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1.
ACS Sens ; 8(6): 2309-2318, 2023 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238622

ABSTRACT

We adapted an existing, spaceflight-proven, robust "electronic nose" (E-Nose) that uses an array of electrical resistivity-based nanosensors mimicking aspects of mammalian olfaction to conduct on-site, rapid screening for COVID-19 infection by measuring the pattern of sensor responses to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled human breath. We built and tested multiple copies of a hand-held prototype E-Nose sensor system, composed of 64 chemically sensitive nanomaterial sensing elements tailored to COVID-19 VOC detection; data acquisition electronics; a smart tablet with software (App) for sensor control, data acquisition and display; and a sampling fixture to capture exhaled breath samples and deliver them to the sensor array inside the E-Nose. The sensing elements detect the combination of VOCs typical in breath at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels, with repeatability of 0.02% and reproducibility of 1.2%; the measurement electronics in the E-Nose provide measurement accuracy and signal-to-noise ratios comparable to benchtop instrumentation. Preliminary clinical testing at Stanford Medicine with 63 participants, their COVID-19-positive or COVID-19-negative status determined by concomitant RT-PCR, discriminated between these two categories of human breath with a 79% correct identification rate using "leave-one-out" training-and-analysis methods. Analyzing the E-Nose response in conjunction with body temperature and other non-invasive symptom screening using advanced machine learning methods, with a much larger database of responses from a wider swath of the population, is expected to provide more accurate on-the-spot answers. Additional clinical testing, design refinement, and a mass manufacturing approach are the main steps toward deploying this technology to rapidly screen for active infection in clinics and hospitals, public and commercial venues, or at home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Volatile Organic Compounds , Animals , Humans , Electronic Nose , Reproducibility of Results , COVID-19/diagnosis , Breath Tests/methods , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Mammals
4.
N Engl J Med ; 388(7): 621-634, 2023 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243580

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Safe and effective vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) are urgently needed in young children. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1 dose-finding study and are conducting an ongoing phase 2-3 safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy trial of the BNT162b2 vaccine in healthy children 6 months to 11 years of age. We present results for children 6 months to less than 2 years of age and those 2 to 4 years of age through the data-cutoff dates (April 29, 2022, for safety and immunogenicity and June 17, 2022, for efficacy). In the phase 2-3 trial, participants were randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) to receive two 3-µg doses of BNT162b2 or placebo. On the basis of preliminary immunogenicity results, a third 3-µg dose (≥8 weeks after dose 2) was administered starting in January 2022, which coincided with the emergence of the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant. Immune responses at 1 month after doses 2 and 3 in children 6 months to less than 2 years of age and those 2 to 4 years of age were immunologically bridged to responses after dose 2 in persons 16 to 25 years of age who received 30 µg of BNT162b2 in the pivotal trial. RESULTS: During the phase 1 dose-finding study, two doses of BNT162b2 were administered 21 days apart to 16 children 6 months to less than 2 years of age (3-µg dose) and 48 children 2 to 4 years of age (3-µg or 10-µg dose). The 3-µg dose level was selected for the phase 2-3 trial; 1178 children 6 months to less than 2 years of age and 1835 children 2 to 4 years of age received BNT162b2, and 598 and 915, respectively, received placebo. Immunobridging success criteria for the geometric mean ratio and seroresponse at 1 month after dose 3 were met in both age groups. BNT162b2 reactogenicity events were mostly mild to moderate, with no grade 4 events. Low, similar incidences of fever were reported after receipt of BNT162b2 (7% among children 6 months to <2 years of age and 5% among those 2 to 4 years of age) and placebo (6 to 7% among children 6 months to <2 years of age and 4 to 5% among those 2 to 4 years of age). The observed overall vaccine efficacy against symptomatic Covid-19 in children 6 months to 4 years of age was 73.2% (95% confidence interval, 43.8 to 87.6) from 7 days after dose 3 (on the basis of 34 cases). CONCLUSIONS: A three-dose primary series of 3-µg BNT162b2 was safe, immunogenic, and efficacious in children 6 months to 4 years of age. (Funded by BioNTech and Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04816643.).


