32, 95% CI 1.16,1.49), including PTD (21.2% vs. 13.3%;aRR 1.60, 95% CI 1.34,1.90) and stillbirth (5.5% vs. 2.8%;aRR 1.89, 95% CI 1.30,2.75), and there was a trend for higher neonatal mortality (2.0% vs. 1.4%, aRR 1.5, 95% CI 0.79, 2.85). Most adverse birth outcomes were highest among infants exposed to both COVID-19 and HIV (Figure 1). Conclusion: Infants born to women with COVID-19 experienced more adverse birth outcomes than other infants, including a 2-fold risk for stillbirth. Those exposed to both COVID-19 and HIV had the highest risk for most adverse outcomes. Further research is warranted to understand the biological interaction between COVID-19, HIV infection, and adverse birth outcomes, and whether some associations were impacted by challenges in care delivery during the height of the COVID-19 epidemic in Botswana.

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