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J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(16): e020255, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356988

ABSTRACT

Background The acuity and magnitude of the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in New York mandated a drastic change in healthcare access and delivery of care. Methods and Results We retrospectively studied patients admitted with an acute cardiovascular syndrome as their principal diagnosis to 13 hospitals across Northwell Health during March 11 through May 26, 2020 (first COVID-19 epidemic wave) and the same period in 2019. Three thousand sixteen patients (242 COVID-19 positive) were admitted for an acute cardiovascular syndrome during the first COVID-19 wave compared with 9422 patients 1 year prior (decrease of 68.0%, P<0.001). During this time, patients with cardiovascular disease presented later to the hospital (360 versus 120 minutes for acute myocardial infarction), underwent fewer procedures (34.6% versus 45.6%, P<0.001), were less likely to be treated in an intensive care unit setting (8.7% versus 10.8%, P<0.001), and had a longer hospital stay (2.91 [1.71-6.05] versus 2.87 [1.82-4.95] days, P=0.033). Inpatient cardiovascular mortality during the first epidemic outbreak increased by 111.1% (3.8 versus 1.8, P<0.001) and was not related to COVID-19-related admissions, all cause in-hospital mortality, or incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac deaths in New York. Admission during the first COVID-19 surge along with age and positive COVID-19 test independently predicted mortality for cardiovascular admissions (odds ratios, 1.30, 1.05, and 5.09, respectively, P<0.0001). Conclusions A lower rate and later presentation of patients with cardiovascular pathology, coupled with deviation from common clinical practice mandated by the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, might have accounted for higher in-hospital cardiovascular mortality during that period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization , Inpatients , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Young Adult
5.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(6): e008662, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-141719

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) is responsible for the global coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Small studies have shown a potential benefit of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine±azithromycin for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019. Use of these medications alone, or in combination, can lead to a prolongation of the QT interval, possibly increasing the risk of Torsade de pointes and sudden cardiac death. METHODS: Hospitalized patients treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine±azithromycin from March 1 to the 23 at 3 hospitals within the Northwell Health system were included in this prospective, observational study. Serial assessments of the QT interval were performed. The primary outcome was QT prolongation resulting in Torsade de pointes. Secondary outcomes included QT prolongation, the need to prematurely discontinue any of the medications due to QT prolongation, and arrhythmogenic death. RESULTS: Two hundred one patients were treated for coronavirus disease 2019 with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine. Ten patients (5.0%) received chloroquine, 191 (95.0%) received hydroxychloroquine, and 119 (59.2%) also received azithromycin. The primary outcome of torsade de pointes was not observed in the entire population. Baseline corrected QT interval intervals did not differ between patients treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (monotherapy group) versus those treated with combination group (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin; 440.6±24.9 versus 439.9±24.7 ms, P=0.834). The maximum corrected QT interval during treatment was significantly longer in the combination group versus the monotherapy group (470.4±45.0 ms versus 453.3±37.0 ms, P=0.004). Seven patients (3.5%) required discontinuation of these medications due to corrected QT interval prolongation. No arrhythmogenic deaths were reported. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest reported cohort of coronavirus disease 2019 patients to date treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine±azithromycin, no instances of Torsade de pointes, or arrhythmogenic death were reported. Although use of these medications resulted in QT prolongation, clinicians seldomly needed to discontinue therapy. Further study of the need for QT interval monitoring is needed before final recommendations can be made.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Incidence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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