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Young Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Treatment Outcome , Vaccine Efficacy
5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 10(2): ofad001, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236756

ABSTRACT

Background: The limited variation observed among severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) consensus sequences makes it difficult to reconstruct transmission linkages in outbreak settings. Previous studies have recovered variation within individual SARS-CoV-2 infections but have not yet measured the informativeness of within-host variation for transmission inference. Methods: We performed tiled amplicon sequencing on 307 SARS-CoV-2 samples, including 130 samples from 32 individuals in 14 households and 47 longitudinally sampled individuals, from 4 prospective studies with household membership data, a proxy for transmission linkage. Results: Consensus sequences from households had limited diversity (mean pairwise distance, 3.06 single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]; range, 0-40). Most (83.1%, 255 of 307) samples harbored at least 1 intrahost single-nucleotide variant ([iSNV] median, 117; interquartile range [IQR], 17-208), above a minor allele frequency threshold of 0.2%. Pairs in the same household shared significantly more iSNVs (mean, 1.20 iSNVs; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.39) than did pairs in different households infected with the same viral clade (mean, 0.31 iSNVs; 95% CI, .28-.34), a signal that decreases with increasingly stringent minor allele frequency thresholds. The number of shared iSNVs was significantly associated with an increased odds of household membership (adjusted odds ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.23-1.49). However, the poor concordance of iSNVs detected across sequencing replicates (24.8% and 35.0% above a 0.2% and 1% threshold) confirms technical concerns that current sequencing and bioinformatic workflows do not consistently recover low-frequency within-host variants. Conclusions: Shared within-host variation may augment the information in consensus sequences for predicting transmission linkages. Improving sensitivity and specificity of within-host variant identification will improve the informativeness of within-host variation.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e314-e321, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An immunodiagnostic assay that sensitively detects a cell-mediated immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is needed for epidemiological investigation and for clinical assessment of T- cell-mediated immune response to vaccines, particularly in the context of emerging variants that might escape antibody responses. METHODS: The performance of a whole blood interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assay (IGRA) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific T cells was evaluated in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescents tested serially up to 10 months post-infection and in healthy blood donors. SARS-CoV-2 IGRA was applied in contacts of households with index cases. Freshly collected blood in the lithium heparin tube was left unstimulated, stimulated with a SARS-CoV-2 peptide pool, and stimulated with mitogen. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity and specificity of IGRA were 84.5% (153/181; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 79.0-89.0) and 86.6% (123/142; 95% CI: 80.0-91.2), respectively. The sensitivity declined from 100% (16/16; 95% CI: 80.6-100) at 0.5-month post-infection to 79.5% (31/39; 95% CI: 64.4-89.2) at 10 months post-infection (P < .01). The IFN-γ response remained relatively robust at 10 months post-infection (3.8 vs 1.3 IU/mL, respectively). In 14 households, IGRA showed a positivity rate of 100% (12/12) and 65.2% (15/23), and IgG of 50.0% (6/12) and 43.5% (10/23) in index cases and contacts, respectively, exhibiting a difference of + 50% (95% CI: +25.4 to +74.6) and +21.7% (95% CI: +9.23 to +42.3), respectively. Either IGRA or IgG was positive in 100% (12/12) of index cases and 73.9% (17/23) of contacts. CONCLUSIONS: The SARS-CoV-2 IGRA is a useful clinical diagnostic tool for assessing cell-mediated immune response to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Interferon-gamma Release Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(11): 1883-1892, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2134991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Favipiravir, an oral, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor, has in vitro activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Despite limited data, favipiravir is administered to patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in several countries. METHODS: We conducted a phase 2, double-blind, randomized controlled outpatient trial of favipiravir in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic adults with a positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) within 72 hours of enrollment. Participants were randomized to receive placebo or favipiravir (1800 mg twice daily [BID] day 1, 800 mg BID days 2-10). The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2 shedding cessation in a modified intention-to-treat (mITT) cohort of participants with positive enrollment RT-PCRs. Using SARS-CoV-2 amplicon-based sequencing, we assessed favipiravir's impact on mutagenesis. RESULTS: We randomized 149 participants with 116 included in the mITT cohort. The participants' mean age was 43 years (standard deviation, 12.5 years) and 57 (49%) were women. We found no difference in time to shedding cessation overall (hazard ratio [HR], 0.76 favoring placebo [95% confidence interval {CI}, .48-1.20]) or in subgroups (age, sex, high-risk comorbidities, seropositivity, or symptom duration at enrollment). We detected no difference in time to symptom resolution (initial: HR, 0.84 [95% CI, .54-1.29]; sustained: HR, 0.87 [95% CI, .52-1.45]) and no difference in transition mutation accumulation in the viral genome during treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our data do not support favipiravir at commonly used doses in outpatients with uncomplicated COVID-19. Further research is needed to ascertain if higher favipiravir doses are effective and safe for patients with COVID-19. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04346628.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Adult , Humans , Female , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Outpatients , Antiviral Agents , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome
8.
J Infect Dis ; 225(9): 1680-1682, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2093525
9.
Elife ; 112022 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080852

