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1.
Res Sq ; 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35547849

ABSTRACT

Waning immunity after two SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccinations and the emergence of variants precipitated the need for a third dose of vaccine. We evaluated early safety and immunogenicity after a third mRNA vaccination in adults who received the mRNA-1273 primary series in the Phase 1 trial approximately 9 to 10 months earlier. The booster vaccine formulations included 100 mcg of mRNA-1273, 50 mcg of mRNA-1273.351 that encodes Beta variant spike protein, and bivalent vaccine of 25 mcg each of mRNA-1273 and mRNA-1273.351. A third dose of mRNA vaccine appeared safe with acceptable reactogenicity. Vaccination induced rapid increases in binding and neutralizing antibody titers to D614G, Beta, and Delta variants that were similar or greater than peak responses after the second dose. Spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells increased to similar levels as after the second dose. A third mRNA vaccination was well tolerated and generated robust humoral and T cell responses. ClinicalTrials.gov numbers NCT04283461 (mRNA-1273 Phase 1) and NCT04785144 (mRNA-1273.351 Phase 1).

2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 402, 2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550037

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women were excluded from investigational trials of COVID-19 vaccines. Limited data are available to inform pregnant and postpartum women on their decisions to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: The goal of this observational, prospective cohort study is to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of various Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) or licensed COVID-19 vaccines administered to pregnant or lactating women and describe the transplacental antibody transfer and kinetics of antibodies in mothers and infants. The study is adaptive, allowing additional groups to be added as new vaccines or vaccine regimens are authorized. Up to 20 clinical research institutions in the United States (U.S.) will be included. Approximately 200 pregnant women and 65 postpartum women will be enrolled per EUA or licensed COVID-19 vaccine formulation in the U.S. This study will include pregnant and postpartum women of all ages with and without chronic medical conditions. Their infants will be enrolled and followed beginning at birth in the pregnant cohort and beginning at the earliest possible time point in the postpartum cohort. Blood samples will be collected for immunogenicity outcomes and pregnancy and birth outcomes assessed among women and infants. Primary analyses will be descriptive and done by vaccine type and/or platform. DISCUSSION: Given the long-standing and legitimate challenges of enrolling pregnant individuals into clinical trials early in the vaccine development pipeline, this study protocol describes our current study and provides a template to inform the collection of data for pregnant individuals receiving COVID-19 or other vaccines. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT05031468 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lactation , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Observational Studies as Topic , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies
3.
Science ; 373(6561): 1372-1377, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385356

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mutations may diminish vaccine-induced protective immune responses, particularly as antibody titers wane over time. Here, we assess the effect of SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), P.1 (Gamma), B.1.429 (Epsilon), B.1.526 (Iota), and B.1.617.2 (Delta) on binding, neutralizing, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)­competing antibodies elicited by the messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine mRNA-1273 over 7 months. Cross-reactive neutralizing responses were rare after a single dose. At the peak of response to the second vaccine dose, all individuals had responses to all variants. Binding and functional antibodies against variants persisted in most subjects, albeit at low levels, for 6 months after the primary series of the mRNA-1273 vaccine. Across all assays, B.1.351 had the lowest antibody recognition. These data complement ongoing studies to inform the potential need for additional boost vaccinations.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Young Adult
5.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 10(6): 634-646, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378139

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a serious threat to public health throughout the world. Newer treatments are needed that could offer simplified regimens with activity against both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant bacilli, while optimizing safety. Pretomanid (PA-824), a nitroimidazooxazine compound, is a new drug for the treatment of pulmonary TB that was recently approved in the United States and Europe in the context of a regimen combined with bedaquiline and linezolid. This phase 1 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study specifically examined the effect of single-dose administration of pretomanid 400 or 1000 mg and pretomanid 400 mg plus moxifloxacin 400 mg on the QTc interval in 74 healthy subjects. Subjects were fasting at the time of drug administration. Pretomanid concentrations following single 400- or 1000-mg doses were not associated with any QT interval prolongation of clinical concern. Moxifloxacin did not alter the pharmacokinetics of pretomanid, and the effect of pretomanid 400 mg plus moxifloxacin 400 mg on the individually corrected QT interval was consistent with the effect of moxifloxacin alone. Both drugs were generally well tolerated. Although supratherapeutic exposure of pretomanid relative to the now-recommended dosing with food was not achieved, these findings contribute to the favorable assessment of cardiac safety for pretomanid.


