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Chest ; 159(6): 2170, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517089
Chest ; 159(1): 440, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213077
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(4): 381-387, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189143


OBJECTIVE: To characterize associations between exposures within and outside the medical workplace with healthcare personnel (HCP) SARS-CoV-2 infection, including the effect of various forms of respiratory protection. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: We collected data from international participants via an online survey. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 1,130 HCP (244 cases with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, and 886 controls healthy throughout the pandemic) from 67 countries not meeting prespecified exclusion (ie, healthy but not working, missing workplace exposure data, COVID symptoms without lab confirmation) were included in this study. METHODS: Respondents were queried regarding workplace exposures, respiratory protection, and extra-occupational activities. Odds ratios for HCP infection were calculated using multivariable logistic regression and sensitivity analyses controlling for confounders and known biases. RESULTS: HCP infection was associated with non-aerosol-generating contact with COVID-19 patients (adjusted OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.04-1.9; P = .03) and extra-occupational exposures including gatherings of ≥10 people, patronizing restaurants or bars, and public transportation (adjusted OR range, 3.1-16.2). Respirator use during aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) was associated with lower odds of HCP infection (adjusted OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8, P = .005), as was exposure to intensive care and dedicated COVID units, negative pressure rooms, and personal protective equipment (PPE) observers (adjusted OR range, 0.4-0.7). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 transmission to HCP was associated with medical exposures currently considered lower-risk and multiple extra-occupational exposures, and exposures associated with proper use of appropriate PPE were protective. Closer scrutiny of infection control measures surrounding healthcare activities and medical settings considered lower risk, and continued awareness of the risks of public congregation, may reduce the incidence of HCP infection.

COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Female , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , Respiratory Protective Devices/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Protective Devices/virology , Young Adult
Chest ; 158(3): 1268-1281, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728475


BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has swept the globe and is causing significant morbidity and mortality. Given that the virus is transmitted via droplets, open airway procedures such as bronchoscopy pose a significant risk to health-care workers (HCWs). The goal of this guideline was to examine the current evidence on the role of bronchoscopy during the COVID-19 pandemic and the optimal protection of patients and HCWs. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A group of approved panelists developed key clinical questions by using the Population, Intervention, Comparator, and Outcome (PICO) format that addressed specific topics on bronchoscopy related to COVID-19 infection and transmission. MEDLINE (via PubMed) was systematically searched for relevant literature and references were screened for inclusion. Validated evaluation tools were used to assess the quality of studies and to grade the level of evidence to support each recommendation. When evidence did not exist, suggestions were developed based on consensus using the modified Delphi process. RESULTS: The systematic review and critical analysis of the literature based on six PICO questions resulted in six statements: one evidence-based graded recommendation and 5 ungraded consensus-based statements. INTERPRETATION: The evidence on the role of bronchoscopy during the COVID-19 pandemic is sparse. To maximize protection of patients and HCWs, bronchoscopy should be used sparingly in the evaluation and management of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infections. In an area where community transmission of COVID-19 infection is present, bronchoscopy should be deferred for nonurgent indications, and if necessary to perform, HCWs should wear personal protective equipment while performing the procedure even on asymptomatic patients.

Betacoronavirus , Bronchoscopy/standards , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2