ABSTRACT

Background: The great majority of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections are mild and uncomplicated, but some individuals with initially mild COVID-19 progressively develop more severe symptoms. Furthermore, there is substantial heterogeneity in SARS-CoV-2-specific memory immune responses following infection. There remains a critical need to identify host immune biomarkers predictive of clinical and immunological outcomes in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Methods: Leveraging longitudinal samples and data from a clinical trial (N=108) in SARS-CoV-2-infected outpatients, we used host proteomics and transcriptomics to characterize the trajectory of the immune response in COVID-19 patients. We characterized the association between early immune markers and subsequent disease progression, control of viral shedding, and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell and antibody responses measured up to 7 months after enrollment. We further compared associations between early immune markers and subsequent T cell and antibody responses following natural infection with those following mRNA vaccination. We developed machine-learning models to predict patient outcomes and validated the predictive model using data from 54 individuals enrolled in an independent clinical trial. Results: We identify early immune signatures, including plasma RIG-I levels, early IFN signaling, and related cytokines (CXCL10, MCP1, MCP-2, and MCP-3) associated with subsequent disease progression, control of viral shedding, and the SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell and antibody response measured up to 7 months after enrollment. We found that several biomarkers for immunological outcomes are shared between individuals receiving BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine and COVID-19 patients. Finally, we demonstrate that machine-learning models using 2-7 plasma protein markers measured early within the course of infection are able to accurately predict disease progression, T cell memory, and the antibody response post-infection in a second, independent dataset. Conclusions: Early immune signatures following infection can accurately predict clinical and immunological outcomes in outpatients with COVID-19 using validated machine-learning models. Funding: Support for the study was provided from National Institute of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH/NIAID) (U01 AI150741-01S1 and T32-AI052073), the Stanford's Innovative Medicines Accelerator, National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIH/NIDA) DP1DA046089, and anonymous donors to Stanford University. Peginterferon lambda provided by Eiger BioPharmaceuticals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Biomarkers , BNT162 Vaccine , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Progression , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Clinical Trials as Topic
10.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 31(9): 1241-1245, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037366

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Emerging data suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted women in academic medicine, potentially eliminating recent gains that have been made toward gender equity. This study examined possible pandemic-related gender disparities in research grant submissions, one of the most important criteria for academic promotion and tenure evaluations. Methods: Data were collected from two major academic institutions (one private and one public) on the gender and academic rank of faculty principal investigators who submitted new grants to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) during COVID-19 (March 1st, 2020, through August 31, 2020) compared with a matched period in 2019 (March 1st, 2019, through August 31, 2019). t-Tests and chi-square analyses compared the gender distribution of individuals who submitted grants during the two periods of examination. Results: In 2019 (prepandemic), there was no significant difference in the average number of grants submitted by women compared with men faculty. In contrast, women faculty submitted significantly fewer grants in 2020 (during the pandemic) than men. Men were also significantly more likely than women to submit grants in both 2019 and 2020 compared with submitting in 2019 only, suggesting men faculty may have been more likely than their women colleagues to sustain their productivity in grant submissions during the pandemic. Discussion: Women's loss of extramural funding may compound over time, as it impedes new data collection, research progress, and academic advancement. Efforts to support women's research productivity and career trajectories are urgently needed in the following years of pandemic recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Financing, Organized , Humans , Male , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Pandemics , Sex Factors , United States/epidemiology
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(9): 1573-1584, 2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Preventing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2_ infections in healthcare workers (HCWs) is critical for healthcare delivery. We aimed to estimate and characterize the prevalence and incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a US HCW cohort and to identify risk factors associated with infection. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of HCWs at 3 Bay Area medical centers using serial surveys and SARS-CoV-2 viral and orthogonal serological testing, including measurement of neutralizing antibodies. We estimated baseline prevalence and cumulative incidence of COVID-19. We performed multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to estimate associations of baseline factors with incident infections and evaluated the impact of time-varying exposures on time to COVID-19 using marginal structural models. RESULTS: A total of 2435 HCWs contributed 768 person-years of follow-up time. We identified 21 of 2435 individuals with prevalent infection, resulting in a baseline prevalence of 0.86% (95% confidence interval [CI], .53%-1.32%). We identified 70 of 2414 incident infections (2.9%), yielding a cumulative incidence rate of 9.11 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI, 7.11-11.52). Community contact with a known COVID-19 case was most strongly correlated with increased hazard for infection (hazard ratio, 8.1 [95% CI, 3.8-17.5]). High-risk work-related exposures (ie, breach in protective measures) drove an association between work exposure and infection (hazard ratio, 2.5 [95% CI, 1.3-4.8). More cases were identified in HCWs when community case rates were high. CONCLUSIONS: We observed modest COVID-19 incidence despite consistent exposure at work. Community contact was strongly associated with infections, but contact at work was not unless accompanied by high-risk exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Incidence , Prevalence , Longitudinal Studies , Health Personnel , Cohort Studies
13.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1905287