Subject(s)
Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Moxifloxacin/administration & dosage , Nitroimidazoles/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacokinetics , Cross-Over Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Drug Interactions , Electrocardiography , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Moxifloxacin/adverse effects , Nitroimidazoles/adverse effects , Nitroimidazoles/pharmacokinetics , Young Adult
7.
N Engl J Med ; 383(25): 2427-2438, 2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Testing of vaccine candidates to prevent infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in an older population is important, since increased incidences of illness and death from coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) have been associated with an older age. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1, dose-escalation, open-label trial of a messenger RNA vaccine, mRNA-1273, which encodes the stabilized prefusion SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-2P) in healthy adults. The trial was expanded to include 40 older adults, who were stratified according to age (56 to 70 years or ≥71 years). All the participants were assigned sequentially to receive two doses of either 25 µg or 100 µg of vaccine administered 28 days apart. RESULTS: Solicited adverse events were predominantly mild or moderate in severity and most frequently included fatigue, chills, headache, myalgia, and pain at the injection site. Such adverse events were dose-dependent and were more common after the second immunization. Binding-antibody responses increased rapidly after the first immunization. By day 57, among the participants who received the 25-µg dose, the anti-S-2P geometric mean titer (GMT) was 323,945 among those between the ages of 56 and 70 years and 1,128,391 among those who were 71 years of age or older; among the participants who received the 100-µg dose, the GMT in the two age subgroups was 1,183,066 and 3,638,522, respectively. After the second immunization, serum neutralizing activity was detected in all the participants by multiple methods. Binding- and neutralizing-antibody responses appeared to be similar to those previously reported among vaccine recipients between the ages of 18 and 55 years and were above the median of a panel of controls who had donated convalescent serum. The vaccine elicited a strong CD4 cytokine response involving type 1 helper T cells. CONCLUSIONS: In this small study involving older adults, adverse events associated with the mRNA-1273 vaccine were mainly mild or moderate. The 100-µg dose induced higher binding- and neutralizing-antibody titers than the 25-µg dose, which supports the use of the 100-µg dose in a phase 3 vaccine trial. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; mRNA-1273 Study ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04283461.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , T-Lymphocytes/physiology
8.
N Engl J Med ; 383(20): 1920-1931, 2020 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019 and spread globally, prompting an international effort to accelerate development of a vaccine. The candidate vaccine mRNA-1273 encodes the stabilized prefusion SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1, dose-escalation, open-label trial including 45 healthy adults, 18 to 55 years of age, who received two vaccinations, 28 days apart, with mRNA-1273 in a dose of 25 µg, 100 µg, or 250 µg. There were 15 participants in each dose group. RESULTS: After the first vaccination, antibody responses were higher with higher dose (day 29 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay anti-S-2P antibody geometric mean titer [GMT], 40,227 in the 25-µg group, 109,209 in the 100-µg group, and 213,526 in the 250-µg group). After the second vaccination, the titers increased (day 57 GMT, 299,751, 782,719, and 1,192,154, respectively). After the second vaccination, serum-neutralizing activity was detected by two methods in all participants evaluated, with values generally similar to those in the upper half of the distribution of a panel of control convalescent serum specimens. Solicited adverse events that occurred in more than half the participants included fatigue, chills, headache, myalgia, and pain at the injection site. Systemic adverse events were more common after the second vaccination, particularly with the highest dose, and three participants (21%) in the 250-µg dose group reported one or more severe adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The mRNA-1273 vaccine induced anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses in all participants, and no trial-limiting safety concerns were identified. These findings support further development of this vaccine. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; mRNA-1273 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04283461).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , Young Adult
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 64(7): 984, 2017 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28362943

Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Child , Humans
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 63(suppl 3): S110-S115, 2016 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27742642

