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1.
Blood ; 139(17): 2581-2583, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874990
2.
Exp Ther Med ; 23(5): 363, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780105

ABSTRACT

There is accumulating evidence in the literature indicating that a number of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may experience a range of neuropsychiatric symptoms, persisting or even presenting following the resolution of acute COVID-19. Among the neuropsychiatric manifestations more frequently associated with 'long COVID' are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep disturbances, fatigue and cognitive deficits, that can potentially be debilitating and negatively affect patients' wellbeing, albeit in the majority of cases symptoms tend to improve over time. Despite variations in results obtained from studies using different methodological approaches to define 'long COVID' syndrome, the most widely accepted factors associated with a higher risk of developing neuropsychiatric manifestations include the severity of foregoing COVID-19, the female sex, the presence of comorbidities, a history of mental health disease and an elevation in the levels of inflammatory markers, albeit further research is required to establish causal associations. To date, the pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in neuropsychiatric manifestations of 'long COVID' remain only partially elucidated, while the role of the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as social isolation and uncertainty concerning social, financial and health recovery post-COVID, have also been highlighted. Given the alarming effects of 'long-COVID', interdisciplinary cooperation for the early identification of patients who are at a high risk of persistent neuropsychiatric presentations, beyond COVID-19 recovery, is crucial to ensure that appropriate integrated physical and mental health support is provided, with the aim of mitigating the risks of long-term disability at a societal and individual level.

3.
Blood ; 139(16): 2553-2560, 2022 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736329

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in the rapid development of a range of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Vaccine-induced immune thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (VITT) is a rare but life-threatening complication of primarily adenoviral-based vaccines associated with the presence of antibodies to a PF4/polyanion neoepitope and measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Presented are serial anti-PF4/polyanion antibody, platelet, and D-dimer measurements in a large cohort of patients and their relation to relapse. Overall, 51% of patients using the Stago assay had persistently positive anti-PF4/polyanion levels 100 days' postdiagnosis, whereas 94% of patients monitored by using the Immucor assay remain positive. The median duration of positivity of the PF4 assay is 87 days, with 72% of patients remaining positive after a median follow-up of 105 days. The use of plasma exchange seemed to reduce anti-PF4/polyanion levels and increase platelet counts in the acute setting more rapidly than other therapies. The rate of relapse in this study was 12.6%, with all relapsed cases exhibiting persistently positive PF4 antibodies and falling platelet counts. Only one patient had extension of their thrombosis. Overall, despite the persistence of PF4 antibodies in 72% of patients, the rate of relapse was low and did not seem to result in recrudescence of the aggressive clinical picture seen at index presentation. Monitoring of these patients in the UK cohort is ongoing and will aid in definition of the natural history of this novel condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Antibodies/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Pandemics , Platelet Factor 4 , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/complications , Vaccines/adverse effects
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305693