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 continues to be a public health crisis, while severely impacting global financial markets causing significant economic and social hardship. As with any emerging disease, pharmaceutical interventions required time, emphasizing the initial and continuing need for non-pharmaceutical interventions. We highlight the role of anthropological and historical perspectives to inform approaches to non-pharmaceutical interventions for future preparedness. The National Academy of Medicine, a not-for-profit, non-governmental US-based medical watchdog organization, published a key document early in the COVID-19 pandemic which points to inadequate quarantine and containment infrastructure as a significant obstacle to an effective pandemic response. In considering how to implement effective quarantine policies and infrastructure, we argue that it is essential to take a longitudinal approach to assess interventions that have been effective in past pandemics while simultaneously addressing and eliminating the negative socio-historical legacies of ineffective quarantine practices. Our overview reinforces the need for social equity and compassion when implementing containment.

15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2148988, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694842

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is an urgent need to assess the feasibility of COVID-19 surveillance measures in educational settings. Objective: To assess whether young children can feasibly self-collect SARS-CoV-2 samples for surveillance testing over the course of an academic year. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective pilot cohort study was conducted from September 10, 2020, to June 10, 2021, at a K-8 school in San Mateo County, California. The research consisted of quantitative data collection efforts: (1) demographic data collected, (2) student sample self-collection error rates, and (3) student sample self-collection time durations. Students were enrolled in a hybrid learning model, a teaching model in which students were taught in person and online, with students having the option to attend virtually as needed. Data were collected under waiver of consent from students participating in weekly SARS-CoV-2 testing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Errors over time for self-collection of nasal swabs such as contaminated swabs and inadequate or shallow swabbing; time taken for sample collection. Results: Of 296 participants, 148 (50.0%) were boys and 148 (50.0%) were girls. A total of 87 participants (29.2%) identified as Asian; 2 (0.6%), Black or African American; 13 (4.4%), Hispanic/Latinx; 103 (34.6%), non-Hispanic White; 87 (29.2%), multiracial; and 6 (2.0%), other. The median school grade was fourth grade. From September 2020 to March 2021, a total of 4203 samples were obtained from 221 students on a weekly basis, while data on error rates were collected. Errors occurred in 2.7% (n = 107; 95% CI, 2.2%-3.2%) of student encounters, with the highest rate occurring on the first day of testing (20 [10.2%]). There was an overall decrease in error rates over time. From April to June 2021, a total of 2021 samples were obtained from 296 students on a weekly basis while data on encounter lengths were collected. Between April and June 2021, 193 encounters were timed. The mean duration of each encounter was 70 seconds (95% CI, 66.4-73.7 seconds). Conclusions and Relevance: Mastery of self-collected lower nasal swabs is possible for children 5 years and older. Testing duration can be condensed once students gain proficiency in testing procedures. Scalability for larger schools is possible if consideration is given to the resource-intensive nature of the testing and the setting's weather patterns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Testing , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , California , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Epidemics , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Population Surveillance , Prospective Studies , Specimen Handling
16.
Acad Pediatr ; 22(4): 671-679, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633586