ABSTRACT

There has been a recent expansion of preclinical models to predict the efficacy of regimens to treat adults with tuberculosis. Despite increasing global interest in childhood tuberculosis, these same tools have not been employed to develop pediatric regimens. Children differ from adults in bacillary burden, spectrum of disease, the metabolism and distribution of antituberculosis drugs, and the toxicity experienced. The studies documented in this series describe a proof-of-concept approach to pediatric regimen development. We propose a program of investigation that would take this forward into a systematic and comprehensive method to find optimal drug combinations to use in children, ideal exposures, and required dosing. Although the number of possible drug combinations is extensive, a series of principles could be employed to select likely effective regimens. Regimens should avoid drugs with overlapping toxicity or linked mechanisms of resistance and should aim to include drugs with different mechanisms of action and ones that are able to target different subpopulations of mycobacteria. Finally drugs should penetrate into body sites necessary for treating pediatric disease. At an early stage, this body of work would need to engage with regulatory agencies and bodies that formulate guidelines, so that once regimens and dosages are identified, translation into clinical studies and clinical practice can be rapid. The development of child-friendly drug formulations would need to be carried out in parallel so that pharmacokinetic studies can be undertaken as formulations are created. Significant research and development would be required and a wide range of stakeholders would need to be engaged. The time is right to consider a more thoughtful and systematic approach toward identifying, testing, and comparing combinations of drugs for children with tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Age Factors , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Child , Computer Simulation , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Research Design , World Health Organization
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 61Suppl 3: S164-72, 2015 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26409279

ABSTRACT

Childhood tuberculosis contributes significantly to the global tuberculosis disease burden but remains challenging to diagnose due to inadequate methods of pathogen detection in paucibacillary pediatric samples and lack of a child-specific host biomarker to identify disease. Accurately diagnosing tuberculosis in children is required to improve case detection, surveillance, healthcare delivery, and effective advocacy. In May 2014, the National Institutes of Health convened a workshop including researchers in the field to delineate priorities to address this research gap. This blueprint describes the consensus from the workshop, identifies critical research steps to advance this field, and aims to catalyze efforts toward harmonization and collaboration in this area.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Biomedical Research , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Biological Specimen Banks , Child , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Pediatrics , Specimen Handling , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , United States
13.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 15(6): 711-20, 2015 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25957923

ABSTRACT

Children younger than 18 years account for a substantial proportion of patients with tuberculosis worldwide. Available treatments for paediatric drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis, albeit generally effective, are hampered by high pill burden, long duration of treatment, coexistent toxic effects, and an overall scarcity of suitable child-friendly formulations. Several new drugs and regimens with promising activity against both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains have entered clinical development and are either in various phases of clinical investigation or have received marketing authorisation for adults; however, none have data on their use in children. This consensus statement, generated from an international panel of opinion leaders on childhood tuberculosis and incorporating reviews of published literature from January, 2004, to May, 2014, addressed four key questions: what drugs or regimens should be prioritised for clinical trials in children? Which populations of children are high priorities for study? When can phase 1 or 2 studies be initiated in children? What are the relevant elements of clinical trial design? The consensus panel found that children can be included in studies at the early phases of drug development and should be an integral part of the clinical development plan, rather than studied after regulatory approval in adults is obtained.


Subject(s)
Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Child , Child, Preschool , Consensus , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 8(5): e2811, 2014.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24874401

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New tools are required for the diagnosis of pre-symptomatic leprosy towards further reduction of disease burden and its associated reactions. To address this need, two new skin test antigens were developed to assess safety and efficacy in human trials. METHODS: A Phase I safety trial was first conducted in a non-endemic region for leprosy (U.S.A.). Healthy non-exposed subjects (n = 10) received three titrated doses (2.5 µg, 1.0 µg and 0.1 µg) of MLSA-LAM (n = 5) or MLCwA (n = 5) and control antigens [Rees MLSA (1.0 µg) and saline]. A randomized double blind Phase II safety and efficacy trial followed in an endemic region for leprosy (Nepal), but involved only the 1.0 µg (high dose) and 0.1 µg (low dose) of each antigen; Tuberculin PPD served as a control antigen. This Phase II safety and efficacy trial consisted of three Stages: Stage A and B studies were an expansion of Phase I involving 10 and 90 subjects respectively, and Stage C was then conducted in two parts (high dose and low dose), each enrolling 80 participants: 20 borderline lepromatous/lepromatous (BL/LL) leprosy patients, 20 borderline tuberculoid/tuberculoid (BT/TT) leprosy patients, 20 household contacts of leprosy patients (HC), and 20 tuberculosis (TB) patients. The primary outcome measure for the skin test was delayed type hypersensitivity induration. FINDINGS: In the small Phase I safety trial, reactions were primarily against the 2.5 µg dose of both antigens and Rees control antigen, which were then excluded from subsequent studies. In the Phase II, Stage A/B ramped-up safety study, 26% of subjects (13 of 50) showed induration against the high dose of each antigen, and 4% (2 of 50) reacted to the low dose of MLSA-LAM. Phase II, Stage C safety and initial efficacy trial showed that both antigens at the low dose exhibited low sensitivity at 20% and 25% in BT/TT leprosy patients, but high specificity at 100% and 95% compared to TB patients. The high dose of both antigens showed lower specificity (70% and 60%) and sensitivity (10% and 15%). BL/LL leprosy patients were anergic to the leprosy antigens. INTERPRETATION: MLSA-LAM and MLCwA at both high (1.0 µg) and low (0.1 µg) doses were found to be safe for use in humans without known exposure to leprosy and in target populations. At a sensitivity rate of 20-25% these antigens are not suitable as a skin test for the detection of the early stages of leprosy infection; however, the degree of specificity is impressive given the presence of cross-reactive antigens in these complex native M. leprae preparations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01920750 (Phase I), NCT00128193 (Phase II).