ABSTRACT

Coagulation dysfunction and thrombosis are major complications in patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Patients on oral anticoagulants prior to diagnosis of COVID-19 may therefore have better outcomes. We aimed:To first document the frequency of thrombosis, major bleeding and multiorgan failure (MOF) in patients admitted with COVID-19 and the contribution of these complications to 90-day mortality.To then determine the effects of oral anticoagulation, use prior to admission on the same outcomes as well as the requirement for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission, when compared to a propensity matched cohort of patients not taking oral anticoagulants prior to admission.Methods: This was a multicentre observational cohort including adult patients (≥18 years) admitted to 26 UK hospitals between 1st of April 2020 and 31 July 2020.Findings: A total of 5883 patients were included in the study. Overall mortality was 29.2%. Incidences of thrombosis, major bleeding and MOF were 5.4%,1.7% and 3.3% respectively. The presence of thrombosis, major bleeding, or MOF were associated with a 1.8, 4.5 or 5.9-fold increased risk of dying, respectively. Of the 5883 patients studied, 83.6% (n= 4920) were not on oral anticoagulants (OAC) and 16.4% (n=963) were taking OAC at the time of admission. There was no difference in mortality between patients on OAC vs no OAC prior to admission when compared in an adjusted multivariate analysis (HR 1.05 (95%CI 0.93-1.19) P=0.15) or in an adjusted propensity score analysis (HR 0.92 (95%CI 0.58-1.450, P=0.18). In multivariate and adjusted propensity score analyses, the only significant association of no anticoagulants prior to admission was treatment in ICU (HR 1.98 [95%CI 1.37-2.85]).Interpretation: Thrombosis, major bleeding, and MOF were associated with higher mortality. Our results indicate that patients may continue to benefit from OAC after admission, especially reduced admission to ICU, without any increase in bleeding.Funding: Bayer plc supported the study by providing the investigator-initiated funding (P87339) to setup the multicentre database of the study.Declaration of Interest: DJA received funding from Bayer plc to setup the multicentre database of the study as an investigator-initiated funding and received research grant from Leo Pharma. ML received consultation and speaker fees from Astra-Zeneca, Sobi, Leo-Pharma, Takeda and Pfizer. PN received research grants from Novartis, Principia and Rigel, unrestricted grants from Sanofi, Chugai and Octapharma and honoraria from Bayer. RA received fees from Alexion, Bayer, BMS, Pfizer and Portola. SS has received meeting sponsorship, speaker fees and/or consultancy from Bayer, Pfizer, NovoNordisk, Sobi, Chugai/Roche and Shire/Takeda. SS receives funding support from the Medical Research Council (MR/T024054/1). The research was supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Oxford Biomedical Research Centre (BRC). SL has received speaker fees from Bayer, BMS and Pfizer. Others have no conflict of interests to declare. Ethical Approval: The study was approved by the Health Research Authority (HRA), Health and Care Research Wales (HCRW) and received local Caldicott Guardian support in Scotland (reference number: 20/HRA/1785). Data was collected both retrospectively and prospectively from patient clinical records by the treating medical team with no breach of privacy or anonymity by allocating a unique study number with no direct patient identifiable data;therefore, consent was waived by the HRA.

5.
Lancet Haematol ; 9(1): e73-e80, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586163

ABSTRACT

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 were developed, tested, and introduced at a remarkable speed. Although the vaccine introduction had a major impact on the evolution of COVID-19, some potential rare side-effects of the vaccines were observed. Within a short period, three scientific groups from Norway, Germany, and the UK reported cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with thrombocytopenia and anti-platelet factor 4 (anti-PF4) antibodies in individuals following AstraZeneca-Oxford vaccination and named this new syndrome vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). This syndrome was subsequently reported in individuals who received Johnson & Johnson vaccination. In this Viewpoint, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and optimal diagnostic and therapeutic management of VITT. Presentation of an individual with possible VITT should raise prompt testing for anti-PF4 antibodies and initiation of treatment targeting autoimmune processes with intravenous immunoglobulin and prothrombotic processes with non-heparin anticoagulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced
6.
Exp Ther Med ; 23(1): 107, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580300

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been widespread concern that social isolation, financial stress, depression, limited or variable access to health care services and other pandemic-related stressors may contribute to an increase in suicidal behaviors. In patients who have recovered from COVID-19, an increased risk of developing suicidal behaviors may be noted, while post-COVID syndrome comprises another potential risk factor contributing to increased suicidal behaviors. Despite the initial alarming predictions for an increase in suicide rates due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the majority of published studies to date suggest that experienced difficulties and distress do not inevitably translate into an increased number of suicide-related deaths, at least not in the short-term. Nevertheless, the long-term mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have yet to be unfolded and are likely to remain for a long period of time. Suicide prevention and measures aiming at promoting well-being and mitigating the effects of COVID-19 on mental health, particularly among vulnerable groups, should thus be a priority for healthcare professionals and policymakers amidst the evolving COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211066945, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574469