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study is to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of a comprehensive set of preventive measures in limiting secondary transmission of COVID-19 in schools. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 transmission in an independent K-8 school in San Mateo County, California. The research was conducted between September 14, 2020 through March 22, 2021 and consisted of: 1) demographic and epidemiological questionnaires; 2) daily symptom reporting; 3) weekly RT-PCR testing; and 4) periodic on-site qualitative observations. RESULTS: One hundred eighty (79%) students and 63 (74%) on-site staff/contractors were enrolled. Participants reported symptoms in 144 (<1%) daily surveys of the 19,409 collected. Among those who reported symptoms and exposures, none tested positive during the 22-week study period. Of all participants, a total of 6 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at least once by RT-PCR; all were asymptomatic at time of testing. No in-school transmission occurred. Mask adherence was high among all grades, and incidents of improper mask use mostly occurred during noninstruction time. Physical distancing was well-enforced during class time and snack breaks, although adherence during noninstruction time waned as the school year progressed. CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive, prospective study following COVID-19 transmission over 22 weeks in a K-8 school demonstrates that: 1) surveillance testing is important for detecting asymptomatic infections in schools; 2) monitoring symptoms may not be necessary and/or sufficient for COVID-19; and 3) younger children can adhere to key mitigation measures (eg, masking) which have the potential to limit transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Schools
17.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(635): eabm7853, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630954

ABSTRACT

A damaging inflammatory response is implicated in the pathogenesis of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but mechanisms contributing to this response are unclear. In two prospective cohorts, early non-neutralizing, afucosylated immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies specific to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were associated with progression from mild to more severe COVID-19. To study the biology of afucosylated IgG immune complexes, we developed an in vivo model that revealed that human IgG-Fc-gamma receptor (FcγR) interactions could regulate inflammation in the lung. Afucosylated IgG immune complexes isolated from patients with COVID-19 induced inflammatory cytokine production and robust infiltration of the lung by immune cells. In contrast to the antibody structures that were associated with disease progression, antibodies that were elicited by messenger RNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were highly fucosylated and enriched in sialylation, both modifications that reduce the inflammatory potential of IgG. Vaccine-elicited IgG did not promote an inflammatory lung response. These results show that human IgG-FcγR interactions regulate inflammation in the lung and define distinct lung activities mediated by the IgG that are associated with protection against, or progression to, severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
19.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(12)2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542830

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to compare intentions to receive COVID-19 vaccination by race-ethnicity, to identify beliefs that may mediate the association between race-ethnicity and intention to receive the vaccine and to identify the demographic factors and beliefs most strongly predictive of intention to receive a vaccine. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey conducted from November 2020 to January 2021, nested within a longitudinal cohort study of the prevalence and incidence of SARS-CoV-2 among a general population-based sample of adults in six San Francisco Bay Area counties (called TrackCOVID). Study Cohort: In total, 3161 participants among the 3935 in the TrackCOVID parent cohort responded. RESULTS: Rates of high vaccine willingness were significantly lower among Black (41%), Latinx (55%), Asian (58%), Multi-racial (59%), and Other race (58%) respondents than among White respondents (72%). Black, Latinx, and Asian respondents were significantly more likely than White respondents to endorse lack of trust of government and health agencies as a reason not to get vaccinated. Participants' motivations and concerns about COVID-19 vaccination only partially explained racial-ethnic differences in vaccination willingness. Concerns about a rushed government vaccine approval process and potential bad reactions to the vaccine were the two most important factors predicting vaccination intention. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine outreach campaigns must ensure that the disproportionate toll of COVID-19 on historically marginalized racial-ethnic communities is not compounded by inequities in vaccination. Efforts must emphasize messages that speak to the motivations and concerns of groups suffering most from health inequities to earn their trust to support informed decision making.

20.
Infectious Diseases in Children ; 33(6):18, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1525100

ABSTRACT

According to the release, the funding also will support mass vaccination campaigns and the rebuilding of health systems to help address damage done by the pandemic. According to the release, as of March, routine childhood immunization services decreased in 53% of the 129 countries for which data were available. According to the release, dozens of countries have postponed vaccination campaigns against polio, meningitis, yellow fever, typhoid, cholera, tetanus and measles, mumps and rubella.

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