Subject(s)
Antigens, Bacterial/adverse effects , Leprosy/diagnosis , Skin Tests/adverse effects , Skin Tests/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Antigens, Bacterial/administration & dosage , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Leprosy/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium leprae/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
15.
Vaccine ; 31(47): 5602-20, 2013 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23499603

ABSTRACT

This document is intended as a guide to the protocol development for trials of prophylactic vaccines. The template may serve phases I-IV clinical trials protocol development to include safety relevant information as required by the regulatory authorities and as deemed useful by the investigators. This document may also be helpful for future site strengthening efforts.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/methods , Clinical Trials as Topic , Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Vaccines/administration & dosage
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 55(4): 572-81, 2012 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22615332

ABSTRACT

Treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis is hindered by the high toxicity and poor efficacy of second-line drugs. New compounds must be used together with existing drugs, yet clinical trials to optimize combinations of drugs for drug-resistant tuberculosis are lacking. We conducted an extensive review of existing in vitro, animal, and clinical studies involving World Health Organization-defined group 1, 2, and 4 drugs used in drug-resistant tuberculosis regimens to inform clinical trials and identify critical research questions. Results suggest that optimizing the dosing of pyrazinamide, the injectables, and isoniazid for drug-resistant tuberculosis is a high priority. Additional pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and toxicodynamic studies are needed for pyrazinamide and ethionamide. Clinical trials of the comparative efficacy and appropriate treatment duration of injectables are recommended. For isoniazid, rapid genotypic tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutations should be nested in clinical trials. Further research focusing on optimization of dose and duration of drugs with activity against drug-resistant tuberculosis is paramount.


Subject(s)
Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Animals , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans
19.
J Infect Dis ; 205 Suppl 2: S199-208, 2012 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22448023

ABSTRACT

There is a critical need for improved diagnosis of tuberculosis in children, particularly in young children with intrathoracic disease as this represents the most common type of tuberculosis in children and the greatest diagnostic challenge. There is also a need for standardized clinical case definitions for the evaluation of diagnostics in prospective clinical research studies that include children in whom tuberculosis is suspected but not confirmed by culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A panel representing a wide range of expertise and child tuberculosis research experience aimed to develop standardized clinical research case definitions for intrathoracic tuberculosis in children to enable harmonized evaluation of new tuberculosis diagnostic technologies in pediatric populations. Draft definitions and statements were proposed and circulated widely for feedback. An expert panel then considered each of the proposed definitions and statements relating to clinical definitions. Formal group consensus rules were established and consensus was reached for each statement. The definitions presented in this article are intended for use in clinical research to evaluate diagnostic assays and not for individual patient diagnosis or treatment decisions. A complementary article addresses methodological issues to consider for research of diagnostics in children with suspected tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Adolescent , Age Factors , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Radiography , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
20.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 184(8): 972-9, 2011 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21737585

ABSTRACT

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health convened a multidisciplinary meeting to discuss surrogate markers of treatment response in tuberculosis. The goals were to assess recent surrogate marker research and to provide specific recommendations for (1) the qualification and validation of biomarkers of treatment outcome; (2) the standardization of specimen and data collection for future clinical trials, including a minimum set of samples and collection time points; and (3) the creation ofa specimen repository to support biomarker testing. This article summarizes these recommendations and provides a roadmap for their implementation.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/analysis , Clinical Trials as Topic/standards , Specimen Handling/standards , Tuberculosis , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Specimen Banks , Biomarkers/metabolism , Humans , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/genetics , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/metabolism
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