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Argatroban is licensed for patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and is conventionally monitored by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) ratio. The target range is 1.5 to 3.0 times the patients' baseline APTT and not exceeding 100 s, however this baseline is not always known. APTT is known to plateau at higher levels of argatroban, and is influenced by coagulopathies, lupus anticoagulant and raised FVIII levels. It has been used as a treatment for COVID-19 and Vaccine-induced Immune Thrombocytopenia and Thrombosis (VITT). Some recent publications have favored the use of anti-IIa methods to determine the plasma drug concentration of argatroban. METHODS: Plasma of 60 samples from 3 COVID-19 patients and 54 samples from 5 VITT patients were tested by APTT ratio and anti-IIa method (dilute thrombin time dTT). Actin FS APTT ratios were derived from the baseline APTT of the patient and the mean normal APTT. RESULTS: Mean APTT ratio derived from baseline was 1.71 (COVID-19), 1.33 (VITT) compared to APTT ratio by mean normal 1.65 (COVID-19), 1.48 (VITT). dTT mean concentration was 0.64 µg/ml (COVID-19) 0.53 µg/ml (VITT) with poor correlations to COVID-19 baseline APTT ratio r2 = 0.1526 p <0.0001, mean normal r2 = 0.2188 p < 0.0001; VITT baseline APTT ratio r2 = 0.04 p < 0.001, VITT mean normal r2 = 0.0064 p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that dTT is a superior method to monitor the concentration of argatroban, we have demonstrated significant differences between APTT ratios and dTT levels, which could have clinical impact. This is especially so in COVID-19 and VITT.


Subject(s)
Arginine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Partial Thromboplastin Time/methods , Pipecolic Acids/therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Aged , Arginine/pharmacology , Arginine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pipecolic Acids/pharmacology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombosis/chemically induced
9.
Br J Haematol ; 196(1): 79-94, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402884

ABSTRACT

Coagulation dysfunction and thrombosis are major complications in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients on oral anticoagulants (OAC) prior to diagnosis of COVID-19 may therefore have better outcomes. In this multicentre observational study of 5 883 patients (≥18 years) admitted to 26 UK hospitals between 1 April 2020 and 31 July 2020, overall mortality was 29·2%. Incidences of thrombosis, major bleeding (MB) and multiorgan failure (MOF) were 5·4%, 1·7% and 3·3% respectively. The presence of thrombosis, MB, or MOF was associated with a 1·8, 4·5 or 5·9-fold increased risk of dying, respectively. Of the 5 883 patients studied, 83·6% (n = 4 920) were not on OAC and 16·4% (n = 963) were taking OAC at the time of admission. There was no difference in mortality between patients on OAC vs no OAC prior to admission when compared in an adjusted multivariate analysis [hazard ratio (HR) 1·05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·93-1·19; P = 0·15] or in an adjusted propensity score analysis (HR 0·92 95% CI 0·58-1·450; P = 0·18). In multivariate and adjusted propensity score analyses, the only significant association of no anticoagulation prior to diagnosis of COVID-19 was admission to the Intensive-Care Unit (ICU) (HR 1·98, 95% CI 1·37-2·85). Thrombosis, MB, and MOF were associated with higher mortality. Our results indicate that patients may have benefit from prior OAC use, especially reduced admission to ICU, without any increase in bleeding.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Administration, Oral , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
10.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 5(5): e12532, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372774

ABSTRACT

This year's Congress of the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) was hosted virtually from Philadelphia July 17-21, 2021. The conference, now held annually, highlighted cutting-edge advances in basic, population and clinical sciences of relevance to the Society. Despite being held virtually, the 2021 congress was of the same scope and quality as an annual meeting held in person. An added feature of the program is that talks streamed at the designated times will then be available on-line for asynchronous viewing. The program included 77 State of the Art (SOA) talks, thematically grouped in 28 sessions, given by internationally recognized leaders in the field. The SOA speakers were invited to prepare brief illustrated reviews of their talks that were peer reviewed and are included in this article. The topics, across the main scientific themes of the congress, include Arterial Thromboembolism, Coagulation and Natural Anticoagulants, COVID-19 and Coagulation, Diagnostics and Omics, Fibrinogen, Fibrinolysis and Proteolysis, Hemophilia and Rare Bleeding Disorders, Hemostasis in Cancer, Inflammation and Immunity, Pediatrics, Platelet Disorders, von Willebrand Disease and Thrombotic Angiopathies, Platelets and Megakaryocytes, Vascular Biology, Venous Thromboembolism and Women's Health. These illustrated capsules highlight the major scientific advances with potential to impact clinical practice. Readers are invited to take advantage of the excellent educational resource provided by these illustrated capsules. They are also encouraged to use the image in social media to draw attention to the high quality and impact of the science presented at the congress.

11.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 5(5): e12532, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321717

ABSTRACT

This year's Congress of the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) was hosted virtually from Philadelphia July 17-21, 2021. The conference, now held annually, highlighted cutting-edge advances in basic, population and clinical sciences of relevance to the Society. Despite being held virtually, the 2021 congress was of the same scope and quality as an annual meeting held in person. An added feature of the program is that talks streamed at the designated times will then be available on-line for asynchronous viewing. The program included 77 State of the Art (SOA) talks, thematically grouped in 28 sessions, given by internationally recognized leaders in the field. The SOA speakers were invited to prepare brief illustrated reviews of their talks that were peer reviewed and are included in this article. The topics, across the main scientific themes of the congress, include Arterial Thromboembolism, Coagulation and Natural Anticoagulants, COVID-19 and Coagulation, Diagnostics and Omics, Fibrinogen, Fibrinolysis and Proteolysis, Hemophilia and Rare Bleeding Disorders, Hemostasis in Cancer, Inflammation and Immunity, Pediatrics, Platelet Disorders, von Willebrand Disease and Thrombotic Angiopathies, Platelets and Megakaryocytes, Vascular Biology, Venous Thromboembolism and Women's Health. These illustrated capsules highlight the major scientific advances with potential to impact clinical practice. Readers are invited to take advantage of the excellent educational resource provided by these illustrated capsules. They are also encouraged to use the image in social media to draw attention to the high quality and impact of the science presented at the congress.

12.
Allergy ; 76(8): 2354-2366, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although there are many asymptomatic patients, one of the problems of COVID-19 is early recognition of the disease. COVID-19 symptoms are polymorphic and may include upper respiratory symptoms. However, COVID-19 symptoms may be mistaken with the common cold or allergic rhinitis. An ARIA-EAACI study group attempted to differentiate upper respiratory symptoms between the three diseases. METHODS: A modified Delphi process was used. The ARIA members who were seeing COVID-19 patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire on the upper airway symptoms of COVID-19, common cold and allergic rhinitis. RESULTS: Among the 192 ARIA members who were invited to respond to the questionnaire, 89 responded and 87 questionnaires were analysed. The consensus was then reported. A two-way ANOVA revealed significant differences in the symptom intensity between the three diseases (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: This modified Delphi approach enabled the differentiation of upper respiratory symptoms between COVID-19, the common cold and allergic rhinitis. An electronic algorithm will be devised using the questionnaire.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Common Cold , Rhinitis, Allergic , Consensus , Humans , Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Haemophilia ; 27(5): 736-743, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emicizumab, a bispecific monoclonal antibody administered subcutaneously, mimicking the action of activated coagulation factor VIII, has been approved in Europe for use in patients with severe hemophilia of all ages. AIMS: To assess availability, acceptance, adverse events, efficacy and laboratory monitoring of emicizumab and the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on its use. METHODS: Online questionnaire sent to 144 hemophilia treatment centres (November 2020 to January 2021). RESULTS: Forty-six physicians from 21 countries responded, with a total of 3420 patients with severe HA under their care. Emicizumab was widely available, for 100% of inhibitor patients and 88% of non-inhibitor patients. No major adverse events were reported. Four reported deaths in patients on emicizumab were not thought to be related to emicizumab. An annualized bleeding rate (ABR) of zero was achieved in 73% of inhibitors patients. Haemostasis was satisfactory in the majority of minor (93.7%) and major (90.7%) surgical procedures performed while on emicizumab. Inhibitor titers were monitored in 78.4% of inhibitor patients on emicizumab, but chromogenic FVIII assay was only available in 73% of centres. The COVID-19 pandemic did not have a major impact on the adoption of emicizumab in most centres (64.9%). CONCLUSION: Three years after its rollout in Europe, emicizumab is widely available. Clinical efficacy and safety were evaluated to be very good, keeping in mind the inherent limitations of the study. Unmet needs include establishment of treatment guidelines for surgery and breakthrough bleeding, limited expertise, especially in young children, and availability of laboratory assays.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Hemophilia A , Antibodies, Bispecific/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Europe , Factor VIII , Hemophilia A/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 5(5): e12529, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274782
15.
Allergy ; 76(8): 2354-2366, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although there are many asymptomatic patients, one of the problems of COVID-19 is early recognition of the disease. COVID-19 symptoms are polymorphic and may include upper respiratory symptoms. However, COVID-19 symptoms may be mistaken with the common cold or allergic rhinitis. An ARIA-EAACI study group attempted to differentiate upper respiratory symptoms between the three diseases. METHODS: A modified Delphi process was used. The ARIA members who were seeing COVID-19 patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire on the upper airway symptoms of COVID-19, common cold and allergic rhinitis. RESULTS: Among the 192 ARIA members who were invited to respond to the questionnaire, 89 responded and 87 questionnaires were analysed. The consensus was then reported. A two-way ANOVA revealed significant differences in the symptom intensity between the three diseases (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: This modified Delphi approach enabled the differentiation of upper respiratory symptoms between COVID-19, the common cold and allergic rhinitis. An electronic algorithm will be devised using the questionnaire.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Common Cold , Rhinitis, Allergic , Consensus , Humans , Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Vasc Biol ; 2(1): R105-R114, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962383

ABSTRACT

Since the first description of COVID-19 in December 2019, more than 63,000 publications have described its virology, clinical course, management, treatment and prevention. Most physicians are now encountering, or will soon encounter, patients with COVID-19 and must attempt to simultaneously assimilate this avalanche of information while managing an entirely novel disease with few guiding precedents. It is increasingly clear that, although primarily a respiratory illness, COVID-19 is associated with cardiovascular complications. However, the true incidence of direct cardiac complications remains unclear, as all complications thus far reported can also occur in patients without COVID-19. In this review, we briefly summarise and critically appraise the data on cardiac complications associated with COVID-19 and describe some cases from our own experience. We identify unresolved questions and highlight the many uncertainties in this developing field.

17.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 26: 1076029620938149, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-651515

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) is caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and is characterized by an exaggerated inflammatory response that can lead to severe manifestations such as adult respiratory syndrome, sepsis, coagulopathy, and death in a proportion of patients. Among other factors and direct viral effects, the increase in the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II, the decrease in the vasodilator angiotensin, and the sepsis-induced release of cytokines can trigger a coagulopathy in COVID-19. A coagulopathy has been reported in up to 50% of patients with severe COVID-19 manifestations. An increase in d-dimer is the most significant change in coagulation parameters in severe COVID-19 patients, and progressively increasing values can be used as a prognostic parameter indicating a worse outcome. Limited data suggest a high incidence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in up to 40% of patients, despite the use of a standard dose of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in most cases. In addition, pulmonary microvascular thrombosis has been reported and may play a role in progressive lung failure. Prophylactic LMWH has been recommended by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) and the American Society of Hematology (ASH), but the best effective dosage is uncertain. Adapted to the individual risk of thrombosis and the d-dimer value, higher doses can be considered, especially since bleeding events in COVID-19 are rare. Besides the anticoagulant effect of LMWH, nonanticoagulant properties such as the reduction in interleukin 6 release have been shown to improve the complex picture of coagulopathy in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/blood , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/epidemiology , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/etiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Disease Outbreaks , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/prevention & control , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Incidence , Inflammation , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/blood , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/etiology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/prevention & control , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use
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